3. Barbatus, Linn

Sweet William. Fig. 1251. Readily grown from seed and flowering well the second year: glabrous, the stems 4-angled, 10-20 in. high, simple or branched only above: Ivs. broad and flat or condupli-cate, 5 - nerved: flowers several to many in a round - topped dense cyme, the petals toothed and bearded, red, rose, purple or white and also varicolored in garden forms, the bracts subtending the calyx 4 and long-pointed. Russia to China and south to the Pyrenees. G. 1:372. Gn. M. 2:217; 14:55. F. E. 23:219. -The sweet william is one of the oldest garden flowers It is sure to be found in the old-fashioned gardens. The cult, forms run into many colors. Sometimes found along roadsides as an escape. There are double-flowered forms. R.H. 1894, p. 277. Some of the modern improved large-flowered forms are very showy, and produce their bloom over a long season. D. Laucheanus, Bolle, is a hybrid of D. barbatus and D. deltoides. Gt. 53:1528.

Sweet William Dianthus barbatus. (X 1/2)

Fig. 1251. Sweet William-Dianthus barbatus. (X 1/2)

4. Carthusianorum, Linn

(D. atrorubens, Willd.). Hardy, glabrous, scarcely glaucous, 12-20 in. high, the stem angled: Ivs. linear and pointed, without prominent nerves when fresh: flowers in a dense, 6-20-flowered head (sometimes the clusters very few-flowered), in shades of red, odorless, the petals sharply but not deeply toothed, the cluster subtended by very narrow or even awl-like Ivs.; calyx-bracts 4, coriaceous, yellowish or straw-colored. Denmark to Portugal and Egypt. B.M. 1775, 2039 -Widely variable. Little planted in American gardens.

cc. Plant glabrous and glaucous.

5. Cruentus, Griseb

(D. atrococcineus, Hort.). Cespitose, glaucous, glabrous: stem 1-2 ft., terete, forking: Ivs. linear or lance-linear, sharp acuminate, spreading, 7-nerved, the cauline linear-appressed and 5-nerved: flowers deep blood-red, small, about 20 in a subglobose dense head, odorless; petals red-hairy towards the base. July. Greece and N.

6. giganteus, Urv. Cespitose, glabrous, glaucous, 2-3 ft. or more, simple: Ivs. long-linear, 7-nerved, plane, spreading and acuminate: flowers 10-12 in a head, red, the petal-blade obovate-cuneate. Balkan region. Gn. 66, p. 122.

ccc. Plant woolly, glaucous.

7. Capitatus, Balb

Plant glaucous, woolly, 12-16 in., simple, stem 4-angled: Ivs. linear, acute, plane, spreading, 7-nerved, those on the stem 5-nerved: flowers 6-8 in a head, the petals purple-spotted. Siberia to Servia.

cccc. Plant viscid-pubescent.

8. Viscidus, Bory & Chaub

Cespitose, pubescent and sticky, about 12 in., simple: Ivs. linear, acuminate, soft, plane, 1-3-nerved: flowers 3-6 in a fascicle, the petals purple-spotted, the blade obovate-cuneate and few-toothed. Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey. -Runs into several marked forms.

aa. Flowers solitary, or loosely in 2's or 3's.

B. Calyx-bracts short and broad, mostly oppressed.

C. Petals fimbriate.

d. Teeth of calyx mucronate.

9. Plumarius, Linn

(D. scoticus, Hort.). Common Grass or Garden Pink. Scotch Pink. Pheasant's-Eye Pink. Low, tufty, 1 ft.: stems simple or forked: plant blooming in spring and early summer, very fragrant: Ivs. elongate-linear, keeled, spreading or recurved, thickish, 1-nerved, blue-glaucous: flowers medium size, rose-colored (varying in cult, to purple, white and variegated), the blade of the petal fringed a fourth or fifth of its depth; calyx cylindrical, with short broad-topped mucronate bracts. Austria to Siberia. Gn. 66, p. 260. F.E. 23:401. - A universal favorite. Hardy. Much used in old-fashioned gardens as edging for beds. There are double-flowered forms. A more continuous-blooming form is catalogued as variety semperflorens.

