The system known as "wedge-grafting" is perhaps best for the purpose, and the early spring months, or just as the growing season is about to begin, is the best time for grafting. - If plants of echinocactus can be kept in a healthy condition, they are not much troubled with insect pests; mealy-bug is their worst enemy and should be removed at once with a clean mucilage brush. - The following varieties have been found to be among the most easily grown: E. capricomis, E. coptonogonus, E. cornigerus, E. Grusonii, E. horizonthalonius, E. longihamatus, E. myriostigma, E. setispinus, E. texensis, and E. Wislizenii. (E. J. Canning.) a. Spines, or some of them, hooked (Nos. 1-10). b. Central spine solitary.

1. Wrightii, Coulter (E. Uncinatus variety Wrightii, Engelm.)

Oval, 3-6 in. high, 2-31/2 in- diam.: radial spines 8, arranged as in E. uncinatus; central spine solitary, angled, flexuous and hooked, elongated (2-6 in.), erect, straw-color, with dark tip: flowers 1-1 1/2 in. long, dark purple. Texas and N. Mex.

bb. Central spines 4.

c. Some or all of the spines annulate.

2. Cylindraceus, Engelm

Globose to ovate or ovate-cylindrical, simple or branching at base, becoming as much as 3 ft. high and 1 ft. diam.: ribs 13 in younger specimens, 20-27 in older ones, obtuse and tuberculate: spines stout, compressed, more or less curved, reddish; radials about 12, with 3-5 additional slender ones at upper edge of areole, 1-2 in. long, the lowest stouter and shorter and much hooked; centrals

4, very stout and 4-angled, about 2 in. long and 1/12- 1/8in. broad, the uppermost broadest and almost straight and erect, the lowest decurved: flowers yellow.

S. W. U. S. and Low. Calif.

3. Longihamatus, Gal

Subglobose or at length ovate, becoming 1-2 ft. high: ribs 13-17, often oblique, broad, obtuse, tuberculate-interrupted: spines robust, purplish or variegated when young, at length ashy; radials 8-11, spreading, straight or curved or flexuous, the upper and lower ones 1-3 in. long, the laterals 2-4 in.; centrals 4, angled, the upper ones turned upward, straight or curved or twisted, the lower one stouter, elongated (3-8 in.), flexuous and more or less hooked: flowers yellow, tinged with red, 2 1/2-3 1/2 in. long. Texas and Mex.

4. Wislizenii, Engelm

At first globose, then ovate to cylindrical, 1 2/3-4 ft. high: ribs 21-25 (13 in small specimens), acute and oblique, more or less tuberculate: radial spines 3/5-2 in. long, the 3 upper and 3-5 lower ones stiff, straight or curved, annulate, red (in old specimens the 3 stout upper radials move toward the center and become surrounded by the upper bristly ones), the 12-20 laterals (sometimes additional shorter ones above) bristly, elongated, flexuous, horizontally spreading, yellowish white; centrals 4, stout, angled, and red, 1 3/5-3 1/5 in. long, the 3 upper straight, the lower one longest (sometimes as much as 4-5 in.), very robust (flat and channeled above), hooked downward: flowers yellow or sometimes red, 2-2 3/5 in. long. From S. Utah to N. Mex. and Low. Calif.

cc. None of the spines annulate.

5. Brevihamatus, Engelm

Globose-ovate, very dark green: ribs 13, deeply tuberculate-interrupted, the tubercles with a woolly groove extending to the base: radial spines mostly 12, terete, straight, white or yellowish, with dusky tips, 1/2-1 in. long, the upper longer; central spines 4 (rarely 1 or 2 additional ones), flattened, white with black tips, the 2 lateral ones divergent upward, straight or a little recurved, 1-2 in. long, the uppermost one weaker, the lower stoutest and darkest, porrect or deflexed, hooked downward, 3/4-1 in. long: flowers funnelform, rose-color, 1-1 1/2in- long. S. W. Texas and New Mex.

6. Sinuatus, Dietr. (E. Treculianus, Labour.)

Globose, 4-8in. diam., bright green: ribs 13, oblique, acute, tuberculate-interrupted, the tubercles short-grooved: radial spines 8-12, setiform and flexible, the 3 upper and 3 lower purplish brown and straight-ish (the lower ones sometimes more or less hooked), 4/5-l in. long, the 2-6 laterals more slender, longer (1-1 2/5 in.), often flattened, puberulent and whitish, sometimes flexuous or hooked; central spines 4, puberulent, yellowish (or purplish variegated), the 3 upper ones slender, flattened or subangled, erect and generally straight (rarely hooked), l 3/5-2 in. long, the lowest one much stouter, flattened or even channeled, straw-color, flexuous, more or less hooked (sometimes straight), 2-4 in. long: flowers yellow, 2-3 in. long. Texas, Ariz, and N. Mex.

7. Uncinatus, Gal

Glaucescent, globose to oblong: ribs 13, obtuse, tuberculate-interrupted: radial spines 7 or 8, 1-2 in. long, the upper 4 or 5 straw-color, straight, flattened, the lower 3 purplish, terete and hooked; centrals 4, the upper 3 rather stout and straight, about 1 in. long, the lowest one very long, flattened, hooked at apex: flowers brownish purple. N. Mex.

8. Whipplei, Engelm

Fig. 1371. Globose-ovate, 3-5 in. high, 2-4 in. diam.: ribs 13-15 (often oblique), compressed and tuberculately interrupted: radial spines usually 7, compressed, straight or slightly recurved, 1/2-3/5 in. long, lower ones shorter than the others, all white excepting the two darker lowest laterals; central spines 4, widely divergent, the uppermost one flattened, straight and white, 1-1 3/5 in. long, turned upward in the plane of the radials (completing the circle of radials), the others a little shorter, quadrangular-compressed, dark brown or black, becoming reddish and finally ashy, the 2 laterals straight, the lowest one stouter and sharply hooked downward: flower greenish red. N. Ariz. Fig. 1371 is adapted from the Pacific Railroad Report.

Echinocactus Whipplei. (X 1/2)

Fig. 1371. Echinocactus Whipplei. (X 1/2) bbb. Central spines 5 to 8.