This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
Red Gum, Fig. 1430. Tree, to 200 ft.: bark of mature trunks dark gray, either smooth and deciduous or somewhat persistent near the base and then checking into thick scales or even furrowed; bark of seedlings and twigs reddish: leaves narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, 4-6 in. or more long: calyx-tube hemispheric; lid usually hemispheric and provided with a narrowed point or beak, sometimes merely conical and not beaked, rarely over 3 lines long; stamens 2-4 lines long; anthers oblong, opening by parallel slits: fruit nearly globular, rarely above 3 lines thick; rim broad, prominent; valves entirely protruding, even before they open. April-July. F.v.M. Eucal. 4:7. - One of the most valuable species; next to the sugar gum and forest gray-gum perhaps the most drought-resistant; withstands frosts better than blue-gum; endures the intense heat of Imperial Valley, on the Colorado Desert; grows where the ground is inundated for a considerable time; makes a good growth in alkali soils, yet best results are secured only on good soil, especially if moist and with a clayey subsoil.
A slow-growing species in regard to height, but one of the first in regard to diam. - growth (Ingham). Timber very durable, both above and below ground: heavy, takes a good polish: light red to deep red in color: not so strong as sugar and blue-gums and trees more irregular in growth: suitable for railroad-ties, piles, fence-posts, and the like: difficult to work when dry, therefore scarcely suitable for furniture. Blossoms supply honey to bees.
Fig. 1430. Eucalyptus rostrata (x 1/2). No. 64.
Forest Gray Gum. Flooded Gum. Bark and the general characters as in E. rostrata: leaves rather broadly lanceolate: calyx-tube turbinate; lid slenderly conical, acuminate, rarely abruptly beaked, 3-6 lines long, always much longer than the tube; stamens 3-6 lines long: fruit obovoid or nearly globular, 3-4 lines thick; rim very broad and prominent; valves protruding. April-July. F.v.M. Eucal. 9:8. - Closely related to E. rostrata; usually coarser, the leaves broader, peduncles and pedicels stouter, and fruit larger; yet variable in all these characters. According to Ingham, this species has an erect habit of growth, while E. rostrata grows very crookedly. Withstands fully as wide a range in temperature, moisture, and soil conditions as does E. rostrata: timber similar but usually paler in color; more valuable because of its more regular growth. E. amplifolia, Naudin, known in Calif. as the "Cooper" or "round-leaf tereti-cornis," is a form with large roundish leaves when young.
Tall tree: bark dark gray, furrowed and fibrous: leaves lanceolate, acuminate, 3-5 in. long; lower ones broader, thick, and coriaceous; veins very oblique, prominent: calyx-tube turbinate, the edge forming a prominent ring with the conical lid; anthers reniform, opening by divergent slits: fruit depressed-globose, 4-6 lines thick; rim broad, convex. F.v.M. Eucal. 1:5. Maiden, Crit. Rev. Eucal. 39 (figs. 3-21).
Cider Gum. Small, often scrubby tree: leaves thick, shining, less than 3 in. long: lid shining, hemispherical, short-pointed; stamens 2-3 lines long; anthers nearly oval, opening by parallel slits: fruit pear-shaped, truncate, 3-4 lines across; rim thin; valves sometimes slightly protruding. April-July. B.M. 7808. G.C. II. 19:437; III. 2:781; 11:787. - A very hardy species: cattle readily browse on the foliage, as it lacks the peculiarly pungent eucalyptus odor. Flowers only 3 in the typical form, but this apparently not cultivated in Amer.
Variety acervula, Deane & Maiden. Buds and foliage often of a yellowish cast: flowers usually 4-8 in the umbel: fruit 1/4 - 1/2 in. across. F.v.M. Eucal. 4:5 (main fig.). - The form commonly grown in Calif. Sapwood yellowish.
Variety undulata, Auct. (E. undulata, Luehm., not of F. v. M.). Swamp Gum. Tall tree: leaves longer (over 3 in.), often 2 in. broad, somewhat undulate or plane: fruit top-shaped. - Yields much nectar: flowers earlier than E. viminalis. Timber strong and useful.
Variety montana, Auct. A mountain form of E. Gunnii, the only species which withstands the climate of the east of England.
Honey-scented Gum. Yellow Box. Spreading tree with somewhat drooping habit, to 150 ft. high: bark somewhat persistent below, roughish, brownish gray without, yellowish within, flaking off above, leaving the branches smooth: leaves narrow, acuminate, 3-5 in. long: flowers small, the calyx about 2 lines across; lid conic-hemispherical; stamens 2-3 lines long; outer ones sterile; anthers minute, truncate, opening by terminal pores or short slits: fruit distinctly stalked, truncate-globular, under 3 lines thick. Feb. - Aug. F.v.M. Eucal. 2:5. Maiden, Crit. Rev. Eucal. 61 (figs. 1-14). - Will grow on poor hillside soil but best growth is made in the valleys. Timber used in Austral, by wheelwrights and shipbuilders: makes excellent fuel: flowers particularly rich in nectar and much sought by bees.
Differs from E. melliodora chiefly in the more erect habit and fruit which is often nearly sessile, obconic, not or scarcely contracted at orifice. F.v.M. Eucal. 2:7. Maiden, Crit. Rev. Eucal. 51 (figs. 9-19). - Grown at Fresno, Calif.: may be of value for its oil.
Spear-Wood. Beautiful shrub or small tree: bark smooth, greenish white: leaves all opposite or nearly so, narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, mostly under 3 in. long: flowers 4-7 on each recurved nearly terete peduncle; lid terminating in a rather long beak; stamens 2-3 lines long; anthers ovate-oblong, opening by parallel slits: fruit ovoid, about 3 lines long, scarcely as wide. F.v.M. Eucal. 4:4. Maiden, Crit. Rev. Eucal. 70 (figs. 3-5). - Of ornamental value because of its slender, graceful habit.