This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(Greek, two-formed achenes). Compositae. Cape Marigold. Annual and perennial herbs or sub-shrubs, some of which are excellent flower-garden plants.
Leaves alternate or radical, entire, toothed, or incised, often narrow: heads solitary, long-peduncled; disk-flowers yellow or brown or purple, the rays yellow, purple, or white with purple beneath. The genus is closely allied to Calendula but has straight instead of incurved fruits The flowers usually close up, like those of Gazania, unless they have sunlight; their backs have as great a variety of coloring as their faces. - About 20 species in S. Africa
The flowers are often 3 inches across, and their long, slender rays (20 or more) give a distinct and charming effect. A dozen kinds are grown abroad, representing a wide range of colors and foliage. They are wintered in coolhouses and flowered in spring or else transplanted to the open, where they flower freely during summer. The shrubby kind, D. Ecklonis, has been grown as a summer bedding plant, flowering from July to frost, and as a coolhouse plant, making a much-branched subject 3 feet high, and flowering freely all spring.
Less. (Calendula pluvialis, Linn.). Erect or diffuse, simple or branched annual, rough with jointed and gland-tipped hairs (seen with a small lens): leaves narrowly oblong or obovate-oblong, tapering to the base, with a few distant teeth, pilose, the uppermost smaller and narrower: peduncles terminal, nodding in fruit; flowers white above, purple or discolored beneath. J.H. III. 57:501. variety ligulosa, Voss (Calendula Pongei, Hort.), is a double form (the heads full of rays) with heads white on upper side and yellow or violet beneath.
DC. Annual, branched from the base, nearly glabrous: leaves oblong, obtuse, sinuate, narrowed at base: involucre-scales lanceolate-acuminate, quite glabrous, longer than disk: achenes of ray trigonous, everywhere tubercled; of disk flat with thickened rim; rays orange. - Grows 12-15 in. high. Flowers shading to blue in center.
DC. Perennial, the stem natively more or less shrubby, erect, glabrous, with rod-like branches: leaves linear-oblong or spatulate, thickish, obtuse, entire: flower-heads large, rays orange-yellow; involucre-scales linear-acuminate, exceeding the disk, with a central line of hairs and paler margins. This brief botanical description does not in all ways fit the plant now in common cult, as D. aurantiaca, which is treated as a half-hardy annual, and which is apparently more or less modified by cultivation; it is a very showy plant (Fig. 1267), 12-16 in. high, from a short-decumbent base, with notched acute leaves, and terminal heads 2-2 3/4 in. across, and with curving rays of a rich glossy apricot-orange and a disk of brown-black; it is one of the best flower-garden subjects of recent years, the flowers opening in the sun and making a brilliant display in summer and till frost; of simple culture from seeds. Although long described in horticultural literature, it appears not to have come really mto cult, until within the past few years, having been offered in Eu. in the fall of 1908. Recent forms under the name of D. aurantiaca hybrida (hybrids with D. annua), introduced in 1912, range in color from white and bluish-white to red, yellow, orange and salmon.
B.M. 408 (as Calendula Tragus). G.C. III. 38:127. G. 31:205. J.H. III. 57:37. F.E. 31:308. Winter-flowering in S. Calif.
Eckldnis, DC. Shrubby at base, robust and erect, branching at top, 2 ft. or more: leaves crowded, linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, entire or somewhat denticulate, acute: flower-heads terminal, the rays 1 1/2 in. long, white above and purplish beneath; involucre-scales long-acuminate. B.M. 7535. Gn. 75, p. 444. G. 24: 424; 25:565. - Not hardy north of Washington. It is grown as a summer bedding plant in England.
D. Barberiae, Haw. Perennial: flowers purple above, paler beneath; disk all purple, with corollas of 2 forms. B.M. 5337. H.F. II. 5:78. variety rosea, Hort., has rose-colored flowers - D. chrysanthemi-fdlia, DC. Leaves cut like a chrysanthemum: flowers yellow, reverse reddish. B.M. 2218. - D. cuneata, DC. Leaves strongly cut: flowers scarlet-orange. B.M. 1343. - D. nudlicaulis variety grammifblia, Harv. & Sond. Flowers white, with a purple ring at the base, and orange-brown on the back, the disk purple. B.M. 5252. - D. Trague, DC. Perennial: leaves narrower than in D. Ecklonis, linear: flowers white, veined purple, the rays narrower at the base, reverse orange purplish, the disk purplish. B.M. 1981 (as Calendula), L H B †