(Greek, echinos, a hedgehog, chloa, grass). Gramineae. Annual grasses with narrow inflorescence of several thick spikes. Sometimes grown for grain and forage, but scarcely horticultural subjects.

Spikelets as in Panicum; glumes hispid-spiny, mucronate, the sterile lemma more or less awned. - Species about 12, in the warm regions of both hemispheres. Regarded by many botanists as a section of Panicum. E. Crusgalli, Beauv., barnyard grass, is a common weed in cultivation soil. The spikelets are usually long-awned, the panicle 4-10 in. long, green or purple. Dept. Agric, Div. Agrost. 7:82.

Frumentacea

Link (Panicum frumentaceum, Roxbg.). Japanese Barnyard Millet. Closely allied to E. Crusgalli, but differing in the compact, somewhat incurved, appressed spikes, of nearly awnless spikelets: culms 1-4 ft., erect. - Cult, in S. E. Asia for the seed which is used for food. Occasionally cult, in U. S. for forage. Sometimes known as "billion-dollar grass."

A. S. Hitchcock.