This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
Every state of the Union, every island dependency of the United States, and every province of the Dominion of Canada has one experiment station for agriculture supported by public funds. A very few of the states have two stations, one being the regular federal agency in the state and the other being usually an institution established and maintained directly by the state and representing the movement that began before the passage of the federal experiment station act.
By the middle of the last century, the discussion for institutions or agencies to make experiments in agriculture was well under way. It was not till 1875, however, that any legislative body made an appropriation for the establishing of such an institution. This was in Connecticut. Other stations followed in several states, some of them under direct legislative enactment and others being organizations within colleges or college departments of agriculture. These movements were marked in North Carolina, New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Massachusetts, and other states. The movement in the United States for a national system of experiment stations took form in a bill for the purpose introduced into Congress in 1882 by Hon. C. C. Carpenter of Iowa. The bill finally to become a law was introduced in the House of Representatives by Hon. William H. Hatch of Missouri; this became law March 2, 1887, by the signature of President
It appropriates $15,000 to each state for the purpose of establishing an agricultural experiment station, to be located at the land-grant college unless the state shall determine otherwise.
A second act, supplementing the Hatch Act, was approved March 16, 1906, by President Roosevelt, it having been introduced and carried to passage by Hon. Henry C. Adams, of Wisconsin. This appropriates $15,000 to each state "for the more complete endowment and maintenance" of the stations, with the understanding and requirement that it shall support fundamental researches. About $1,500,000 is therefore expended annually by the federal government for the maintenance of experiment stations in the forty-eight states, aside from similar grants for stations in Porto Rico and Hawaii, expenditures in the Philippines through the War Department, and in Alaska and Guam directly through the United States Department of Agriculture; and there is also a large and important expenditure in the Department of Agriculture itself, both for supervision and for investigation. The states also contribute heavily to the experiment station work. The total revenue in the United States for the year ended June 30, 1912 was $4,068,240.09.
By law, reports are to be issued at least quarterly by the different experiment stations. These institutions are now issuing numerous bulletins, circulars and reports on an astonishing range of subjects and of the greatest importance to the people. The publications of the United States Department of Agriculture are very extensive and of the highest technical and general value.
In Canada, the experiment station movement was practically parallel with that in the United States. The Act for a dominion system was passed in 1886. One central station, or "central experimental farm," was established at Ottawa, and the stations in the provinces are branches of it and under the administration of its director. The grant of Parliament for the year 1913-1914 for the maintenance of the system of experimental farms was $900,000.
In both the United States and Canada, horticulture is one of the important subjects of experiment and research. Usually this work is in charge of a separate officer, commonly known as a "horticulturist;" and the number of associates and helpers may be several or many. The extent of horticultural research is now large and it is rapidly increasing. Persons desiring to be in touch with this work should apply to the experiment station in the state or province or to the national department; and a list of these institutions is given below. For further history and discussion of Experiment Stations in the two countries, see pp. 422-430, Vol. IV, Cyclo. Amer. Agric.
In the United States the address of the experiment station and of the college of agriculture is usually the same post-office. In New York, there is a state station at Geneva as well as the federal station and college at Ithaca; in Ohio, the experiment station is at Wooster, and the college is part of the State University at Columbus; in Georgia, the station is at Experiment and the college at Athens, in the University; in Connecticut, the federal station is at New Haven, and the college at Storrs; in other states the post-offices of the two are the same.
The Dominion or headquarters institution is the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, Ontario.
Experimental Station, Lacombe. Experimental Station, Lethbridge.
Experimental Farm, Agassiz.
Experiment Stations, at Invermere, and at Sidney on Vancouver Island.
Experimental Farm, Brandon.
Experimental Station, Fredericton.
Experimental Farms, Nappan, Kentville. Ontario.
Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa.
Prince Edward Island.
Experimental Station, Charlottetown.
Experimental Stations, Cap Rouge, Ste. Anne de la Pocatiere, Lennoxville.
Experimental Farm, Indian Head. Experimental Stations, Rosthern and Scott.
United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
Agricultural Experiment Station of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn.
Canebrake Agricultural Experiment Station, Union-town.
Tuskegee Agricultural Experiment Station, Tuske-gee Institute.
Alaska Agricultural Experiment Stations, Sitka, Kodiak, Rampart, and Fairbanks.
Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Arizona, Tucson.