This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
Carnation. Clove Pink Picotee. Grenadine. Figs. 801-818. Plate XXII. Cespitose, glabrous, 1-3 ft., the stems hard or almost woody below, the nodes or joints conspicuous: leaves thick, long-linear, very glaucous, keeled, 5-nerved, stiffish at the ends: flowers mostly solitary, showy, very fragrant, rose, purple or white; calyx-bracts 4, very broad, abruptly pointed. B.M. 39 (Bizarre Carnation); 1622 (variety imbricatus); 2744 (Picotees). - Generally supposed to be native to the Medit. region, but Williams gives its geographical limits as "north and west Normandy" and "south and east Punjaub" (northwestern Hindoostan). In Eu. it is largely grown as an outdoor pink, but in this country it is chiefly known as the greenhouse carnation. The American forcing type (which may be called variety longicaulis) is distinguished by very long stems and a continuous blooming habit; it is here the carnation of commerce. Garden varieties of D. Caryophyhus are numberless, and they often pass under Latinized names (D. punctatus, Hort., is one of these names). See Carnation. The carnation has been long in cultivation The bloom is now very variable in size, form and color; originally probably pale lilac.
bb. Calyx-bracts half the length of the calyx, mostly narrow-pointed, more or less spreading at the tips: leaves short and spreading, the radical ones obtuse or nearly so.
Maiden Pink. Fig. 1253. Densely tufted, 6-10 in., blooming in spring and early summer, creeping: stems ascending, forking, with solitary flowers on the branchlets: stem - leaves an inch long, linear-lanceolate, sharp-pointed: flowers small (1/2-3/4in. across), the petals toothed, deep red with a crimson eye, the petals bearing an inverted V-shaped pocket at their base (whence the name deltoides), fragrant. Scotland to Norway and Japan. Gn. 66, p. 224. G.M. 55:28. G.W. 14, p. 181. - One of the prettiest border pinks, making neat mats of foliage and bearing profusely of the little bright flowers There is a white-flowered variety.
More or less cespitose, very dwarf, the 1-flowered slender stems rarely reaching more than 3-4 in. high, more or less prostrate: foliage dark shining green, the leaves linear or lance-linear, those on the stem keeled and strict: flower 1 in. or more across, odorless, deep rose or purplish and crimson spotted, a darker ring around the eye. Russia to Greece and Swiss Alps. B.M. 1205. Gn. 26:184; 47, p. 292; 45, p. 53. Gt. 4:110. G.W. 8, p. 14. - One of the choicest of alpine and rock-work plants. variety repens, Regel (D. repens, Willd.), of Siberia and Alaska, has a single root and procumbent stems branched from near base: flowers purple; calyx somewhat inflated, 1/2in. long. Apparently not cultivated This is kept as a distinct species by some.
Glabrous, the stems 10-12 in., terete, paniculately branched: leaves narrow-linear, plane, those on the stem becoming scale-like: flowers loosely paniculate, the petal-limb obovate-cuneate, red-spotted above and greenish yellow beneath; calyx-teeth lanceolate, acute. Altai Mts., Siberia.
Smooth and glaucous, the stems terete, 1-flowered, 12-16 in.: leaves canaliculate, 3-5-nerved, the radical linear-lanceolate and acute, the cauline lance-linear and acuminate: petallimb obovate-cuneate, purple-spotted above, and with a zone at the center, rose-colored beneath; calyx purple, the teeth lanceolate-acuminate. S. E. Eu. Gn. 64, p. 298; 66, p. 54; 70, p. 275.
Fig. 1253. Dianthus deltoides.
bbb. Calyx-brads leafy and spreading.
Three to 4 in. high, the 4-angled stems tufted and 1-2-flowered: leaves green, linear-lanceolate, pointed, those on the stem linear-acute and strict or recurved, 3-nerved: flowers small and odorless, red-purple; the petals toothed, yellowish beneath, contiguous; bracts 2-4. Mts. of S. Eu. G.C. II. 21:809-A pretty species, but difficult to establish. Grown among alpine plants. variety Freynii, Williams (D. Freynii, Vandas). Leaves rather soft, keeled, the lateral nerves obscure: stems usually 1-flowered: calyx-teeth ciliate. variety neglectus, Williams (D. neglectus, Loisel). Leaves plane: flowers rarely twin; bracts 4: petals separate. G.C. III. 49:415. Gn.76, p. 339. Gn.W. 20:711.
