This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(classical name). Cucur-bitacese. Gourd. Pumpkin. Squash. Vine-like tender herbs, tendril-bearing, grown for their edible and ornamental fruits.
Annual, or the root perennial-rhizo-matous, rough-hairy and scabrous, with large often palmately lobed leaves, the tendrils bifid or multifid: flowers monoecious, large, yellow, solitary in the axils, the staminate long-stalked, the pistillate short-stalked; corolla 5-lobed; stamens 3, arising from the bottom of the flower, and united in a column; stigmas 3, but 2-lobed; ovary inferior, inclosed in a hollow receptacle; tendrils 2-3-forked. - About 10 species in warm parts of Asia, Africa, Amer. The morphology of the pepo or gourd-fruit may be illustrated by the Turban squash. Figs. 1129-31. In this fruit, there is a "squash inside a squash." The inner part bears the corolla and the styles. It is the ovary. The corolla is attached about the edge of the inner squash, as the withered remains in Fig. 1129 show. Sometimes the withered corolla becomes detached, but hangs to the withered remains of the stigmas, as in Fig. 1130. The longitudinal section of the flower
(Fig. 1131) explains the structure. The corolla is shown at c, d. The top of the ovary is at o. The stigmas are on the ovary. The part encircling the ovary (outside of o) is the hollowed receptacle. Ordinarily the receptacle is closed at the top, completely confining the ovary; but m the Turban squashes the receptacle does not extend over the top of the ovary, and the ovary therefore protrudes. The older morphologists held this outer part of the squash to be adnate calyx, rather than receptacle. The cucurbits are monographed by Cogniaux, DC. Monogr. Phaner. 3. Also by Naudin, Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bot.) IV, vol. 6. See Pumpkin and Squash.
Fig. 1129. Young Turban squash, on which the remains of the corolla still persist. The central part of the fruit is the ovary.
Fig. 1130. Young Turban squash, in which the withered corolla has become detached, but hangs to the remains of the styles and stigmas.
The terms squash and pumpkin are much confused. In Europe, the large varieties of Curcubita maxima are known as pumpkins, but in this country the fruits of this species are known usually as squashes. In America, the words pumpkin and squash are used almost indiscriminately, some varieties in all species being known by those names. The field or common pie pumpkins are C. Pepo; so are vegetable marrows; also the summer squashes, as the Scallop, Pattypan and Crookneck varieties. The Hubbard, Marblehead, Sibley and Turban kinds are C. maxima. The Cushaws, Canada Crookneck, Japanese Crookneck, Dunkard, and Sweet Potato pumpkins (or squashes) are C. moschata. The fruit stem (as shown in Figs. 1133, 1136, 1141) is a distinguishing characteristic of the ripe fruits. C. Pepo and C. maxima, and C. maxima and C. moschata apparently do not intercross. C. Pepo and C. moschata have been crossed, but it is doubtful if they intermix when left to themselves. In Europe, the word gourd (or its equivalent in various languages) is used generically for cucurbitas; but in this country it is restricted mostly to the small, hard-shelled forms of C. Pepo (variety ovifera) grown for ornament, and to Lagenaria vulgaris.
Fig. 1131. Section of flower of Turban squash. Showing the ovary inside the hollowed receptacle.
Fig. 1132. Plant of Cucurbita Pepo.
a. Plant annual.
b. Leaves lobed: stalks of fruits strongly ridged.
Pepo, Linn. (C. Melopepo, Linn.). Pumpkin. Figs. 1132, 1133. Annual: long-running, prickly on stems and petioles: leaves 3-5-lobed, dark dull green: corolla-tube widening upwards, the pointed lobes erect; calyx-lobes narrow, not If . - like; peduncle very hard and deeply furrowed when mature, not enlarging next the fruit: the fruit very various in form, color, season, size. Probably native to tropical Amer., but unknown wild. - Cult, by the Indians when Amer. was discovered, in fields of maize. For studies in the nativity of the pumpkins and squashes, see De Candolle, Origin of Cultivated Plants; Gray and Trumbull, Amer. Journ. Sci. 25:372; Sturtevant, Amer. Nat. 1890:727; Witt-mack, Ber. der Deutschen Bot. Gesell. 6:378 (1888).
Fig. 1133. Stem of Cucurbita Pepo. - Early Sugar pumpkin.
Fig. 1134. Cucurbita Pepo variety ovifera.
Variety condensa, Bailey. Bush Pumpkins. Scallop and Summer Crookneck Squashes. Plant compact, little or not at all running. Of horticultural origin. variety ovifera, Bailey (C. ovifera, Linn.). Gourd. Fig. 1134. Plant slender, running: leaves smaller than in C. Pepo, usually very prominently lobed: fruit small, hard and inedible, egg-shaped, globular, pear-shaped, oblate, often striped. R.H. 1894:429. - Sold in many vars. by seedsmen, under the names of C. Pepo vars. pyrifor-mis, depressa, annulata, etc. See Gourd.
