(derivation unknown). Moraceae. Woody subjects cultivated for their foliage and as hedge plants.

Deciduous trees or shrubs, often thorny, with alternate, petioled and stipulate leaves: flowers dioecious, in axillary globular heads; staminate with 4 sepals and 4 stamens and 2-4 bracts at the base; pistillate with 4 sepals inclosing the 1-ovuled ovary, growing into a fleshy subglobose fruit with a crustaceous rind. - About 3 species, in S. and E. Asia and tropical Austral., of which only one is sometimes cultivated It requires protection in the N. and is usually prop, by greenwood cuttings in summer under glass.


Bureau (Madura tri-cuspidata, Carr. C. triloba, Hance). Shrub, or small tree, to 20, rarely to 60 ft., with slender, thorny branches: leaves elliptic-ovate, acuminate, entire, sometimes 3-lobed at the apex and on young plants even tricuspidate, nearly glabrous, 1 1/2-3 in. long: flower-heads axillary, solitary or in 2's, on short peduncles: fruit globose, about 1 in. across. China. R.H. 1864, p. 390; 1872, p. 56; 1905, p. 363 (habit). H.I. 18:1792. - Recently recommended as an excellent hedge-plant for the S. In China the leaves are used as a substitute for mulberry leaves and it is called silkworm thorn; the fruit is edible. Between this species and Madura pomifera, a hybrid has been raised, described as Madudrania hybrida, Andre. R.H. 1905:362. Alfred Rehder.

Culinary Herbs

Culinary Herbs are those herbs used for flavoring in cookery, but the term has a wide application, including species used for garnishing and sometimes as potherbs. The culinary herbs are of very minor importance in American gardens, and yet a few of them, as anise, caraway and coriander, are well and favorably known. The species are mostly aromatic. They are largely of the Umbelliferae and Labiatae. No special difficulty attaches to their cultivation, and little more may be said here than to present an alphabetical list with statements as to uses, duration of plant, and means of propagation. They all thrive in mellow fertile garden land. Usually they are grown at the side of the main garden plantation, and they may add a certain charm to the garden as well as to supply an agreeable aroma to the kitchen products. See the little book on "Culinary Herbs" by M. G. Kains, 1912.

Angelica (Archangelica officinalis). Umbelliferse. Biennial or perennial. Uses: Sterna and leaf-stalks as salad, or roasted like potatoes; garnish; as "candied angelica;" stems blanched and used as vegetable; leaves as spinach; seeds for flavoring; oil of angelica obtained from seeds for flavoring. Propagated by seeds in late summer or early autumn.

Anise (Pimpinella Anisum)

Umbelliferae. Annual. Uses: Leaves as garnish, flavoring, and potherb; seeds and oil for flavoring and perfumery. Propagated by seeds in early spring.

Balm (Melissa Officinalis)

Labiatae. Perennial. Uses: Foliage for flavoring and salad; oil for perfumery and flavoring beverages. Propagated by divisions, layers, cuttings and seeds.

Basil (Ocymum Basilicum)

Labiatae. Annual. Uses: As flavor in highly seasoned dishes; oil as perfumery. Propagated by seeds. Borage (Borago officinalis). Boraginaceae. Annual. Uses: Herbage as potherb and salad; garnish; flavor in beverages. Propagated by seeds in spring. Caraway (Carum Carvi). Umbelliferae. Biennial or annual. Uses: Herbage eaten cooked or as salad; roots as vegetable; seeds for flavoring; oil in manufacture of perfumery and soaps. Propagated by seeds in May or early June.

Catnip Or Catmint (Nepeta Cataria)

Labiatae. Perennial. Uses: As bee forage; leaves as condiment; formerly a medicinal remedy. Propagated by seeds in autumn or spring.

Chervil (Anthriscuscerefolium)

Umbelliferae. Annual. Uses: Leaves for seasoning and for mixed salads. Propagated by seeds.

Chives (Allium Schcenoprasum)

Liliaceae. Perennial. Uses: Leaves for flavoring. Propagated by individual bulbs or division of clumps in early spring.

Clary (Salvia Sclarea)

Labiatae. Perennial. Uses: Leaves in cookery; wine made from plant when in flower. Propagated by seeds in spring.

Coriander (Coriandrum Sativum)

Umbelliferae. Annual. Uses: Seed in confectionary and as ingredient in condiments; flavor in beverages. Propagated by seeds in spring or autumn.

Cumin (Cuminum Odorum)

Umbelliferae. Annual. Uses: Seeds as ingredient in curry powder; for flavoring pickles, pastry and soups. Propagated by seeds in spring.

