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The Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2 | by L. H. Bailey



A discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States and Canada for ornament, for fancy, for fruit and for vegetables; with keys to the natural families and genera, descriptions of the horticultural capabilities of the states and provinces and dependent islands, and sketches of eminent horticulturists.

TitleThe Standard Cyclopedia Of Horticulture Vol2
AuthorL. H. Bailey
PublisherThe Macmillan Co.
Year1916
Copyright1916, The Macmillan Co.
AmazonWestern Garden Book: More than 8,000 Plants - The Right Plants for Your Climate - Tips from Western Garden Experts

Illustrated with Colored Plates, Four Thousand Engravings in the Text, and Ninety-six Full-page Cuts

-Cabbage
The more or less compact leaf-formed head of Brassica oleracea; also applied, with designations, to related forms of the same species, as Welsh cabbage, tree cabbage. Closely related plants are the ka...
-Cabbage. Part 2
The cabbage is one of the grossest and least fastidious feeders of cultivated plants, and while an abundance of easily accessible food is essential for its profitable culture, it is less particular th...
-Cabbage. Part 3
Portugal Sea-Kale, Tronchuda Or Chinese Cabbage These are distinct classes and species of cabbage, intermediate in character between the more common sorts and the more distant kales. They have never ...
-Cabbage. Part 4
The best method of setting, whether by hand, hand-planters, or machine, will be determined by local conditions. The plants should take hold in two to four days and start into vigorous growth in ten ...
-Cabbage Diseases
Clubroot (Plasmodiophora Brassicae) A soil parasite affecting cabbage and other cruciferous plants. It thrives best in acid soils and in some cases can be checked by a liberal use of lime, but its pr...
-Cabbage Seed-Breeding And Seed-Growing
It is only through careful study of the practical value and correlation of varietal differences, the exercise of great care in selection and growing of the plants, and in the saving of the seed, that ...
-Cabomba
(aboriginal name). Nymphaeaceae. Fan-wort. Submersed aquatics of the western hemisphere, used in ponds and aquaria. Flowers small; sepals and petals 3, persistent; stamens 3-6; carpels 3-18, separate...
-Cactus, Cacti
The plants correctly designated by this name constitute the family Cactaceae. Scarcely any group in the whole vegetable kingdom is more remarkable for its strange and varied forms, the beauty of its f...
-Cactus, Cacti. Continued
The spines (Fig. 716) are not connected with the axis of the stem or branches, but emerge from the areoles. In some forms they are simple and straight, bristle-like, awl-shaped, or short and conical. ...
-Cactus
(shortened from Melocactus by Linnaeus). Caclaceae. A single small species, sometimes grown in under-glass collections and in open succulent gardens South. Stems globose or ovoid, with vertical ribs,...
-Caesalplnia
(Andreas Caesalpinus, 1519-1603, Italian Botanist) Leguminosae. Brasiletto. Including Guilandina, and Poinciana in part. Ornamental tropical or subtropical trees or shrubs chiefly grown for their sho...
-Cajanus
(Aboriginal Name) Leguminosae. A tropical shrub, grown for the nutritious peas. One variable species, probably originally from Africa. Indicus Spreng. (Cytisus Cajan, Linn.). Grandul. Congo Pea. Pi...
-Caladium
(Origin Of Name Obscure) Araceae. Warmhouse large-leaved plants, grown for the foliage; also employed in summer bedding. Herbaceous perennials, arising from large rhizomes or tubers, acaulescent, wi...
-Caladium. Part 2
(1) leaf - blade and veins of one color. 9. variety Vellozianum, Engl. (C. Vellozianum, Schott. C. Purdieanum, Schott. C. pusillum, C. Koch. C. Sprucednum, Schott. C. firmulum, Schott.). leaf - blade...
-Caladium. Part 3
32. variety Brongniartii, Engl. (C. Brongniartii, Lem.). Very large; petiole variegated violet and green, reddish toward the apex; blade green, except along the nerves below, where it is colored reddi...
-Calamus
(Greek For Reed) Palmaceae, tribe Lepido-cdrpae. A group of interesting, usually climbing pinnate palms of the Old World tropics, not much known to the trade although over thirty species are in the E...
