This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
Plant sparingly pubescent: stem simple, slender, 1/2-1 1/2 ft. high, few-lvd.: leaves small, 3-5-parted, the divisions mainly cleft into linear or lanceolate lobes; petioles hardly dilating at the base: flowers in simple, conical racemes; sepals blue, somewhat pubescent outside, nearly equaling the spurs in length; upper petals yellowish: follicles 3, pubescent, or sometimes glabrous; seeds black, winged on the outer angles. Apr-June. On hills, Calif, and northward to Alaska. B.R. 1192.
Roots oblong or fusiform, fasciculate-tuberous: stems slender, nearly glabrous, 1/2-l ft. high: leaves small, parted into narrow, linear lobes; petioles not dilating at base: flowers and fruit similar to those of D. Menziesii, but on shorter pedicels. May, June. Colo, to Wash, and Calif. introduced 1892.
cc. Height usually more than 1 1/2ft.
D. Seeds wrinkled or smooth, not winged nor scaly.
e. Follicles always 8.
Plant shaggy-hairy above: stem tall and slender, branched: leaves palmately 5-parted, the divisions 3-lobed and toothed: bracts long-lanceolate: flowers blue or purple, in long, branching racemes; spur straight or slightly incurved, equaling the sepals; petals 2-lobed: follicles 3, erect; seeds not winged or scaly. Aug., Sept. Himalayas.
stem stout, 2-4 ft. high, smoothish: leaves flat, nearly glabrous, deeply cleft into 3-7 wedge-shaped lobes, which are often trifid; petioles usually not dilated at the base: flowers blue, with yellow on the upper petals, medium in size, on long, crowded, erect, pyramidal racemes; sepals nearly equaling the spur in length: follicles 3, pubescent or smooth; seed-coats irregularly wrinkled. June-Aug. Borders of woods, Ala. to Minn.
(D. alpinum, Waldst. & Kit. D. pyramidale, Royle). Bee Larkspur. Glabrous, 2-6 ft. high: leaves somewhat pubescent, 5-7-parted, part rather narrow, cut-lobed; upper leaves 3-5-parted, petioles not dilated at the base: raceme much like D. exaltatum or more spike-like; flowers blue, with dark violet petals; sepals ovate, glabrous, nearly equaling the spurs: follicles 3; seeds transversely wrinkled, not scaly. June-Aug. B.R. 1963 (as D. intermedium). F.S. 12:1287. (variety flower-pl). R.H. 1859, p. 529; 1893, p. 258. -A polymorphous and complex species of Eu. It is probable that all or nearly all the plants sold here under this name should be called D. exaltatum, which is a closely allied species.
(D. sinense, Fisch.). Figs. 1232, 1233. stem rather slender, 2-3 ft. high: leaves rather small, many times parted into nearly distinct, narrow, linear lobes: flowers large, blue, varying to white, the spur and lower petals often violet, upper petals often yellow; spurs long and taper pointed: follicles 3, pubescent; seeds triangular, coats wrinkled, not scaly. Blooms in midsummer. Siberia. introduced 1880. B.M. 1686. Gn.46: 484. variety album, Hort. Flowers pure white. variety albo-pleno, Hort. Flowers double and pure white. variety flore-pleno, Hort. (variety hybridum flower-pl., Hort.). Flowers double, blue, very pretty. R.H. 1893, p. 259; 1895, p. 379 (same). - This group includes the most common and the most beautiful of the perennial delphiniums. Grandiflorum is also one of the most stately. Its striking foliage remains beautiful throughout the growing season. It is usually planted well back in the hardy border because of its height, smaller plants being in front. They may be massed as close as 2 ft. or. less but produce a fine effect when 4 ft. apart.
Variety chinense, Fisch. stem very slender, not much branched: leaves and flowers like the type, but flowers more numerous. China. L.B.C. 1:71. - A favorite garden form. The double blue form has been known as D. Breckii, Hort.
ee. Follicles varying from 3-5.
(D. azureum, Michx. D. virescens, Nutt.). Plant somewhat pubescent: stem 1 1/2-2 1/2 ft. high, not much branched: leaves 3-5-parted, the divisions 3-5-cleft into usually linear lobes: racemes spi-cate, usually many-flowered; flowers azure-blue, but varying to whitish or white; sepals often with a brownish spot: follicles 3-5, oblong, erect; seeds transversely wrinkled. July. N. C. to 111., west and south. P.M. 16:258. variety album, Hort. (variety dlbidum, Hort.). stems 2-3 ft. high: leaves larger than the type and with border divisions: flowers creamy white. - The double form of this is not much used.
Variety vimineum, Gray. stem 2-4 ft. high, sometimes branched, broader-lvd., looser-flowered: flowers violet or white. Texas. B.M. 3593. B.R. 1999 (as D. azureum).
stem 3 ft. high, pubescent above: leaves 3-5-parted, the segments wedge-shaped and deeply serrated; petioles somewhat dilated at the base: flowers blue, with pale yellow or whitish petals: seeds not seen. June. Nativity not known.
dd. Seeds winged. e. Upper petals never yellow.
stem 2-5 ft., leafy, often reclining: leaves thinnish, large, often reniform at base, 3-7-parted; lobes wedge-shaped, incised: racemes in larger plants 1-2 ft. long and very loose; flowers blue, with upper petals white; spur and sepals each 3/4in. long: follicles glabrous; seeds with thin wing or crown at the end. April. Moist grounds, Columbia River. introduced 1881.
ee. Upper petals often yellow.
stem nearly simple, 2-3 ft. high, soft-pubescent throughout: leaves many-parted, into linear divisions and lobes: racemes dense, little branched; flowers pale blue, with upper petals yellow, lower petals white-bearded; sepals equaling the spur: follicles 3, pubescent; seeds dark, with margins white-winged. June. Mts. of Idaho and Ore. introduced 1881.
