This section is from the book "The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2", by L. H. Bailey. See also: Western Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts.
The dahlia may not be denied such possibilities, for in G.C. III. 20:339 (1896) a new dahlia was described in which the quills are really tubes for two-thirds of their length.
Fig. 1210. A Show dahlia.
The Collarette dahlia is a very novel and distinct type. The flowers are single, with an additional row of short petals around the disk, which forms a frill or collar usually of a different color from the remainder of the flower. The same method obtained in the development of the Collarette dahlia as in the development of the Single dahlia. Varieties having only eight rays or petals, with the additional collar, and presenting a symmetrical and concentrated impression, were preserved. The collar consists principally of three or four smaller and more gracefully curved rays, produced at the disk, at the center of each of the eight larger rays or petals, and taking the same direction as the large rays, thus showing distinctly the golden yellow center, so pronounced in the Single dahlia. The first Collarette dahlia was President Viger, and was originated at Pare de la Tete d'Or, or in the gardens of the City of Lyons, France, then under the supervision of Professor Gerard, who was succeeded by M. Cha-bannes. President Viger was first shown in 1900 at the Universal Exposition, and offered for sale in 1901 by Rivorie Pere & Fils of Lyon. In 1902 appeared the variety Joseph Goujon also obtained at the Pare de la Tete d'Or, Lyon; then in 1903 Rivorie offered Etendard de Lyon and Gallia, which figured with honor for that firm.
During the next ten years, from 1903 until 1913, all the known varieties of the Collarette dahlia were developed by Rivorie. Pere & Fils, and appeared in the following order: 1903, Etendard de Lyon, and Gallia; 1904, Mme. LePage Viger, La Fusee, Duchesse J. Melsi D'Ehril-Barbo, Prince Galit-zine, Comte Cheremeteff, and Maurice Rivoire; 1905, Exposition de Lyon Orphee, and Prince de Venosa;
Fig. 1211. A Fancy dahlia of the Pompon type. (X 1/2)
1906, Merveille de Lyon, Mme. Georges Bernard, Comte Nodler, Deuil de Brazza, Princesse Olga Altieri, Corbeille de Feu, and Signorina Rosa Esen-grini; 1907, Comtesse Dugon, Ami Cachat, and Vol-can; 1908, Jupiter, Pluton, Pan, Etoile de Moidiere, and Mme. Chamrion; 1909, M. Mery de Montigny;
Fig. 1212. A Cactus dahlia. (X 1/3)
1910, Abbe Hugonnard, Comte de Vezet, Mme. Pile, Souvenir de Bel-Accueil, and Vicomtesse des Mons;
1911, General de Sonis, and Deuil du Docteur Ogier;
1912, Cocarde Espagnole, Etincelant, and Stella;
1913, Geant de Lyon, Maroc, and Etoile de Mon-plaisir. In 1912, J. K. Alexander, a dahlia specialist in East Bridgewater, Massachusetts, succeeded in developing the first Collarette dahlia of American origin, the variety Champion; this added the red and yellow coloring to the type. Previous to 1912, three other foreign varieties, Directeur Rene Gerard, Mme. E. Poirier, and Souv. de Chabanne, found their way to America, and were offered the following year in the leading seedsmen's catalogues. The year 1913 gave a collection of nearly fifty distinct named varieties of the Collarette dahlia, including every known color in the dahlia world.
The Holland Peony-flowered dahlia is now the most popular dahlia, possessing an entirely original form, resembling the semi-double peonies; the flowers are broad, flat, somewhat irregular in form, and are produced with remarkable freedom on long stems. This type of dahlia has proved the most satisfactory for garden purposes, the plants being covered with flowers the entire season. The origin of the Holland Peony-flowered dahlia, like all other types, is uncertain, and all efforts to secure full and definite information are unfruitful. Originally the Holland Peony-flowered dahlia was grown for some years in Germany, in a mixture known as "Half-double Giant Dahlias." A Dutch grower, H. Hornsveld of Baarn, Holland, was the first to note their possibilities, and selected from these "mixed dahlias" the best varieties, from which he propagated; then he drew the attention of the public to his new varieties, which he named and offered for sale. Other growers in Holland followed his example with great success.
The Holland Peony-flowered dahlia was imported to America in 1908, and simultaneously appeared in the catalogues of the leading growers and seed-men. The number increased rapidly, and in 1910 appeared new varieties of American origin, notably the new varieties originated by the W. W. Rawson Co., of Boston, Massachusetts. The most prominent varieties are the following: Andrew Carnegie (1908), Bertha Von Suttner (1908), Caesar (1911),Cecilia (1911), Dr. K. W. van Gorkum (1906), Dr. Peary (1911), Duke Henry (1906), Geisha (1908), Ger-mania (1906), Glory of Baarn (1906), Glory of Groenekan (1907), H. Hornsveld (1907), Hugo de Vries (1907), H. J. Lovink (1911), Kaiserin Augusta Victoria (1907), King Edward (1909), King Leopold (1906), La Rainte (1907), Mannheim (1908), Mer-veille (1907), Miss Gladys Dawson (1908), Paul Kruger (1906), P. W. Jansen (1907), Queen Alexandra (1909), Queen Emma (1906), Queen Wilhelmina (1906), Snow Queen (1907), and Sherlock Holmes (1912).
The fragrant dahlia is the pride of the true Peony-flowered type, possessing a pleasing and agreeable odor, so long desired. The fragrant dahlia was first detected by J. Herbert Alexander, in the year 1912, on the trial-grounds of J. K. Alexander of East Bridge-water, Massachusetts; hybridization and propagation was begun immediately with the new variety, and in 1913 a collection of five fragrant dahlias appeared in Alexander's catalogue.