-Calandrinia
(J. L. Calandrini, Genevan botanist, who wrote an important thesis in 1734). Portulacaceae. Fleshy, spreading or nearly trailing plants, sometimes cult, in borders and rockeries, or used for edgings i...
-Calanthe
(Greek For Beautiful Flower) Orchida-ceae. Sub-epiphytal or terrestrial hothouse orchids found in the eastern hemisphere, and sparingly in the western hemisphere. Scapes erect, many-flowered: leaves...
-Calathea
(Greek For Basket, The Application Not Apparent) Marantaceae. Perennial foliage plants of warmhouses, with maranta-like leaves arising in a tuft from the crown. Sepals 3, free and equal; corolla tub...
-Calathea. Part 2
3. Angustifolia, Koern. (Maranta Discolor, Hort.) Habit loose, erect, only slightly spreading at apex: growths bearing 1-4 leaves from 1-5 ft. high; blade lanceolate, unequilateral, 3/4 -2 ft. long, ...
-Calathea. Part 3
13. Wallisii, Regel (Maranta Wallisii, Lind.) Habit strong, but neat and graceful, branching and forming numerous growths: growths bearing from 2-7 leaves, and 1-4 ft. high; blade broadly ovate, acut...
-Calathea. Part 4
21. Louisae, Chantrier (Maranta Louisae' Hort.) Habit tufted, 2-3 ft. high: growths with 2-5 leaves; blade elliptic, only slightly oblique, glabrous, acute margins plain or slightly undulate, 6-12 in...
-Calathea. Part 5
28. Lindeniana, Wallis (C. Lindenii, Wallis & Andre) Leaves elliptic-oblong, short-acuminate (12 in. or less long), deep green above with an olive-green zone either 6ide of the midrib, and beyond whi...
-Calathea. Part 6
37. Sanderiana, Hort. (Maranta Sanderiana) A species closely allied to C. invperialis but differing in the broader and shorter leaf - blades, darker color of the under sides of the lvs , transverse s...
-Calceolaria
(Latin calceolus, a slipper, alluding to the saccate flower; these plants are sometimes called lady-slippers, but the name is best used for Cypri-pedium). Scrophulariaceae. Showy-flowered herbs and sh...
-Calceolaria. Continued
In the hot months of summer, a cool evening should be selected and one-quarter of an ounce of cyanide of potassium, one ounce of sulfuric acid and two ounces of water to every 1,000 cubic feet contain...
-Calendula
(Latin, calendae or calends: throughout the months). Composite. Flower-garden plants. Small herbs , the common cultivation species annual, others perennial, with alternate simple leaves, mostly large...
-Calimeris
(Greek, beautiful arrangement). Com-pdsitse. Good daisy-like border plants. Calimeris comprises about 10 Asian herbs, now mostly united with Aster, but horticulturally distinct, and differing from th...
-Calla
(ancient name, of obscure meaning). Araceae. A monotypic genus, containing a native bog-plant with a white spathe. Herb, with creeping rhizomes and 2-ranked leaves Differs from Orontium in the parall...
-Calliandra
(Greek, beautiful stamens). Legu-minbsse. Evergreen shrubs and trees of greenhouse culture, planted in the open far south. Leaves bipinnate; Ifts. numerous: flowers usually in globose heads or cluste...
-Callicarpa
(Greek, beauty and fruit). Verbena-ceae. Ornamental woody plants cultivated chiefly for their brightly colored berry-like fruit appearing late in autumn; also for the attractive flowers which appear i...
-Calliphruria
(Greek, beautiful prison; referring to the spathe inclosing the flowers). Written also Cali-phuria. Amaryllidaceae. Tender bulbs. Distinguished from Eucharis by the stamens, the filaments being petal...
-Callirhoe
(Greek mythological name). Written also Callirrhoe. Malvaceae. Hardy showy herbs, for outdoor planting. Perennials or annuals: leaves alternate, with lobed or cleft blades or more finely dissected: f...
-Callistemon
(Greek, hallos, beauty; stemon, a stamen; in most of the species the stamens are of a beautiful scarlet or crimson color). Myrtaceae. Bottle-Brush. Ornamental shrubs, thriving without irrigation in Ca...
