This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
(very graceful, from the Greek). Ama-ryllidacese. Amazon Lily. Hothouse bulbous plants of great beauty and delightful fragrance, blooming in late winter and spring and at other times if the requisite treatment is given.
Bulb tuni-cated, 1-2 in. diam.: leaves broad-ovate, narrowed into distinct petioles, prominently parallel - ribbed, radical: flowers white, in umbels, very showy, standing on long stout scapes; perianth -tube straight or curved, the throat dilated; segments broad and spreading; perianth-cup either entire or toothed between the filaments: ovules 2 to many in each of the 3 locules. - Six or 8 handsome species from Colombia. The species are confused. E. grandiflora (known to gardeners as E. amazonica), E. Candida and E. subedentata are the well-marked types. The flowers in Fig. 1432, adapted from authentic plates, will distinguish the types. Hybridizes with Urceolina (see Urceocharis). The Amazon lilies, as eucharis are popularly called, are among the most desirable of warmhouse bulbous plants, being not only very beautiful but also very free in the production of flowers. When grown in pots, they require a coarse fibrous soil, composed chiefly of rotted sod, and enriched with about one-fourth of dry cow-manure and a sprinkling of bone-dust. The pots should be well drained, for much water is needed during the growing season, but frequent potting should be avoided as the roots are impatient of disturbance.
Shading from full sunshine is required, except during the winter months, and a night temperature of 65° to 70° is best for these plants. By drying off the eucharis to some extent for a few weeks, a crop of flowers may be had at almost any season, providing the bulbs are strong and healthy, but they should never be dried to such a degree that all the foliage is lost, else the bulbs will be much weakened. Good results are also had from planting out the eucharis on a bench in a warmhouse, the soil and treatment being much the same as for pot-grown specimens. The only insects liable to give much trouble in connection with these plants are mealy-bugs and thrips, and these may be controlled by thorough syringing. (W. H. Taplin.)
Fig. 1432. Eucharis. Leaf of E. grandiflora, and flowers of a, E. subedentata; b, E. Sanderi; c, E. grandiflora; d, E. Candida.
Planch. (E. amazonica, Lind.). Amazon Lily. Star of Bethelhem (a name also applied to Ornithogalum). Fig. 1432. Bulb globular, 2 in. diam.: leaves 2-4 to each stem, the petiole about 12 in. long; If. - blade 1 ft. or more long and 5-6 in. broad, oblong: scape l-2 1/2 ft., bearing an umbel of 3-6 large (4 in. across), very fragrant star-like flowers on pedicels nearly or quite 1 in. long; segments spreading, oblong and obtuse; tube of perianth cylindrical and curved, 2 in. long; cup forming a distinct projecting tube. B.M. 4971. F.S. 9:957; 12:1216-17. Gn. 48, p. 217; 59, p. 25; 61, p. 125; 63, pp. 71, 131; 66, p. 412; 76, p. 67; 77, p. 418. G.C. III. 7:193; 16:665; 28:115; 35:117; 41:71; 51: 141. R.H. 1912, p. 115. G. 3:407; 9:301 (E. amazonica variety grandiflora); 10:5. G.L. 21:476. G.M. 46:83. G.W. 2, p. 87. G.Z. 2:1. A.F. 5:363; 8:445. F.E. 8:1000. F.R. 1:11; 2:364. variety Moorei, Baker, has smaller, rounder and thicker leaves, and smaller flowers with the cup lined with yellow. - Of all warm greenhouse bulbous flowering plants, E. grandiflora (E. amazonica of the gardener) stands without a rival in the purity and beauty of its bloom. - Prop, by offsets, but one must always bear in mind that these plants do not like to be disturbed much at the roots, and it will be some time before they recover from the operation of being divided.
The spring is the best time to separate the bulbs. Turn the plant out of its pot, and take a hose with a gentle pressure on it and wash all the loam carefully away from the roots, care being taken to break as few as possible. - It thrives well in a good turfy loam. Add about a third of dried cow-manure, with as much sand and charcoal to keep the whole porous. The pots should be well drained with crocks, as these plants will never do well if the soil gets into a "sour" condition. Three bulbs to a 6-inch pot are enough, but if large specimens are desired for exhibitions, increase the number and the size of pot, having in view what is desired. Do not give much water after plants are divided, until growth has begun. When they are growing vigorously, a copious supply of water is required. A temperature of 65° by night should be maintained, and during the day it may run to 80° or 85O. The air should never be allowed to become "stagnant." This applies, of course, to all kinds of plants grown in glass structures. It must be remembered that in their native place the plants grow outdoors, and in heating greenhouses allowance should be made for the free admission of fresh air at all times.
