A fungicide is any material or substance that kills fungi or their spores. The word is used particularly for those substances employed in the warfare against parasitic fungi.

A satisfactory fungicide must be one that does not injure the plants and at the same time is effective against the parasite. For spraying, additional requirements are imposed: it should not dissolve readily in rain-water; it should adhere to foliage and fruit; in some cases it should be colorless in order not to make ornamentals more unsightly than when diseased. The fungicide which has been used most for general purposes is bordeaux mixture. Lately some other preparations, particularly lime-sulfur combinations, have come into use, and in many cases are supplanting bordeaux. There are in addition a large number of other substances which have fungicidal value and are in more limited use for specific cases. The following directions are taken, with modifications, from the author's part in Bailey's "Farm and Garden Rule-Book."

A blight of grapes due to some constitutional disorder. Notice that the leaves die first at the edges. (X 1/3)

Fig. 1290. A blight of grapes due to some constitutional disorder. Notice that the leaves die first at the edges. (X 1/3)


Destroying Affected Parts

It is important that all affected parts should be removed and burned, if possible. In the fall all leaves and fruit that have been attacked by fungi should be raked up and burned. Diseased branches should be severed at some distance below the lowest visible point of attack. Fungous diseases often spread rapidly, and prompt action is usually necessary. Practise clean and tidy culture. Rotation of crops. - This is one of the most effective and practical means of heading off fungous diseases. It is especially applicable to diseases of roots or root-crops, but also to many other diseases of annual plants.

Sterilizing By Steam

This is an effective fungicidal practice for several soil - inhabiting organisms which attack roots and stems. This includes nematode worms. It is especially applicable in the greenhouse, where it may be applied (a) through sub-irrigation tile or through specially laid perforated steam pipes in the bottom of the bed. Cover the beds with blankets, introduce steam under pressure of forty to eighty pounds for two hours. Insert thermometers at various places to see that the soil is being uniformly heated. (6) A large galvanized iron tight box may be constructed with finely perforated trays 4 to 6 inches in depth. Soil placed in these trays and steamed for two hours as above will be freed from parasitic organisms. In this case the frames should be sprayed with a solution of formaldehyde, one pint in twelve gallons of water. Steam sterilization of soil may be used on intensively cultivated areas or extensive seed-beds. A portable boiler is necessary. The beds are sterilized after they have been prepared for seed, and just before the seed is sown. A galvanized pan of convenient dimensions and 6 to 8 inches deep is inverted, and the edges are pushed down into the soil 1 or 2 inches.

The pan is connected with the steam boiler by means of a steam hose and live steam is run into the pan from twenty to forty minutes under a pressure of eighty pounds and up. The higher the pressure the deeper the soil will be sterilized. The pan must be weighted. Paths should be disinfected by spraying with copper sulfate one pound to fifty gallons of water or with formaldehyde solution one pint to twelve gallons of water. The cost of sterilizing is approximately three-fourths of a cent the square foot. It should be noted that soil-sterilization has an invigorating effect on many plants, and it will be necessary to run greenhouses at a lower temperature (5° to 10°) both night and day. Field-sterilization also kills weed seeds, and with the reduction of the cost of weeding makes the process practicable.