(D. sinensis, Hort.). Fig. 1254. Cespi-tose, glabrous, more or less creeping at base: stem forking, angled and more or less grooved, pubescent: leaves broad and nearly flat or slightly trough-shaped, 3-5-nerved: flowers large, solitary or more or less clustered, pink or lilac; the petals (at least in the wild) barbed or hairy toward the base; calyx-bracts 4, in some cultivation vars. short. China and Japan; but recent authorities consider a European pink to be but a form of it, and thereby extend its range west to Portugal. B.M. 25. The Amoor pink (D. dentosus, Fisch.) is a form known as variety macrosepalus, Franch.: it is a hardy border plant, 1 ft. high, with bright red flowers and a spot at base of each petal. variety asper, Koch (D. Seguieri, Auth.). has flowers in panicles, and the bracts squarrose - spreading: the European form of the species. D. semperflorens, Hort., is a hardy perennial form, 12-18 in., with silvery foliage and deep pink, red-eyed, fragrant flowers D. chinensis has given rise to a beautiful and variable race of garden pinks, variety Heddewigii, Regel (D. Heddewigii, Hort.). These are extensively grown from seeds, and are practically annuals, although plants may survive the winter and give a feeble bloom in the spring in mild climates.
The flowers are scarcely odorous. They are single and double, of many vivid colors; and many of the garden forms have bizarre markings. Gt. 7:328. G. 2:537. In some forms, variety laciniatus, Regel (D. laciniatus, Hort.), the petals are slashed and cut. G. 2:538. G.Z. 6:1. D. imperialis, Hort., is a name applied to a strain with strong habit and rather tall growth, mostly double. C. diadematus, Hort., is another garden strain. G. 2:538. D. cincinnatus, Lem., is a red form with shredded petals. I.H. 11:388. D. hybridus, Hort., is another set. This name (D. hybridus) is also applied to a dentosus-like form, which some regard as a hybrid of D. dentosus and some other species. A recent race of the garden pinks, with narrow petals and a star-like effect, is variety stellaris, (D. stellaris, Hort.). For portraits of garden pinks, see B.M. 5536. F.S. 11:1150; 12:1288-9; 13:1380-1. Gn. 49:82. - The garden pinks are of easy cultivation Seeds may be sown in the open where the plants are to stand, but better results are obtained, at least in the N., if plants are started in the house. Plants bloom after the first fall frosts. They grow 10-16 in. high, and should be planted 6-8 in. apart.
They are very valuable for borders and flower-gardens. Species - names now referred to D. chinensis are D. caucasicus, Sims, D. ibericus, Willd., D. ruthenicus, Roem., D. montanus, Bieb., D. collinus, Waldst. & Kit., representing the European extension of the species.
Fig. 1254. Dianthus chinensis. (X 1/3)
Plant 6-12 in. high, of doubtful origin, but in habit intermediate between D. chinensis and D. barbatus. Flowers large, double, in close clusters or even heads, in good colors: leaves oblong-lanceolate. - A good border plant; perhaps a hybrid.
3-4 ft., glabrous and glaucous, with a woody trunk, linear-acute canaliculate 3-nerved leaves, and showy rose-colored fragrant flowers in a dense corymb. S. E. Eu. G.C. III. 43:52. This species is one.of the sub-shrubby group of Dianthus, comprising also D. fruticosus, Linn, (of the Grecian Archipelago), D. Bisig-nani, Tenore (of Tunis and Naples), and othe-s. D. suffruticosus, Willd., probably belongs with the last. - D. call-alpinus, Hort. Hybrid of D. callizonus and D. alpinus. G.M. 47, p. 408. - D. diatinus, Kit. Allied to D. barbatus: glabrous: stems simple, 12-18 in., 4-angled: flowers pale red, 6-8 together in a head, the petals barbed. Hungary, Servia. Rockery. - D. fragrans, Bieb. Cespitose, glabrous: stems 10-16 in., simple, or branched above: leaves elongated-linear, acuminate, 3-5-nerved: flowers fragrant, the limb white suffused with rose, petals beardless. Caucasia, Algeria. - D. gracilis, Sibth. More or less woody at base, glabrous and glaucous, the stems 14-18 in. and simple and slender: leaves linear-acute, strict, 3-nerved: flowers rose, paler beneath, 2-3 in a cluster. Balkans. - D. graniticus, Jord. stems simple, scabrous below and glabrous above, slender, 4-angled, 6 in.: leaves linear-acute, 3-nerved: flowers solitary or in pairs, purple.
France. Rockery. - D. japoni-cus, Thunb. Glabrous perennial, with simple stems 20 in.: leaves ovate-lanceolate, acute, canaliculate, twisted at base: flowers 6-8 in a head, red. Japan, Manchuria. - D. microlepis, Boiss. Very dwarf, cespitose, glabrous: leaves scale-like: flowers rose-colored (varying to white). Balkans. A marked little alpine- L. H. B.