Duchesne (C. melonae-formis, Carr.). Cushaw. China, Canada Crookneck and Winter Crookneck Squashes. Figs. 1135-37. Annual: long-running, less prickly and sometimes soft-hairy: leaves more rounded than those of C. Pepo, but lobed, often grayish: flower with a widening tube, and large, erect lobes; calyx-lobes large, often If . - like; peduncle becoming deeply ridged and much enlarged next the fruit Possibly of E. Asian origin.
Fig. 1136. Stem of Cucurbita moschata. Large Cheese pumpkin
Fig. 1135. Cucurbita moschata.
Fig. 1137. Fruit of Cucurbita moschata-Tonasu, a Japanese variety.
bb. Leaves not lobed (except sometimes on young shoots): stalks of fruits not prominently ridged. maxima, Duchesne. Squash. Figs. 1138-41. Annual: long-running, the stems nearly cylindrical, little prickly and often hairy: leaves orbicular or kidney-shaped, commonly not lobed, the basal sinus wide or narrow, the margin shallowly apiculate-sinuate: corolla-tube nearly the same diam. at top and bottom (Figs. 1139, 1140), the corolla-lobes large and soft, and wide-spreading or drooping: peduncle at maturity soft and spongy, not ridged nor prominently enlarged next the fruit: fruit very various, but not light yellow nor warty nor crookneck-shaped, usually late-ripening, the flesh orange and not stringy. Nativity undetermined. variety sylvestris, Naudin. A form found wild in the Himalayan region, with fruit as large as a man's head.
Fig. 1138. Cucurbita maxima.
Fig. 1139. Staminate flower of Cucurbita maxima-Hubbard squash. (X 1/3)
Fig. 1140. Pistillate flower of Cucurbita maxima-Hubbard squash. (X 1/3)
aa. Plant with perennial root. foetidissima, Kunth (C. perennis, Gray. Ciicumis perennis, James). Calabazilla. Fig. 1142. Perennial: long-running, scarcely prickly: leaves large, cordatetriangular, grayish pubescent, the margin shallowly apiculate-crenate: flower nearly as large as in C. Pepo and similar in shape, the pistillate on a peduncle 2-3 in. long: fruit size and shape of an orange, smooth, green and yellow splashed, not edible. Sandy arid wastes, Neb. and Colo, to Texas and Mex. and westward to Calif. R.H. 1855:61; 1857, p. 54. - In its native haunts, the root is tuberous, 4-7 in. diam. and penetrating the earth 4-6 ft. Roots at the joints. The plant has a fetid odor. Sold by seedsmen as a gourd, but the fruit does not often ripen in the northern states. Useful on arbors and small trees, when coarse vines are wanted.
Fig. 1141. Stem of Cucurbita maxima-Hubbard squash.
Fig. 1142. Cucurbita foetidissima.
Bouche (C. melanosperma, A. Br.). stem very long, stout, becoming somewhat woody: leaves pale green, often marbled, in outline ovate or suborbicular, cordate at base, roundly 5-lobed and the sinus rounded: calyx-tube short and campanulate: fruit large (often 1 ft. long), fleshy, round-ovoid, white-striped, the flesh white; seeds ovate, black. E. Asia, but widely cult, in warm countries for its ornamental watermelon-like fruits A variety mexicana, Hort. (C. mexicdna, Spreng.), is mentioned, with seeds twice the size of those of the type, and said to grow wild in the neighborhood of Mazatlan, Mex.
C. AndreAna, Naudin. Allied to C. moschata: stems long and rooting at the nodes: leaves large, marbled with white: flowers of the form of those of C. maxima but much smaller: fruit obovoid, 8 in. long, marked with white and yellow. Uruguay. R.H. 1896, pp. 542-3. C. californica, Torr.
Canes cent: leaves thick, 2 in. across, 5-lobed, the lobes triangular and mucronate: ten drila parted to the base: flowers 1 in. or more long on pedicels
1/2-1 in. long. Calif.; imperfectly known. - C. digitata. Gray. Perennial, the root fleshy: stems slender and long, usually rooting: tendrils short and weak, 3-5-cleft: leaves scabrous, 3-5-palmately narrow-lobed: flowers 2-3 in. long on slender pedicels 1-4 in. long: fruit subglobose, yellow, 2-4 in. diam. Calif, to New Mex. - C. palmata, Wats. Mock Orange.
Canescent: leaves cordate, thick, 2 or 3 in. across, palmately 5-cleft to middle with narrow toothed lobes: flowers 3 in. long on stout peduncles: fruit globose, 3 in. diam. S. Calif. L H B