This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
Ovate-globose, 1-4 in. high: ribs 13, acute, somewhat oblique, tuberculate-interrupted, the tubercles with a woolly groove: spines short and rigid, reddish from a whitish base and with dusky tips; radial 16-25, closely appressed and interwoven, the upper 5-9 setaceous and white, straight 1/5-1/2in. long, the laterals more rigid and a little longer, the lowest stout and short, a little recurved; centrals 4, the 3 upper ones turned upward and exceeding the radials and interwoven with them, the lower one very short, stout and porrect: flowers about 1 in. long and wide, purplish. Texas and N. Mex.
Cylindrical, 2-31/2 ft. high, 1 ft. diam., single or in clusters up to 18 or more, not rarely decumbent: ribs 18-22, often oblique: spines extremely variable, angled to flat, 1/4-3 in. wide; radials 11-13, unequal, lowest and several laterals thinnest; centrals 4: flowers about 2 in. long, deep crimson in center, bordered by light greenish yellow. Low. Calif.
Oval, 4-6 in. high: ribs 17-21, low, rounded, tuberculately interrupted, close set, often oblique, densely covered with stoutish reddish gray spines: radial spines 10-14, 3/5-1 1/3 in. long, the upper longest; centrals 4, stouter, recurved, about 1 1/2 in. long: flowers 2-2 3/5 in. long and wide, from deep red to pink. Utah, Nev., Calif.
Globose (6-10 in. diam.) to ovate (10-16 in. high, 5-10 in. diam.) and cylindrical (reaching 24-28 in. high and about 10 in. diam.), profusely branched at base: ribs 13-21 (occasionally 10): spines 8-15, very stout and compressed, more or less recurved and reddish; radials 4-11, comparatively slender (the uppermost the most slender), 1-2 in. long; the 4 centrals much stouter and longer (1 1/2-2 4/5 in.), very unequal, the uppermost one usually broadest and curved upward, the lowest one usually the longest and decurved: flowers yellow. Utah to Calif.
Globose or depressed, simple or branching at base, 4-12 in. high, 6-10 in. diam.: ribs 13-21 (fewer when young), compressed and scarcely tuberculate: spines more or less curved and sometimes twisted, reddish below, shading into greenish or yellowish above; radials 9-20, 2/5-4/5in. long, the lowest shortest, robust, and decurved; centrals 4, cruciate, much stouter, compressed and 4-angled, 4/5-1 2/5 in. long, the lowest broadest, longest and straightest: flowers yellowish green, about l 3/5in. long. S. Calif. - E.limitus, Engelm., is closely related to this species and is thought by some to be identical with it.
Resembles E. Wislizenii, but often somewhat taller (sometimes becoming 8 ft. high and 2 ft. diam.), usually more slender, and at last cla-vate from a slender base: ribs somewhat more interrupted and more obtuse: lower central spine more flattened and broader, curved (rather than hooked) or twisted, usually not at all hooked, sometimes as much as 6 in. long: flowers rather smaller. From the Great Basin to Mex. and Low. Calif.
Globose: ribs 13, prominent, densely crowded, with short rhombic-angled tubercles: radial spines 11-13, white; centrals 3, black, with pale base, 3/5in. long, the upper one slightly longer: flowers scarcely 1 in. long, straw-colored. Utah.
Globose, completely covered by a mass of almost transparent golden spines, which give the plant the appearance of a ball of gold: centrals 4, curved: flowers red and yellow. Mountains of Mex. - From illustrations it is evident that the radial spines are somewhat numerous and widely spreading, and that the centrals are prominent and more or less deflexed.
Fig. 1373. Echinocactus Palmeri. No. 46.
Fig. 1373. Very stout, globose: ribs 15-19, compressed, dark green: spines very prominent, 5-7 in a cluster, stout and porrect, sometimes becoming 5 in. long; centrals 4. Mex. - Schumann makes this a variety of E. ingens.
ccc. Ribs 30 or more.
More or less cylindrical, 1 ft. or more high, 2-4 in. diam., at length branching above: ribs 30-36, nearly vertical, tuberculate: radial spines 30-40, setaceous, white; central spines 3 or 4, purple, erect; sometimes all the spines are white: flowers yellow. Brazil. - The species is exceedingly plastic in form, branching variously or passing into the cristate condition.
bbbb. Central spines 5-10.
Globose, 6-18 in. high: ribs 13-18, compressed, little if at all interrupted: radial spines represented by 3 slender ones at the lowest part of the pulvillus or wanting; centrals 6, very stout, at first purplish, becoming pale yellow, the 3 upper ones erect, the 3 lower recurved-spreading: flowers unknown. N. Mex.
aaa. Spines entirely wanting.
Depressed-globose, grayish green, with 12-14 spirally ascending ribs, cut into regular rhomboidal tubercles; tubercles flat, with a depressed pulvillus, entirely naked excepting a few small setaceous spines upon the younger ones: flowers white, with a purplish base. Mex. - The depressed and spineless body, with its surface regularly cut in spiral series of low, flat tubercles, gives the plant a very characteristic appearance.
Fig. 1374. Depressed-globose, 5 in. diam.: ribs 5 or 6, very broad, covered with numerous somewhat pilose white spots, and with deep obtuse sinuses: spines none: flowers large, pale yellow. Mex.
Fig. 1374. Echinocactus myriostigma. No. 50.
E. chrysdnthus (E. chrysacan-thus)=(?). - E. Draegeanus=(l). - E. Letuinu=Lophophora. - E. micromeris = Mammillaria. - E. Poselgerianus, A. Dietz.=Mam-millariaScheerii. - E. Slmpsonii= Pediocactus. - E. trifurcatus - (?). - E. Williamsii=Lophophora.
John M. Coulter. J. N. Rose.†