This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
At all times, the pots should be well drained. - The Giganteum strains of the Persian cyclamen produce the largest blooms, but at the expense of quantity. For the average cultivator it is better to try a good strain that is not gigantic. There is a recent departure in the form of crested flowers. Cyclamens come true to color from seeds, and one can now buy named varieties that will reproduce themselves almost to a certainty. - Of recent years cultivators have had much trouble with a tiny pest or mite that attacks the plants and renders them useless for bloom. Its work is done mostly after the plants are taken into the greenhouse and when about to mature into blooming specimens. If the first flowers come deformed or abnormally streaked with colors that are darker in shade, it is a sure indication that the pest is present. Frequent light fumigation with hydrocyanic acid gas as soon as the pest is discovered will in time eradicate it, but being very small, and able to hide under the divisions of the calyx, seldom coming out except on bright days, makes the pest a difficult one to fight. The gas cannot be used during sunshine. Tobacco stems used freely between the pots is a good preventive measure. Greenfly is likely to attack the plants at all stages of growth.
In the frames the plants may be plunged in tobacco stems, and in the greenhouse they must be fumigated or vaporized with some of the nicotine extracts. Great vigilance must be exercised in growing cyclamens. (E. O. Orpet.)
a. Plant blooming in spring (or in winter under glass). b. Corolla-lobes not eared.
(C. hederaefblium, Sibth. & Smith. C. indicum, Linn. C. latifblium, Sibth. & Smith. C. macrophyllum, Sieb. C. piinicum, Pomel. C. pyrolaefblium, Salisb.). Fig. 1183. The common greenhouse or Persian cyclamen, in many forms: tuber large, flattened endwise, corky on the outside: leaves appearing with the flowers, ovate, crenate-dentate, base deeply cordate, usually marbled or variegated with white: flowers on scapes 6-7 in. high, large, scentless, white, purple-blotched at the mouth, but with rose-colored, purple and spotted forms, the segments oblong-spatulate in shape, not eared or lobed at the base: pedicel not coiling in fruit Greece to Syria. The large-flowered cult, forms are grouped as follows by Pax & Knuth: variety album (C. aleppi-cum, Hort.). Pure white. variety giganteum. White with red throat; very large. variety magnificum (variety puncta-tum). White, speckled with red, large. variety rubrum. Red. variety sanguineum. Light blood-red, large. variety rosea-superbum. Brilliant rose-red, large. variety purpureum. Purple with bluish markings, large. variety violaceum. Violet-red. variety atro-rubrum and variety splendens. Dark red, large. The variety giganteum (C. giganteum, Hort.) is the common large-flowered, improved form of the florist's cyclamen.
There are also double-flowered forms (R.H. 1886, p. 250); also fimbriate or crested forms, C. Papilio (I.H. 43:63. G.F. 5:235. G.C. III. 21:71; 23:173). Other portraits of C. persicum are: B.M. 44. I.H. 35:43. Gn. 47:378; 48:182. J.H. III. 34:578. Gt. 44, p. 203; 45, p. 164. F.S. 22:2345. A.G. 14:390-2; 17:261. A.F. 7:521-5; 11:1176-9; 12:499. The species is frequently figured in the trade catalogues.
Fig. 1183. Cyclamen persicum. Showing a flower of perfect form, and the crested variety.
(C. vernum, Sweet). Tuber smaller than in the last, globose or flattened: leaves with or preceding the flowers, nearly orbicular or round-reniform, entire, firm, not marbled nor variegated: flowers small, scentless, half or less as large as those of the last, purple and spotted in the throat. S. E. Eu. to Persia. B.M. 4. L.B.C. 2:108. F.S. 22:2345. - There is a white-flowered form (C. album, Hort.).
(C. coum variety ibericum, Boiss. C. elegans, Boiss. & Buhse. C. vernale, Koch). Dwarf: leaves appearing before the flowers, ovate-orbicular and rounded at the apex, entire or obscurely undulate, more or less zoned with white above: flowers purple with a darker colored throat. Caucasus. - Perhaps a geographical form of C. coum. C. Atkinsii, Moore, is C. coum x C. ibericum, Hildeb. Leaves reniform, apex rounded, more or less shining, deep green, spotted silver-white, the corolla-lobes pale rose or white and usually lined or spotted red. F.S. 23:2425.
bb. Corolla-lobes eared.
