(probably means blister - dra wing). Cruciferae. Of this genus two brilliant yellow and orange, spring- and summer-blooming hardy "annuals," are cultivated, scarcely, if at all, inferior to the true wallflowers (Cheiranthus) for general purposes, and a few rock-garden and wild-garden plants.

Biennial, annual and perennial herbs, with long soft appressed 2-parted hairs: leaves narrow, linear or oblong, entire or variously toothed: flowers orange or yellow, rarely purple, often fragrant; petals 4, usually large, clawed; stamens 6, free and without appendages: style persistent: pod broad-linear, strongly compressed or sometimes 4-angled; seeds many, various. - Species 80-90 in the north temperate zone, being most numerous in Eu. and Cent. Asia. Some of the species are said to hybridize with Cheiranthus. Numbers of species are likely to be mentioned as good subjects for alpine-gardening.

Although some of the popular kinds are biennials, the gardeners think of them as annuals. Their seeds can be sown in the fall and produce bloom earlier than if sown in spring. The rock-garden kinds do well also in the front row of the border and on dry banks. They like full exposure to sunlight, and in the spring months are completely covered with bright flowers. Divided plants, as well as seeds, are offered by American dealers.

In general, no special difficulty is experienced with erysimums. In Gn. 24, p. 462, it is said that E. och-roleucum on level ground is likely to lose its lower leaves and to perish on heavy soils in hard winters. It thrives best when frequently divided, and may be propagated by cuttings. E. Barbarea, Linn., with forms having double flowers and variegated leaves, is Barbarea vulgaris.


DC. Fig. 1418. Biennial or perennial, height 1-3 ft. in the wild, 12-18 in. in gardens, the stems erect: leaves lanceolate to linear, either canescent or thin and green, dentate or entire, upper ones mostly entire, the lowest sometimes p i n -natifid: flowers 1/2in. or more across, orange or yellow, seldom purple: pods rough, 1 1/2-5 in. long, 4-sided, nearly erect. Que. to Texas and Calif. variety arkansanum, Gray (E. arkansanum, Nutt.). Leaves thin, repand-dentate, lanceolate.

Erysimum asperum. (X 3/4)

Fig. 1418. Erysimum asperum. (X 3/4)


Greene (E. grandiflorum, Nutt. Chei-rdnthus capitatus, Douglas). Coast Wallflower. Biennial or perennial, probably usually perennial, erect and leafy and finely pubescent, 1 ft. or less to 2 ft. high, nearly simple or said often to make a much-branched woody plant, with leaves oblong, oblanceolate or linear and either entire or repand-dentate: flowers light yellow or cream-colored, the petals about 1 in. long with a rounded blade: caps, to 4 in. Seacoast, Calif, to Ore.

1419 Erysimum Perofskianum. (X 2/5)

Fig. 1419 Erysimum Perofskianum. (X 2/5)

Perofskianum, Fisch. & Mey. Fig. 1419. Excellent hardy annual, 1-2 ft., erect: leaves oblong, acute or nearly so, strongly toothed: flowers large, bright orange or reddish orange: pods standing out nearly at right angles, constricted below the narrower style. Caucasus, Afghanistan. B.M. 3757. P.M. 6:245. - There are compact and dwarf strains suitable for edgings (E. Perofskianum nanum. E. nanum compactum aureum, Gt. 46, p. 194. E. compactum aureum, Hort.). Seeds may be sown at different times for succession.


Boiss. (E. laciniatum, Boiss.). Perennial, green, often cespitose, the stem ascending 2-6 in. or more (even to 2 ft.): lower leaves oblong-spatulate, dentate or lyrate; upper leaves sessile, oblong or lanceolate, dentate; leaves on the suckers lanceolate and often entire: flowers medium, deep orange: caps, erect-spreading, slender. Greece, Asia Minor. - Used as rock-garden plant. There are dwarf forms in the wild.


DC. (E. rhaeticum, DC. E. helveticum, DC). Perennial, 4-12 in.: stems yellowish, creeping: leaves oblong-lanceolate, dentate, usually more or less hairy: flowers fragrant, pale yellow, the petals obovate. Eu. Gt. 2, p. 162. - Variable. Forms a turf on rocks and mountains.

E. Marschallianum, Andrz. Biennial, perennial, 6-8 in. high: leaves lance-linear: flowers large, bright orange-yellow: used as an alpine Siberia. - E. murale, Desf. Spring-flowering biennial or perennial, 6-8 in., forming a tuft: leaves deep green, narrow: flowers golden yellow. Eu. Wllhelm Mlller

L. H. B.†