-Callistephus
(Greek words for beautiful crown, said to be in allusion to character of fruit). Compositae. China Aster. (See page 419, Vol. 1.) One species in China and Japan. The genus Callistemma, also erected by...
-Callitris
(from the Greek for beautiful). Including Frenela and Widdringtbnia. P.inaceae. Evergreen trees or shrubs, not quite hardy in the open in England, but thriving well in the southernmost parts of the Un...
-Calluna
(Greek, to sweep; the branches are sometimes used for making brooms). Ericaceae. Heather. Low evergreen shrubs cultivated chiefly for their bright rosy pink, rarely white flowers appearing in great pr...
-Calochortus
(Greek for beautiful and grass). Liliaceae. Incl Cyclobothra. Mariposa Lily. Star Tulip. Globe Tulip. West American cormous plants, the occidental representatives of Tulipa, useful as border plants an...
-Calochortus. Part 2
3. Amabilis, Purdy Habit like C. albus: stems stout, usually branching in pairs: petals clear yellow, very strongly inarched so that the tips overlap each other much like a child's pin-wheel; gland l...
-Calochortus. Part 3
17. Greenei, Wats stem stout and branching, 1 ft., 2-5-flowered: sepals with a yellowish hairy spot; petals lilac barred with yellow below, and somewhat purplish, loose-hairy, not ciliate: caps, beak...
-Calochortus. Part 4
27. Venustus, Benth. Butterfly Tulip Stout, 6-36 in.: petals white or pale lilac, with a reddish spot at top, a brown-yellow center, and brown base: gland large and oblong, usually densely hairy: cap...
-Calodendrum
(Greek, beautiful tree). Pallasia, Houtt, which is the older name. Rutaceae. One of the handsomest deciduous trees at the Cape of Good Hope; cultivated in northern greenhouses, and outdoors in souther...
-Calonyction
(Greek, referring to the beauty of the flower, and the night-blooming habit). Con-volwdaceae. Moonflower. Twining perennial herbs with large night-blooming flowers. Flowers white or purple, fragrant,...
-Calophaca
(Greek, kalos, beautiful, and phaka, lentil). Leguminosae. Ornamental plants cultivated chiefly for their bright yellow flowers appearing in summer. Deciduous shrubs or herbs, with alternate, odd-pin...
-Calophyllum
(Greek, beautiful-leaved). Guttif-eracese. Woody plants of the Old World and American tropics, with shining leathery leaves, sometimes planted South. Leaves parallel-veined at right angles to the mid...
-Calopogon
(Greek, beautiful beard, in allusion to the fringed or bearded lip). Orchidaceae. A very attractive native orchid, sometimes planted in bog-gardens and rock-gardens. Flowers magenta-crimson, varying ...
-Calothamnus
(Greek, beautiful bush). Myr-tacese. Australian shrubs (more than twenty species) somewhat similar to Callistemon but more graceful in habit; evergreen greenhouse subjects, and hardy out-of-doors in C...
-Calotropis
(from Greek words referring to the beauty of parts of the flower). Asclepiadaceae. Milkweed-like shrubs, or small trees, grown in the American tropics and one species offered in southern California. ...
-Calpurnia
(after Calpurnius, an imitator of Virgil, because these plants are allied to Virgilia). Legumi-nbsae. Trees and shrubs from tropical and southern Africa, cultivated out-of-doors in southern California...
-Caltha
(Latin name of the marigold). Ranuncu-laceae. Beautiful hardy blooming marsh plants, the largest and best of which are used about water-gardens and moist parts of borders. Succulent perennial herbs, ...
-Calypso
(from the Greek goddess, whose name signifies concealment; referring to its rarity and beauty). Orchidalceae. One of the rarest and most prized native orchids. A delicate bog-plant, 3-4 in. high, wit...
-Calycotome
(Kalyx, and tome, a section or cut; calyx looks as if cut off). Leguminosae. Ornamental shrubs chiefly grown for their profusely produced yellow flowers; also used for low hedges. Leaves 3-foliolate,...
