(ancient Latin name from Greek, Kuparissos). Cypress. Pinaccx. Evergreens, cultivated for their graceful habit and thedark green or glaucous foliage; some are timber trees.

Trees, rarely shrubs, with aromatic evergreen foliage: branchlets quadrangular or nearly so: leaves opposite, small, scale-like, appressed, minutely denticulate-ciliate, on young seedling plants linear-subulate and spreading: flowers monoecious, minute, solitary on short branchlets; staminate ovate or oblong, yellow; pistillate subglobose: cones globular or nearly so, consisting of 3-7 pairs of ligneous, peltate scales, with a mucro or boss on the flattened apex, each bearing many or numerous seeds, but the lower scales usually sterile and smaller; they ripen the second year. - About 12 species in Cent. Amer., north to Calif, and Ariz., and from S. Eu. to S. E Asia. Monogr. by M. T. Masters in Journ, of Linn. Soc. 31:312-51 (1895). By some botanists, the allied genus Chamsecyparis is included.

The cypresses are highly ornamental evergreen trees, greatly varying in habit, hardy only in California and the Gulf states. The hardiest seems to be C. Macnab-iana and C. arizonica, which will stand many degrees of frost in a sheltered position; also C. macrocarpa, C. sempervirens, C. funebris and C. torulosa are of greater hardiness than the others. They stand pruning well, and some species are valuable for hedges, C. macrocarpa being especially extensively planted for this purpose in California. C. arizonica yields excellent timber. The cypresses seem not to be very particular in regard to soil and situation, but prefer a deep, sandy-loamy soil. For propagation, see Chamaqecyparis. The young plants should be removed several times in the nursery to secure a firm root-ball; otherwise they will not bear transplanting well.

Cupressus sempervirens. Verona.

Fig. 1146. Cupressus sempervirens. Verona.

A. Branches and branchlets erect or spreading; branch-lets short and usually rather stout.

B. Cones 1-1 1/2 in. across, with 6-14. scales.

c. Leaves obtuse: bark scaly.

1. Sempervirens, Linn

Fig. 1146. Tree, to 80 ft., with erect or horizontal branches and dark green foliage: leaves closely appressed, ovate, obtuse, glandular: cones oblong or nearly globose; scales 8-14, with a short boss on the back, bract free at the apex. F.S. 7, p. 192. (as C. torvlosa). S. Eu., W. Asia. variety stricta, Ait (C. fastigidta, DC. C. Bedfordiana, Hort.). Italian Cypress. With erect branches, forming a narrow, columnar head. The classical cypress of the Greek and Roman writers, much planted in S. Eu. G.W. 9, p. 127. Gn. 33, p. 3 (as C. stricta). variety cereiformis, Rehd. (C. fastigiata cereiformis, Carr.). A form with very short branches, forming a narrow and slender columnar head. variety indica, Pari. (C. Roylei, Carr. C. Whitley-dna, Hort.). Similar to variety fastigiata in habit: cones globose, with 10 scales; bract acutely mucronate at the apex. variety horizontalis, Gord. (C. horizontalis, Mill.). Branches horizontally spreading, forming a broad, pyramidal head. The famous avenue of C. sempervirens in the Villa Giusti, Verona, Italy, is shown in Fig. 1146 (G.F. 2:464).

2. Macrocarpa, Hartw

(C. Hartwegii, Carr.). Monterey Cypress. Tree, to 40 ft., occasionally to 70 ft., with horizontal branches, forming a broad, spreading head: branchlets stout: leaves rhombic-ovate, obtuse, closely appressed, not or obscurely glandular, dark or bright green: cones globular or oblong; scales 8-12, with a short, obtuse boss on the back. Calif., Bay of Monterey. S.S. 10:525. G. 22:30. G.M. 52:952. G.W. 2, p. 497. G.C. III. 18:63; 22:53. Gn. 29, p. 36; 30, p. 189; 38, p. 363; 53, p. 219; 68, p. 237. G.F. 7:245. variety Crippsii, Mast. Leaves spreading, light glaucous. A juvenile form. variety fastigiata, Knight. Of narrow, pyramidal, fastigiate habit. variety Lambertiana, Mast. (C. Lambertiana, Carr.). Dark green form with spreading branches. R.H. 1870, p. 191; 1907, p. 565. variety lfitea, Hort., has yellow foliage. Gn. 68, p. 237. J.H.S. 1902, p. 426, fig. 111.

cc. Leaves acute: bark exfoliating, cherry-like.

3. Guadalupensis, Wats

(C. macrocarpa variety guadalupensis, Mast.). Wide-spreading tree, 40 ft. high or more: bark grayish brown, exfoliating, brownish red below: branchlets drooping, slender: leaves bluish green, scentless, acute or acutish, obscurely glandular: cones globose, 1 in. across or more, with 6-8 very thick strongly bossed scales. Guadalupe Isl. G.C. III. 18:62.

bb. Cones 1/2-l in. across, with 6-8 scales. c. Leaves distinctly glandular.

4. Macnabiana, Murray

(C. glandulosa, Hook.). Fig. 1147. Shrub with several stems, or small tree, to 20 ft., forming a dense, pyramidal head: leaves ovate, obtuse, thickened at the apex, glandular, dark green or glaucous: cones oblong, 3/4-1 in. high; scales usually 6, with prominent conical and curved bosses on the back. Calif. S.S. 10:528. R.H. 1870, p. 155. G.C. III. 9:403. F. 1874, p. 88.