Eucharis like a light shade over them during the brightest part of the day, but from about the end of Sept. until March they will stand all the sun possible. E. grandiflora can be flowered 2 or 3 times during the year. - When the leaves are fully matured, cease watering until signs of flagging of the foliage is noticed, then water again to freshen them up. Keep this treatment up for a month, that is alternately drying and watering. The temperature may be lowered 5° during this resting-period. Start the plants by giving them a thorough soaking of water, and raise the temperature again to not less than 65° by night. The flower-stems will soon appear, and they may be watered with manure water, as advised for Dipladenia, until they begin to open, when it should be withheld until they have finished flowering. When the flower-stems have all been removed, a new set of leaves will be meanwhile pushing up, and they may be again fed as advised above, until they are fully developed; and again treat them in every way as before. All the insect pests are liable to thrive on Eucharis, and the plants may be fumigated as advised for other greenhouse plants.
Red-spider may be kept down by the syringe. (George F. Stewart.)
Mastersii, Baker. Bulb globose, often smaller: leaf - blade 8-9 in. long and 4-5 in. broad, oblong, rounded at the base, exceeding the petiole: scape 1 ft. high, bearing 2 nearly sessile flowers ( 2 1/2 - 3 in. across) in the umbel, the perianth-segments ovate and spreading and shorter than in E. grandiflora; tube slightly curved, 2 in. long; cup forming a shallow frilled or notched collar. B.M. 6831. G.C.II. 24:721. G.Z. 31, p. 217. - Possibly a hybrid of E. grandiflora and E. Sanderi.
Planch. Fig. 1432 d. Bulb globose, bearing stolons 2 in. diam.: leaf - blade 9-15 in. long, 4-5 in. broad at the middle, oblong, gradually narrowed both ways, about as long as petiole: scape somewhat flattened, glaucous, 1-1 1/2 ft. high, bearing 6-10 short-pedicelled flowers in an umbel; segments oblong, acute, more or less reflexed; tube 1 1/2-2 in. long, curved; winged yellow filaments projecting, united at the base only. F.S.8:788. G. 6:5; 15:289. J.H. III. 61:443. G.Z. 21, p. 194. - Smaller-fid. than E. grandiflora.
Sanderi, Baker. Fig. 1432 b. Bulb ovoid, 1-2 in. diam.: leaf - blade 10-12 in. long and 5-6 in. broad, oblong, cordate at base, twice longer than petiole: scape terete, 1 ft., bearing 2-3 nearly sessile flowers; segments ovate, 1 in. or more long; tube curved, 2 in. long; yellowish cup, very narrow, like a collar or rim, and bearing the short, curved filaments on its edge. B.M. 6676. G.C. II. 19:349. G. 6:277. J.H. III. 52:9. G.Z. 28, p. 145. - By some thought to be a hybrid of E. grandiflora and E. Candida. variety multiflora, Baker. Flowers smaller, 4-6, striped green. B.M. 6831.
Benth. (Calliphruria subedentata, Baker). Fig. 1432 a. Bulb ovoid, 1 1/2 in. diam.: leaf - blade 6-8 in. long, 3-4 in. broad, oblong, triangular at base, about as long as the channeled petiole: scape slender, 1 ft.; flowers 6-8 on pedicels 1 in. or less long; tube 1 in. long, funnel-shaped above; segments oblong, ascending, 1 in. long; cup wanting or represented only by obscure teeth on the filaments. B.M. 6289. I.H. 28:415. - A small-flowered species.
E. Bakeridna, N. E. Br. Has the perianth of E. grandiflora and stamens of E. Candida: flowers 4-6 in the umbel, 2 1/2 in. across, pure white; tube not enlarging emphatically at the top; cup pro-jecting from the bases of the segments, not toothed: leaves 4 or5, elliptic, 10-18 in. long, very dark green and closely striate: scape 12-18 in. B.M. 7144. G.C. III. 7:417; 12:209. - E. burfordensis, Hort. Supposed hybrid between E. Mastersii and E. Stevensii: flowers bell-shaped, over 3 in. across, about 2 in. long. - E. Elmetana, Sander. Hybrid of E. Sanderi and E. grandiflora. Easier to grow than E. Sanderi. G.C. III. 26:345. - E. Lihmannii, Regel. Flowers about 4 in an umbel, 1 1/2 in. across, the spreading corona with 12 long, narrow teeth, the perianth-segments spreading or reflexed: leaves 2, elliptic-oblong. Gt. 38:1300. - E. Lowii, Baker. Robust: flowers 4 in. across, the spreading outer segments 1 in. wide and the 3 inner ones incurved: leaves larger than those of E. Candida, long-stalked. Perhaps a natural hybrid of E. grandiflora and E. Sanderi. G.C. III. 13:539. J.H. III. 28:111; 43:276. Gn.W. 10:7. - E. Stevensii, N. E. Br. Free-flowering: flowers 3-3 1/2 in. across, about 7 in the umbel, pure white with yellow on the outside of the cup or corona: leaves 12-14 in. long: very like E. Sanderi, and a garden hybrid of that speoies and E. Candida. J.H. III. 30:253. Gn. 46:128. G.C. III.
17;365. L. H. B