-Calyptrogyne
(from calyptra, hidden, and gyne, woman, in allusion to the half-hidden gynoecium). Palmaceae, tribe Geonomeae. Short, almost completely stemless and unarmed palms with unequally pinnate terminal leav...
-Camassia
(Quamash or Camass is the Indian name). Sometimes written Quamasia. Liliaceae. Camass. West American spring-flowering bulbs. Leaves all radical, long-lance-shaped, sheathing, from a true bulb that is...
-Camellia
(after George Joseph Kamel or Camellus, a Moravian Jesuit, who traveled in Asia in the seventeenth century). Ternstroemiaceae. Camellia. Woody plants, chiefly grown for their showy white or red flower...
-Camoensia
(Louis Camoens, Portugese poet). Leguminosae. Two species of climbing shrubs from W. tropical Africa, with digitately 3-foliolate leaves, and large papilionaceous flowers Calyx top-shaped; petals with...
-Campanula
(Latin, little bell, from the shape of the corolla in some species). Campanulaceae. Bell-flower. Harebell. Bluebell. A large group of attractively flowering herbs, containing some of the most popular ...
-Campanula. Part 2
Cultivation The genus Campanula is extraordinarily rich in flowering garden plants of merit. The alpine section is distinguished by a charming grace both in character of growth and size and bearing o...
-Campanula. Part 3
Group II. Tall Or Border Campanulas, Characteristically A Foot Or 15 In. Or More High. Nos. 2-23 A. Calyx with an appendage at the base of each sinus. b. Caps. 5-celled and stigmas 5 (variable in No...
-Campanula. Part 4
9. Americana, Linn Annual and biennial, 3-6 ft.: stem erect, simple: leaves thin, serrate, somewhat pilose; root-leaves ovate-acute, subcordate, petiolate; stem - leaves ovate-lanceolate, acuminate a...
-Campanula. Part 5
15. Vidalii, H. C. Wats Perennial, 1-2 ft.: stem branching from the base: some branches short, sterile, others tall, floriferous, all grooved, clammy, glossy: leaves 3-4 in. long, oblong-spatulate, c...
-Campanula. Part 6
21. Rapunculoides, Linn Fig. 768. Perennial, 2-4 ft.: stem indistinctly pubescent or almost smooth: leaves rough, ovate-acuminate; root-leaves petiolate, cordate, crenulate; stem - leaves serrulate: ...
-Campanula. Part 7
30. Sibirica, Linn. (C. Hohenackeri, Fisch.) Biennial or perennial, setaceous-pilose: stem erect, simple, panicled above: leaves crenulate; root-leaves petioled, obovate, obtuse; stem - leaves lanceo...
-Campanula. Part 8
39. Carpatica, Jacq Fig. 769. Perennial, 9-18 in., glabrous: stem branching: lower leaves thin, long-petioled, ovate-rotund, cordate, coarsely dentate, undulate; upper ones shorter petioled, ovate-ac...
-Campanula. Part 9
45. Scheuchzeri, VILL. (C. Linifolia, Willd.) Perennial, 4-12 in.: stem 1-4-flowered, usually 1-flowered: root-leaves roundish, ovate, or cordate; stem - leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate, sessile...
-Campsidium
(alluding to its similarity to Camp-sis). Bignoniaceae. Ornamental vines grown for their bright orange flowers and also for their handsome evergreen finely pinnate foliage. Evergreen shrubs, high-cli...
-Campsis
(Greek kampsis, curve, referring to the curved stamens). Bignoniaceae. Trumpet-Creeper. Ornamental vines cultivated for their striking scarlet or orange flowers. Deciduous woody plants,climb-ing by a...
-Canangium
(Makassar, kananga; Malay. kenanga). Annonaceae. Perfume-yielding tropical trees. Closely allied to Desmos but differing in having the apex of the connectives of the stamens prolonged into a point, i...
-Canavalia
(an aboriginal name). Including Malocchia. Leguminosae. Bean-like plants, some of them producing edible seeds and some more or less grown for ornament. Prostrate trailing or twining herbs, with pinna...
-Candollea
(A. P. DeCandolle, 1778-1841, famous botanist of Geneva, Switzerland). Candolleaceae; formerly referred to Dilleniaceae. Herbs or woody plants sometimes grown under glass or in the open far South for ...