Cupressus Macnabiana. (From a cultivated tree.)

Fig. 1147. Cupressus Macnabiana. (From a cultivated tree.)

cc. Leaves inconspicuously glandular. D. The branchlets slender: leaves green or sometimes glaucous.

5. Goveniana, Gord

(C. calif ornica, Carr.). Tree, to 50 ft., with slender, erect or spreading branches, forming a broad, open or pyramidal head: branch-lets slender: leaves ovate, acute, closely appressed, inconspicuously glandular: abundant staminate flowers in spring: cones subglobose or oblong; scales 6-8, with short, blunt bosses. Calif. S.S. 10: 527. R.H. 1875, p. 108. F. 1876, p. 197. variety com-pacta, Andre. Of compact, pyramidal habit. R. H. 1896, p. 9. variety glauca, Carr., with glaucous, and variety viridis, Carr., with bright green foliage. variety cornuta, Carr. A form with strongly developed bosses. R.H. 1866, p. 251.

6. Benthamii, Endl

(C. excelsa, Scott. C. Karwin-skydna, Regel. C. thurif-era, Schlecht., not HBK.). Tree, to 70 ft., with horizontal branches, forming a pyramidal head: branch-lets slender: leaves ovate, obtuse or acute, keeled and somewhat thickened at the apex, inconspicuously glandular, bright green: cones globular, 1/2- 3/4in. across; scales 6-8, with short-pointed bosses. Mex. variety Lindleyi, Mast. (C. Lind-leyi, Klotzsch). Branchlets regularly arranged, of nearly equal length: cones small, with small-pointed bosses. variety Knightiana, Mast. (C. elegans, Hort.). Branchlets very regularly arranged, fernlike, drooping, glaucous: cones with stout, conical-pointed bosses. G.C. III. 16:669. C. Benthamii has been found in prehistoric asphalt beds at Los Angeles.

dd. The branchlets stout: leaves glaucous.

7. Arizonica, Greene

(C. Benthamii variety arizonica. Mast.). Tree, to 40, rarely, to 70 ft., with horizontal branches, forming a narrow, pyramidal or broad, open head: branchlets'stout: leaves ovate, obtuse, thickened at the apex, usually without glands, very glaucous: cones subglobose, 3/4-l in. across; scales 6-8, with stout, pointed, often curved bosses. Ariz., Calif. S.S. 10:526. G.C. III. 18:63. I.T. 4:145. M.D. 1904:50.

aa. Branchlets slender, more or less pendulous: leaves usually acute and keeled, not thickened at the apex: cones about 1/2in. or less across (see No. 6). B. The branchlets not or only slightly compressed.

8. Torulosa, Don

(C. nepalensis, Loud.). Tall, pyramidal tree, to 150 ft., with short, horizontal ranches, ascending at the extremities: branchlets slender, drooping: leaves rhombic-ovate, acutish or obtusish, appressed or slightly spreading at the apex, bright or bluish green: cones globular, nearly sessile, 1/2-3/4in. across; scales 8-10 with a short, obtuse, inconspicuous boss. Himalayas. Gn. 27, p. 39. variety Corney-ana, Mast. (C. Corneyana, Knight). With distinctly pendulous branches: cones oblong, larger. variety ma-


Gord. (C. majestica, Knight). Of more vigorous growth, with drooping branchlets, grayish green.

9. Lusitanica, Mill

(C. glauca, Lam. C. pendula, L'Her. C. sinensis, Hort.). Tree, to 50 ft., with spreading branches and more or less pendulous branchlets: leaves ovate, acutish, glaucous: cones peduncled, about 1/2in. across, covered with glaucous bloom; scales 6-8, with an elongated, pointed and usually hooked boss. Habitat unknown; cult, in Portugal and naturalized; possibly introduced from India.

bb. The branchlets distinctly flattened.

10. Funebris, Endl

(C. pendula, Lambert). Tree, to 60 ft., with wide-spreading, pendulous branches and branchlets, branchlets flattened: leaves deltoid-ovate, acute, light green, often slightly spreading at the apex: cones short-peduncled, globose, 1/3-1/2in. across; scales 8, with a short-pointed boss. China. G.C. 1850:439. Gn. 28, p. 62. F.S. 6, p. 91.

11. Cashmeriana, Royle

(C. torulbsa variety kashmiriana, Kent. C. pendula variety glauca, Nichols.). Tree: branch-lets very slender, pendulous, flattened: leaves rhombic-ovate, spreading at the acute tips, glaucous: cones 1/3in. across. Intro, from Kashmir.

C. formosensis, Henry=Chamsecyparis formosensis. - C. Lato-soniana, Murr.=Chamsecyparis Lawsoniana. - C. nootkatensis, Lambert = Chamaecyparis nootkatensis. - C. obtusa, Koch= Chamaecyparis obtusa. - C. pisifera, Koch=Chamaecyparis pisifera. -C. pygmsea, Sarg. (C. Goveniana variety pygmffia, Lemm.). Tree, to 30 ft., often fruiting when only 1 or 2 ft. tall: branchlets rather stout: leaves dark green, without glands: cones ovoid, 1/4- 3/4in. long, with 6-10 scales; seeds black. Calif., Mendocino Co. S.S. 14:740. -C. thurifera, HBK. Tree with spreading branches: leaves oblong-lanceolate, upright-spreading, not closely appressed: cones globose, about 1 in. across, with slightly mucronate scales. - C. thy-aides, Linn.=Chamsecyparis thyoides. Alfred rehder.