10. Arenarius, Linn

Cespitose, glabrous, 1 ft. or less, the stems simple or forked, slender, 1-3-flowered: Ivs. elongate-linear, keeled, obtuse, fascicled, spreading: flowers white, fragrant; petals much cut beyond the middle; calyx purplish, the teeth ovate-lanceolate.

Dalmatia to Finland. G. 26:433. - variety glaucus, Blocki, connects this species with No. 9.

dd. Teeth of calyx acuminate or attenuate. 11. monspessulanus, Linn. stems terete, glabrous, branching, 12-20 in.: leaves linear, acuminate, plane, spreading but strict, 5-nerved: flowers solitary or 2 or 3 together, showy, odorless; petals rose, rarely white, cut or fimbriate; calyx attenuated at top, the teeth 7-nerved. Spain to Caucasus.

12. Squarrdsus, Bieb

Cespitose: stems terete, slender and squarrosely few-fid., glabrous, more or less branching, 1 1/2-2 ft.: leaves linear, acute, canaliculate, recurved: flowers rose; petals oblong, pinnately many-parted. Russia, Siberia.

13. Petraeus, Waldst. & Kit

Cespitose, glabrous, the stems slender and simple, 1 ft. or less: leaves linear-lanceolate, acute, keeled, spreading, 3-nerved: flowers white, fragrant; petal - limb obovate, fimbriate but not bearded. Bulgaria, Austria. B.M. 1204.

14. fimbriates, Bieb. Suffruti-cose, glabrous, the stems simple, 1 ft.: leaves linear, acute, appressed, 3-nerved, plane or keeled: flowers variable, rose-colored, much fimbriate, bearded. variety orientalis, Williams (D. orientalis, Donn), has flowers with linear-cuneate petals, s t r o n g ly imbricate obovate straw-colored bracts. B.M. 1069. -A very variable species, ranging from Portugal to Thibet.

15. Superbus, Linn

Fig. 1252. Glabrous, light green: stems 10-20 in., dichotomous and branched at top, terete and slender: leaves

lance-linear, acute, 3-5-nerved, rather soft, plane: flowers very fragrant, in a lax forking panicle; petals lilac, dissected below the middle. Norway to Japan and Spain. Variable. B.M. 297. - A handsome species; garden forms are sometimes offered.

cc. Petals only dentate (except perhaps in some garden forms).

16. Caesius, Smith

Cheddar Pink. Cespitose, glabrous, glaucous: stems 12 in. or less, simple, or forked above, 4-angled, 1-2-flowered: leaves lance-linear, plane, 3-nerved, the cauline acute and keeled: flowers showy, fragrant, the petal-limb rose-colored, obovate-cuneate and irregularly toothed. Eu. G.C. III. 44:214. Gn. 64, p. 236. - Runs into several forms.

17. Sylvestris, Wulf

(D. virgineus, Hort.). Cespitose, slender, 1 ft. high, the stem simple or somewhat branched, angular-compressed and bearing 1-3 odorless flowers: leaves tufted, linear and sharp-pointed, scabrous on the margins: flowers rather small, red, the petals obovate-cuneate and shallow-toothed. Spain to Greece and Austria. - Very variable. Pretty perennial border plant. variety frigidus, Williams (D. frigidus, Kit.) is a dwarf Hungarian form.

18. attenuates, Smith. Cespitose, glaucous, woody at base, the stems diffuse and tortuose, 20 in.: leaves linear, acute, plane, 3-nerved: flowers small, solitary or twin but disposed in a lax panicle, odorless, rose-colored; petal-limb oblong. Eu.

Dianthus superbus. (X 1/2)

Fig. 1252. Dianthus superbus. (X 1/2)