-Canistrum
(Greek, a basket). Bromeliaceae. Epiphytic or terrestrial hothouse plants, requiring the treatment of billbergias. Leaves in a dense tuft, acute, spinulose on the margin: infloresence compound, in a ...
-Canna
(name of oriental origin, of no application). Cannaceae. Popular tall ornamental plants, prized for their stately habit, strong foliage and showy flowers; much used for bedding. Stout, unbranched: fl...
-Canna. Part 2
Cannas are commonly used only in formal beds, but most excellent effects may be secured by scattering them singly or in very small clumps in the hardy border or amongst shrubbery. Against a heavy back...
-Canna. Part 3
10. Speciosa, Roscoe (C. Leptochila And C. Satura\Te-Rubra, Bouche. C. Polymdr-Pha, Loud. C. Sanguinea, Hort.) Large: stem green, 5-6 ft.: leaves broad-oblong, acute: flowers in an elongated raceme o...
-Canna. Part 4
19. Sylvestris, Roscoe (C. Portoricensis, Bouche) Plant stout, 4-5 or 6 ft.: leaves long-oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, bright green, to 2 1/2 ft. long and one-third as wide: raceme slender,...
-Cannabis
(the ancient Greek name). Moraceae. Hemp. A widely cultivated fiber plant, and also used occasionally as an ornamental subject, being grown from seeds and treated as a half-hardy annual. Hemp is dioe...
-Cantua
(from Cantu, Peruvian name). Pole-moniaceae. Showy flowering shrubs, with variable foliage, in greenhouses, and out-of-doors far South. Flowers corymbose; calyx campanulate, of 5 (rarely 3) sepals, w...
-Capparis
(Greek, caper, said by some to have been derived from the Arabic name of the plant). Cappa-riddcese. Caper-Bush, or Caper-Tree. Greenhouse plants North, and suited to the open in Florida and Californi...
-Capsicum
(name of uncertain origin, perhaps from kapto, to bite, on account of the pungency of the seed or pericarp; or from capsa, a chest, having reference to the form of fruit). Solanaceae. Red Pepper. Caye...
-Caragana
(Caragan, its Mongolian name). Legu-mindsae. Pea Tree. Ornamental shrubs chiefly grown for their bright yellow flowers; some species are also used for hedges. Leaves abruptly pinnate, often with pers...
-Cardamine
(Greek name of a cress). Cruciferae. Small mostly leafy-stemmed perennials (the annual species apparently not cultivated), growing in low rich land, blooming in spring or early summer. Flowers someti...
-Cardiandra
(Greek, heart, and man or stamen: alluding to the shape of the anthers). Saxifragaceae. Ornamental half-shrubby plants, rarely cultivated for their white, lilac or pink flowers. Suffruticose deciduou...
-Cardiospermum
(Greek, heart-seed, from the white heart-shaped spot on the round black seed; hence the plant was thought a cure for heart diseases). Sapindaceae. Tendril-climbing tropical herbs. Leaves alternate, b...
-Cardoon
(Cynara Cardunculus, Linn.). A thistlelike plant of southern Europe, cultivated for the thick leaf-stalk and midrib. It is thought to be of the same species as the artichoke, and to have been develop...
-Carduus
(the ancient Latin name of these plants). Compositae. Thistle. Spiny-leaved annual, biennial or perennial herbs, sometimes grown in borders and rock-gardens for the interesting habit and the heads of ...
-Carex
(name of obscure origin). Cyperaceae. Sedge. Grass-like perennials of very many kinds, a few of which are grown in bogs or as border plants. Flowers unisexual, in spikes, the staminate naked and sub...
-Carica
(a geographical name). Papayaceae. Papaya. Small, rapid - growing, un-branched trees, commonly grown in greenhouses as foliage plants and often bearing fruit under such conditions. Juice milky. Leave...
-Carissa
(aboriginal name). Apocyndceae. Very branchy spinose shrubs of the tropics of the eastern hemisphere, cultivated for ornament or hedges, but here mainly for the edible berry-like fruits. Flowers whit...
