(named for Senor Don Blas Escontria, of Mexico). Cactaceae. Large, much-branched cacti. Ribs few: areoles narrow, bearing pectinate clusters of spines: flowers small, yellow, diurnal: fruit and ovary covered with chartaceous, translucent, persistent scales, without hairs or spines; fruit fleshy, edible; seeds black. for cultivation, see Succulents.


Rose (Cereus chiotilla, Web.). Sixteen ft. or more high: ribs mostly 7: radial spines 10-15; central 1-2, the upper one 2 in. long, curved downward: fruit 1 in. diam. Mex. - Rare in cultivation J. n. Rose.


Espalier , a trellis or open support on which a tree or woody plant is trained in formal shape and to a given number of branches, usually in a vertical plane; and also the plant so trained. Apple trees and others are often trained as espaliers in Europe; the tree may be transplanted and subsequently attached against a wall or building, or it may be kept permanently on the trellis or open support. Sometimes espalier-training is employed only when the tree or bush is young, for the purpose of bringing it into shape and to prepare it for a wall or other support. Trees are trained on espaliers also to give them full exposure to the sun on all sides, to regulate the fruit-bearing and to provide easy means of controlling insects and diseases. Espalier-training is most frequent in cool and cloudy regions, in those in which space must be utilized to the utmost, and where hand-skill is obtainable or is relatively cheap.

There are many forms of training. The plant may be trained to a single shoot, or to two shoots lying in opposite directions, mostly horizontal, in which case it is called a cordon; or the top may be spread fan-shaped on the trellis, or in other forms, and it may then be called an espalier. The training is begun when the plant is very young - perhaps only a year or two from the graft or bud - and before it has produced a stiff trunk and unmanageable head. Usually the branching is started within a foot or so of the ground by heading back the main stem; and as many shoots as may be desired on the trellis are allowed to grow. These shoots are tied to the trellis or posts as they grow, and the side shoots are pinched out except such as are desired for further arms in the framework or for fruit-spurs. The trellises themselves may be of wire strung on posts, or the tree may be tied from post to post or stake to stake set close together. Espaliers are little used in this country, and then only in small gardens, and mostly when a trained gardener is employed.

L. H. B.