Dill (Anethum Graveolens)

Umbelliferae. Annual. Uses: Seed as seasoning, extensively for commercial pickles; oil for perfuming soap; young leaves as seasoning and salads; dill vinegar as condiment. Propagated by seeds in spring.

Fennel (Faeniculum Vulgare)

Umbelliferae. Biennial or perennial. Uses: Herbage as garnishes and flavors; as salads; seeds for flavoring beverages, and for confectionary; oil as perfumery. Propagated by seeds, and grown as an annual.

Finocchio Or Florence Fennel (Faeiculum Dulce)

Umbelliferae. Annual. Uses: As a vegetable. Propagated by seeds.

Fennel Flower (Nigella Sativa)

Ranunculaceae. Annual. Uses: Whole plant or seed used in cookery. Propagated by seeds in spring.

Hoarhound, Or Horehound (Marrubium Vulgare)

Labiatae. Perennial. Uses: Formerly in cookery and medicine; now for candy only. Propagated by seeds in spring.

Hyssop (Hyssopus Officinalis)

Labiatae. Perennial. Uses: Herbage in salads; oil in preparation of soaps, etc. Propagated by divisions, cuttings and seeds in spring.

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia, L. Spica). Labiatae. Perennial. Uses: Flowers and oil in perfumery; sometimes as condiment and in salads. Propagated by divisions or cuttings, or rarely seeds.

Lovage (Levisticum Officinale)

Umbelliferae. Perennial. Uses: Young stems in confectionary. Propagated by division or seeds in late summer.

Marigold (Calendula Officinalis)

Com-positae. Annual. Uses: Flower-neads as seasoning; fresh flowers to color butter. Propagated by seeds in spring.

Marjoram (Origanum Vulgare And O. Marjoram)

Labiatae. Perennial (O. Marjoram treated as annual). Uses: Herbage for seasoning; oil in perfuming soaps, etc. Propagated by cuttings, division or layers and seeds in spring.

Mint (Mentha Spicata)

La\ibiatae. Perennial. Uses: Herbage as seasoning; leaves in jelly. Propagated by cuttings, offsets and divisions in spring.

Parsley (Petroselinum Hortense)

Umbelliferae. Biennial. Uses: Roots as vegetable; top as potherb; leaves for seasoning and garnish. Propagated by seeds in spring.

Pennyroyal (Mentha Pulegium)

Labiatae. Perennial. Uses: Leaves as seasoning; pennyroyal oil. Propagated by division, or rarely cuttings.

Peppermint (Mentha Piperita)

Labiatae. Perennial. Uses: Oil as flavoring; perfume in soaps, etc. Propagated by division or running rootstocks.

Rosemary (Rosemarinus Officinalis)

Labiate. Perennial. Uses: Herbage as seasoning; oil for perfuming soaps and in perfumery. Propagated by cuttings, root division, layers in early spring, and seeds.

Rue (Ruta Graveolens)

Rutacese. Perennial. Uses: Leaves as seasoning and flavor in beverages; oil for aromatic vinegar and toilet preparations. Propagated by seeds, cuttings, layers or division of tufts.

Sage (Salvia Officinalis)

Labiatae. Perennial. Uses: Leaves for seasoning dressings, sausages, cheese, etc.; oil in perfumery. Propagated by division, layers and cuttings, also seeds.

Samphire (Crithmum Maritimum)

Umbelliferse. Perennial. Uses: Leaves pickled in vinegar, sometimes with other vegetables. Propagated by seeds in autumn.

Savory, Summer (Satureia Hortensis)

Labiatae. Annual. Uses: Seasoning. Propagated by seeds in spring.

Savory, Winter (Satureia Montana)

Labiatae. Perennial. Uses: Seasoning. Propagated by seeds, cuttings, layers and division.

Southernwood (Artemisia Abrotanum)

Composite. Perennial. Uses: Young shoots for flavoring cakes, etc. Propagated by seed; also cuttings in early summer.

Tansy (Tanacetum Vulgare)

Composite. Perennial. Uses: Seasoning. Propagated by division of clumps, or seeds.

Tarragon (Artemisia Dracunculus)

Composite. Perennial. Uses: Herbage in salads and with meats; seasoning; as a decoction in vinegar; oil to perfume soaps, etc. Propagated by cuttings, layers and division.

Thyme (Thymus Vulgaris)

Labiate. Perennial. Uses: Herbage as seasoning; oil as perfumery; oil-crystals as disinfectant. Propagated by seeds in spring; also cuttings, layers and divisions.

L. H. B