(D. columbianum, Greene). stem erect, simple, nearly glabrous, leafy, 1 1/2-2 1/2 ft.: leaves thinnish, 3-5-parted, parts divided into many linear-oblong lobes: racemes long, many-flowered; sepals deep blue, ovate, sparingly pubescent, shorter than the spur; petals blue or upper ones yellow, lower ones white-bearded: follicles 3, pubescent, rather erect; seeds thin, dark, with yellow wings. Summer. Low, open woods, Columbia River. introduced 1892.
stem 2-5 ft., glabrous, at least below: leaves 5-7-parted, the upper ones the more narrowly cleft; petioles dilating at the base: racemes simple, densely many-flowered; flowers blue or purple, rarely white, upper petals often yellow; spur 1/2in. long, equaling the sepals: follicles 3, pubescent; seeds large-winged. Aug., Sept. Moist ground, west of Rockies. - A polymorphous species.
Variety subalpinum, Gray (D. occidentalej Wats.). A smaller plant, pubescent above: broader divisions of leaves, shorter racemes, larger and deeper-colored flowers: follicles glabrous. Wasatch Mts.
stem erect, simple or branched, 2-3 ft.: leaves glabrous or slightly pubescent, 5-parted, the lobes pointed, sub-trifid, and somewhat toothed: flowers dark blue, the upper petals sometimes pale yellow, the lower ones inflexed, ovate, entire; spur rather long, straight or somewhat curved: follicles 3, either glabrous or pubescent; seeds 3-cornered, 3-winged, not scaly. June, July. Siberia. B.R. 473. J.F. 1, pi. 49. Gt. 13:253. P.M. 16:258 (as D. mag-nificum).
ddd. Seeds scaly.
Fig. 1234. stem strong, 2-3 ft., hairy below, rather glabrous above: lower leaves 5-7-parted, long-petioled; upper ones 3-5-parted, short-petioled or sessile, all alternate: racemes many-fid.; flowers blue, with indigo margins; spur long, violet, bifid at the tip: follicles 3, pubescent; seeds scaly. June, July. Asia Minor perhaps, but the origin of it is disputed. F.S. 12:1185. R.H. 1859, p. 528. G.Z. 1:144. H.F. 8:99-The most permanent form for naturalizing, because it is so hardy. If given rich soil and good cultivation, it is one of the most effective for use in the permanent flower-border. variety coelestinum, Hort. Flowers light blue.
Erect, 3 ft. high, pubescent or glabrous, branched above: leaves pubescent on both sides, base often truncate or reniform, 3-5-parted, the parts serrate; petioles dilated at the base: peduncles yellow-hairy, with the bracts often inserted above the base; flowers in loose panicles; sepals blue, half as long as the spurs; petals dark violet: follicles often glabrous, 3/4in. long; seeds small, distinctly scaly. July. Siberia.
stem 3-4 ft., pubescent above: root somewhat bulbous: leaves 5-many-parted; lobes linear; petioles dilated and sheathing at the base: racemes dense; flowers blue, lower limbs white-bearded; spur straight, longer than the sepals: follicles 3, hairy; seeds ovate, with transverse scales. June-Aug. Mts. of Asia. R.H. 1893, p. 258; same cut in S.H. 2:282 -There are many double and semi-double varieties of this type. This is the tallest and most robust of the popular species of Delphinium. It will respond well to fertilizer and cultivated When the clumps become large and strong they are usually set about 4 ft. apart. Young plants may be set 2 ft. apart and thinned a year or two later.
Variety Barlowii, Paxt. Very large, semi-double flowers, deep blue, with brownish center. A supposed hybrid with D. grandiflorum. B.R. 1944. introduced 1892.
AAA. Perennial, garden hybrids.
28. cultorum, Voss (D. hybridum, Hort., not Steph.). The general mixed and more or less undefinable hybrid delphiniums, constituting some of the choicest garden and border plants of many colors, single, semi-double and double.
Fig. 1234. Delphinium formosum. (X 1/3)
D. caerulescens, Freyn. A fine Asiatic species, with single and double forms. P.M. 16:258. - D. candidum, Hemsl. A dwarf perennial: flowers pure white. Uganda. B.M. 8170. - D. cardiopeta-lum, DC, is a pretty annual, branching very low, the outer branches very short, giving a pyramidal form when covered with blue flowers R.H. 1893, p. 228. - D. caucasicum, C. A. Mey. (D. speciosum variety caucasicum, Huth.). Similar to D. cashmerianum. - D. Davidii, Franch. Hairy: leaves 3-parted almost to the base: flowers light blue. China. - D. divaricatum, Ledeb. Allied to D. Consolida, but taller, more branched, with smaller more abundant flowers Caucasus and Caspian region. R.H. 1912, p. 513. - D. macrocentron, Oliv. Perennial, hairy in nearly all parts: flowers blue and green or yellow and green. E. tropical Africa B. M. 8151. - D. Moerheimei, Hort. A garden hybrid. - D. Pardonii, Craib. Flowers blue in somewhat lax raceme. China. - D. Parryi, Gray, is also listed in the trade, and is closely allied to D. Consolida. - D. Wheelerii is listed in the trade and is doubtless a variety of D. speciosum, Bieb., from E. Asia. Many other species may be expected in the lists of collectors and fanciers- K. C. Davis.