This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(double anther referring to the separated anther-cells). Acanthdceae. Water-Willow. Herbs, mostly of greenhouses and warmhouses, and sometimes of open planting in mild climates.
Glabrous or pilose perennial herbs or sometimes somewhat woody, mostly of wet places, with opposite, mostly entire leaves: flowers mostly purplish or whitish, irregular, usually in axillary spikes, heads or fascicles, or the clusters combined in a terminal thyrse; corolla slender-tubed, 2-lipped, the upper lip erect and more or less concave or arched and entire or 2-toothed, the lower lip 3-lobed or 3-crenate and spreading, and with a palate-like structure; anther-cells separated on a broadened connective, not parallel with each other: fruit an oblong or ovoid 2-celled caps., the seeds 4 or less: floral bractlets small or minute. - Probably more than 100 species, mostly in warm and tropical countries. Lindau in Engler & Prantl unites it with Justicia as a subgenus, and the number of species is estimated as more than 70 in tropical Amer. The diantheras are little known in cultivation D. Pohliana is to be found in Jacobinia. The treatment given Jacobinia and Justicia applies to these plants.
Linn. stem angled, 1-3 ft.: leaves narrow-lanceolate, 3-4 in. long, nearly sessile: flowers several in a close cluster with a peduncle mostly exceeding the leaves, pale violet or whitish, the corolla mostly less than 1/2in. long, the tube shorter than the lips. In water, Quebec to Wis., Ga. and Texas. - Sometimes transferred to garden bogs and streams.
Griseb. (Justicia secunda, Vahl). Nearly glabrous, constricted at the nodes: leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, acuminate: flowers crimson, short-pedicellate, in a usually 1-sided panicle; lower lip 3-crenate. W. Indies. B.M. 2060.
Gmel. (Justicia pectoralis, Jacq.). Garden Balsam. stem slender, often woody, 1-3 ft.: leaves lanceolate-acuminate or nearly oblong, to 4 in. long: flowers rosy or pale blue, with a parti-colored throat, rather distant in elongated branched mostly 1-sided spikes. W. Indies, Mex., Brazil.
D. bullata, N. E. Br. stem terete, purplish: leaves elliptic, to 4 1/2 in. long, short-stalked, cordate at base, bullate or puckered between the veins, dark green above and purple-veined beneath: flowers white-ish, small, clustered. Borneo. I.H. 33:589. - A. handsome foliage subject, with the appearance of a rubiaceous plant. - D. ciliata, Benth. & Hook. (Jacobinia ciliata, Seem.). stem obscurely 4-angled, 2 ft.: leaves ovate-lanceolate, 2-3 in. long, short-stalked: flowers violet with white palate, sessile, many in a short-peduncled fascicle; calyx ciliate; corolla-tube 3/4in. long, cylindrical; upper lip very small, 2-lobed, concave and recurved; lower lip very large and showy (1 1/4 in. across ), flat, with 3 large lobes. Costa Rica. Panama(?). B.M. 5888 (as Beloperone ciliata, Hook. f.). - Described as an annual. Perhaps not of this genus. L H B