Tuber globose with a corklike covering: leaves autumnal, the blade obcordate, sinuate, dentate or crenulate or rarely entire, marked with white above, deep violet or purple beneath: flowers fragrant; calyx-lobes oblong-acuminate, the margin lightly undulate, 5-nerved; corolla-tube somewhat globose-campanulate, the lobes lightly eared at base and broad-ovate, entire, pale or deep rose-color with a deep red T-form mark at the base; style exserted. Lebanon.
aa. Plant blooming in summer and autumn.
B. Corolla-lobes not eared.
(C. Clusii, Lindl. C. aestivum, Park. C. cordifblium, Stokes. C. floribundum, Salisb. C. orbiculatum, and C. purpurascens, Mill.). Tuber with corky exterior: leaves ovate-orbicular or reniform, entire or nearly so, with a deep and narrow basal sinus, more or less white-marbled above, purple-tinted beneath: flowers on scapes 4-5 in. high, bright red and very fragrant, not spotted; the corolla-segments oblong-spatulate (3/4in. or less long); calyx glabrous: pedicel spirally coiling in fruit Cent, and S. Eu. B.R. 1013. - Leaves appearing with the flowers, more or less evergreen. Variable.
Much like C. europaeum: tuber hairy: flowers pale rose, with purple at the mouth, about twice larger; corolla-lobes elongated; calyx puberulent. Sicily. G.C. III. 23:81.
bb. Corolla-lobes eared.
(C. saldense, Pomel). Large: tuber large: leaves ovate-cordate to reniform, coarsely toothed, pale beneath, dull and pale green marbled above: calyx pubescent, the lobes broadly ovate-acuminate; corolla nearly white, faintly rose-or purple-tinged, the segments 1 in. long and deep purple at the base; calyx-lobes lanceolate. Algeria. B.M. 5758. F.S. 8:841. - Little known in this country, but sold by the American agencies of the Dutch bulb houses.
(C. autumnale, Boos. C. ficariaefolium and C. subhastatum, Reichb. C. hederi-fdlium, Ait. C. vernale, Mill.). Tuber very large, black, thick-rinded: leaves variable, from hastate to round-reniform, more or less wavy-plaited on the edges, green or somewhat parti-colored: calyx small; corolla pink or rarely white, the segments short and twisted and the edges raised and white-edged at the base; calyx-lobes triangular to oblong. S. and E. Eu. B.R. 24:49. Gn.51, p. 37.
Intermediate between C. graecum and C. pseudo-graecum; from the formerit differs in its small flowers and other parts and from the latter in having more rounded leaves Greece. -C. graecum. Link. Autumn-flowering: leaves obcordate, irregularly cartilaginous-dentate: corolla-lobes lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, eared at base, rose-colored with deep purple at base. S. E. Eu. -C. hiemale, Hildeb. Winter-flowering: leaves round-reniform, bright green and silver-zoned: flower purple with deep red in the throat; corolla-lobes round-ovate, not eared. Asia Minor. - C. Jovis, Hildeb. Differs from C. neapolitanum in its more slender flowers with longer lobes of calyx and corolla. Asia Minor. - C. maritimum, Hildeb. Leaves variable in form, mostly ovate, brown-green: flowers in Sept., inconspicuous, pale rose with marked throat, the corolla-lobes rounded. Asia Minor. - C. Meliarakisii, Hort.=C. gracum. - C. pseudo-graecum, Hildeb. Differs from C. gracum in having filaments and anthers longer, the latter 3-angled and acuminate: corolla pale rose or almost white.
Crete. - C. pseudo-ibericum, Hildeb. Spring-flowering: leaves obcordate, rounded at base and top, the margin cartilaginous-crenulate, deep green and spotted silvery white: flower violet, spotted with darker color, white at base; corolla-lobes oblong-ovate, not eared: pedicel spiral in fruit Probably Asia Minor. - C. pseudo-maritimum, Hildeb. Differs from C. maritimum in leaves being lanceolate-acuminate, calyx-lobes rounded and corolla-lobes long-acuminate. Asia Minor. - C. repandum, Sibth. & Smith. Spring-flowering: tuber small: leaves cordate, undu-late-lobed, the lobes usually mucronate: flower beautiful purple, the throat constricted and deeper-colored. Cent, and E. Medit. basin.
L. H. B