This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(Greek pregnant and flower, referring to the colored involucre which subtends the flowers of E. quinqueflorus, giving the appearance of small flowers springing from a larger flower). Also written Enkyan-thus. Ericaceae. Ornamental woody plants, chiefly grown for their handsome flowers and the brilliant autumnal tints of the foliage.
Deciduous, rarely evergreen shrubs with whorled branches: leaves alternate, usually serrulate, crowded toward the end of the branchlets: flowers in terminal umbels or racemes; sepals 5, small; corolla campanulate or urceolate, usually 5-lobed; stamens 10; anthers 2-awned at the apex, opening with short slits: fruit a dehiscent caps.; cells 1- to few-seeded; seeds 3-5-winged or -angled. - About 10 species in China and Japan, Cochin-China and Himalayas. Closely related to Pier is and Zenobia; chiefly distinguished by the few- or 1-seeded cells of the caps, and the winged or angled seeds.
These are charming ornamental shrubs, with bright green, medium-sized leaves turning brilliant colors in autumn and with handsome white, red or yellow-and-red, drooping flowers appearing in spring; the flowers are not of the showy kind, but very graceful and of distinct appearance. Most of the cultivated species, as E. campanulatum, E. cernuus, E. perulatus and E. subsessilis, have proved hardy in Massachusetts; they seem to grow well in any well-drained humid soil, but probably are impatient of lime, as are most Ericaceae and in limestone regions should be grown in specially prepared beds of peaty soil. Propagation is by seeds sown in spring, by cuttings of ripe wood under glass in spring, or by greenwood cuttings in summer; also by layers.
a. Flowers urceolate, gibbous at the base, white.
Schneid. (E. japonicus, Hook, f. Androm-eda perulata, Miq.). Shrub, to 6 ft.: leaves petioled, obovate to elliptic-ovate, acute, sharply appressed-serrulate, glabrous and bright green above, pubescent on the veins below, 1-2 in. long: flowers in drooping umbels, slender-pedicelled; corolla urceolate, with 5 revolute lobes and with 5 sacs at the base, 1/3in- long: caps, oblong-ovoid, about 1/3in- long, on straight pedicels. May. Japan. B.M. 5822. G.C. III. 21:357. R.H. 1877, p. 467. S.I.F. 2:62. - The foliage turns yellow and partly scarlet in autumn.
aa. Flowers campanulate, not gibbous at the base, usually red or yellow-and-red. campanulatus, Nichols. (Andromeda campanulata, Miq.). Fig. 1396. Shrub, to 15 or occasionally to 30 ft.: leaves petioled, elliptic or rhombic-elliptic, acute or acuminate, sharply appressed serrulate, glabrous except few scattered bristly hairs, particularly on the veins below, 1 1/2-3 in. long: flowers slender-pedicelled, in drooping, 8-15-flowered puberulous racemes; corolla with short obtuse upright lobes, yellowish or pale orange, veined darker red, nearly 1/2in. long: caps, oblong-ovate on pendulous stalks turned upward at the apex. May. Japan. B.M. 7059. Gn. 75, p. 287. G. 29:361. Gt. 22:747. M.D.G. 1900:550. S.I.F. 2:62. - This is one of the handsomest species and the strongest grower; the peculiar coloring of the gracefully drooping flowers is very attractive; the foliage turns brilliant red in autumn.
Fig. 1396. Enkianthus campanulatus. (x 1/2)
Makino (E. Meisteria, Maxim. Andrdm-eda cernua, Miq.). Shrub, to 15 ft.: leaves short-petioled, obovate or rhombic-ob-ovate, acute or ob-tusish, crenately serrate,bright green above, lighter below and pubescent on the veins, 1-2 in. long: flowers in pendulous racemes, slender-pedicelled; corolla with irregularly 1 a c i n i a t e limb, about 1/3in. long, white in the type: caps, on pendulous stalks turned upward at the apex. May. Japan. variety rubens, Makino. Flowers red. - Only the red-flowered variety seems to be in cult, and is a very distinct-looking handsome shrub.
E. chinensis, Franch. (E. himalaicus variety chinensis, Diels). Allied to E. campanulatus. Leaves quite glabrous, more crenately serrate: racemes glabrous; corolla yellow and red, with darker red lobes. Cent, and W. China. J.H.F. 1900: 212. - E. deflexus, Schneid. (E. himalaicus, Hook. f. & Thorns.). Closely related to E. campanulatus. Leaves elliptic-ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, acute, slightly serrate, margin and petioles red while young: racemes many-flowered; corolla yellow, striped dark red, with darker lobes. Himalayas. W. China. B.M. 6460. - E. himalaicus. Hook. f. & Thoms.=E. deflexus and E. chinensis. - E. nikoensis, Makino =E. subsessilis. - E. quinqueflorus, Lour. (E. reticulatus, Lindl.). Leaves elliptic, long-petioled, entire, persistent: flowers about 5, in umbels, subtended by colored bracts, drooping; corolla campanulate, scarlet. S. China, Cochin-China. B.M. 1649. B.R. 884, 885. L.B.C. 12:1101. P.M. 5:127. R.H. 1849:221. H.F. 1859:101. Tender. variety serrulatus, Wilson (E. serrulatus, Schneid.). Leaves deciduous, membranous, finely serrulate: flowers smaller. Cent, and S. W. China. - E. reticulatus, Lindl.=E. quinqueflorus. - E. serrulatus, Schneid.= E. quinqueflorus variety serrulatus. - E. subsessilis, Makino (E. nikoensis, Makino). Allied to E. perulatus.
Leaves short-petioled, elliptic or obovate: flowers in pendulous racemes, small, white, Kin. long. June. Japan. S.T.S. 1:25. S.I.F. 2:62. - This is the least attractive in bloom, but the autumnal tints of the foliage are as beautiful as in the other species. Alfred Rehder.