-Carlina
(said to have cured the army of Charlemagne [Carolinus] of the plague). Composite. Low rather coarse annuals, biennials or perennials, with thistle-like foliage, large white or purplish heads, a feath...
-Carludovica
(Charles IV, and his Queen Louisa, of Spain). Cyclanthaceae. Palm-like, sometimes merely herbaceous plants, of tropical America. The plants are stemless, or sometimes with a lax creeping stem, and us...
-Carmichaelia
(Capt. Dugald Carmichael, Scotch botanist, who wrote on the flora of the Cape and certain islands). Leguminosae. Shrubs, leafless or usually becoming so, either erect or depressed, with reddish or pur...
-Carnation
(Dianthus Caryophyllus, Linn.). Cary-ophylldcese. Choice and popular flower-garden and greenhouse plants of the pink tribe; in North America grown mostly under glass as florists' flowers. PL. XXII. ...
-Carnation. Part 2
Development of the perpetual-flowering carnation (Remontant, Monthly, Forcing, or Tree). Figs. 805-807. The perpetual-flowering race of carnation, which has been brought to its highest state of perfe...
-Carnation. Part 3
The Malmaison strain, which was the leading carnation in England before the advent of the Perpetual-flowering strain, has been found of little value in this country. On account of its large size it wa...
-Carnation. Part 4
When packing cuttings for shipping, moist sphagnum moss is used in which to pack the roots. Cut papers (newspapers are used mostly) into sheets about 10 by 18 inches. Lay a strip of moss about 3 inche...
-Carnation. Part 5
Yield Of Bloom Plants that were benched in the latter part of July, or early August, which is the time to plant for best results, should begin to yield blooms early in September. If flowers are not d...
-Carnation. Part 6
Diseases Stemrot (Rhizoctonia) is the common wet stemrot which does perhaps more damage than all the other diseases combined, and it is also more difficult to control than any of the others. Its pres...
-Carnation. Part 7
Not one should be discarded until it has bloomed. The seedlings should be potted as soon as the first pair of character-leaves appears. Later on they may be shifted into larger pots and bloomed, or t...
-Carnegiea
(named for Andrew Carnegie, philanthropist) . Cactaceae. The giant tree cactus of Arizona, California and Mexico. Large columnar plants, usually single, strongly ribbed, with numerous spines, those f...
-Carpinus
(ancient Latin name). Betulaceae. Hornbeam. Trees cultivated for their handsome foliage, assuming bright autumnal tints; also for the light green attractive fruit-clusters. Deciduous trees or rarely ...
-Carrierea
(after E. A. Carriere, prominent French horticulturist and botanist, died 1896). Fla-courti&cese. Ornamental tree chiefly cultivated for its handsome bright green foliage. Deciduous: leaves alternate...
-Carrot
(Daucus Carota, Linn.). Umbelliferae. Garden vegetable, grown for its elongated subterranean crown-tuber. The carrot is native of Europe and Asia, and one of the bad introduced weeds of eastern North...
-Carum
(probably from Caria, in Asia Minor). Umbelliferse. Glabrous annual or perennial herbs, some of which yield aromatic and edible garden products. Leaves pinnate: flowers white or pinkish, small, in co...
-Carya
(Karya, Greek name for the walnut tree). Syn., Hicoria. Juglandaceae. Hickory. Trees grown for their handsome foliage and strong habit, and some species for their edible nuts. Deciduous: branches wit...
-Carya. Part 2
3. Aquatica, Nutt. (Hicoria Aquatica, Brit.) Water Hickory. Bitter Pecan. Usually small tree, rarely to 100 ft., with light brown bark separating into long, thin plates: winter-buds dark reddish brow...
-Carya. Part 3
8. Alba, Koch (Hicoria alba, Brit. C. tomentosa, Nutt. Not to be confounded with C. alba, Nutt., which is C. ovata). Mockernut. Big-bud Hickory. Tree, rarely attaining to 100 ft.: leaflets 7-9, almos...
-Caryocar
(from the Greek word for nut). Caryo-caracese; formerly included in Ternstroemiacese, and by some referred to Rhizobolceae. Trees, or rarely shrubs, of about 10 species in tropical Amer., one of which...
-Caryopteris
(Greek for nut and wing). Ver-benaceae. Ornamental woody plants grown for their lavender-blue flowers profusely produced in autumn. Deciduous small shrubs: leaves opposite, short-petioled, serrate: f...
-Caryota
(old Greek name). Palmaceae, tribe Areceae. Fish-tail Palm. Spineless monocarpic palms, with tall stout ringed trunks, at length bearing suckers. Leaves disposed in an elongated terminal fringe, ampl...
-Casimiroa
(named in honor of Cardinal Casimiro Gomez de Ortega, Spanish botanist of the eighteenth century). Rutaceae. Evergreen trees, one of which is grown for the edible fruits. Leaves alternate, long-petio...
-Cassia
(ancient Greek name). Leguminosae. Senna. Herbs, shrubs or trees, a few of which are in cultivation in America, as border plants and under glass. Leaves even-pinnate: flowers nearly regular (not papi...
-Cassiope
(Greek mythological name). Ericaceae. Ornamental small shrubs sometimes cultivated for their handsome delicate flowers. Evergreen: leaves very small, usually scale-like and opposite, rarely alternate...
-Castanea
(ancient Latin name). Fagaceae. Chestnut. Fruit and ornamental trees, grown for their edible nuts and also for their handsome foliage and attractive flowers. Deciduous trees, rarely shrubs: leaves al...
-Castanopsis
(Castanea and opsis, chestnut-like) Fagdceae. Ornamental trees or shrubs sometimes cultivated for their handsome evergreen foliage. Closely allied to Castanea, but pistillate flowers usually on separ...
-Castilleja
(a Spanish botanist, D. Castillejo). Scrophulariaceas. Painted-Cup. Herbs with showy bracts in a terminal head or spike, sometimes cultivated. Flowers small, solitary, in terminal gaudy-bracted spike...
-Casuarina
(said to be derived from Casuarius, the Cassowary, from resemblance of the branches to the feathers). Casuarinaceae. Beefwood. She-Oak. Odd slender-branched leafless trees and shrubs grown in warm reg...
-Catalpa
(the Indian name of C. bignonioides). Bignoniaceae. Ornamental trees, often cultivated for their handsome flowers appearing in large and showy panicles in summer, and for their heavy foliage. Leaves ...
-Catasetum
(Greek for downward or backward, and bristle). Orchidacese. Epiphytic or terrestrial orchids, requiring hothouse conditions. Stems short fusiform: leaves plaited, membranaceous: scapes basal; flowers...
-Cattleya
(William Cattley, an early English horticulturist and naturalist). Orchidaceae. Epiphytic orchids, requiring intermediate temperatures. Pseudobulbs ovoid, clavate, fusiform or cylindric, short or elo...
-Cattleya. Part 2
Established plants should be repotted at least every second year. This is as long as the osmundine will remain suitable for the roots to ramify in, and if the plants are grown in pots, immerse the sam...
-Cattleya. Part 3
GG. Petals 8 times or more as broad as the sepals which are not undulate or but slightly so. H. Lip with a large orange blotch in the center, surrounded by circles of white and purple in order...........
-Cattleya. Part 4
6. Maxima, Lindl Pseudobulbs about 1 ft. tall, claviform, furrowed, compressed, 1-lvd.: leaves oblong, 5-10 in. long: peduncle 3-6-flowered; flowers 4-5 in. across; sepals and petals lilac or pale ro...
-Cattleya. Part 5
12. Warscewiczii, Reichb. F (C. labiata variety Wars-cewiczii, Reichb. f. C. gloriosa, Carr. C. imperialis, Wallis). Pseudobulbs 1 ft. or more tall, stout, compressed, furrowed, 1-lvd.: leaves oblong...
-Cattleya. Part 6
15. Percivaliana, O'Brien (C. labiata variety Percivali-ana, Reichb. f.). Pseudobulbs up to 1 ft. tall, clavate, strongly furrowed when old, 1-lvd.: leaves oblong: peduncle bearing 2 or 3 flowers 4...
-Cattleya. Part 7
24. Intermedia, Graham (C. amethystina, Morr. C. ovdta, Lindl. C. maritima, Lindl. C. Ldddigesii variety amethystina, Lem. C. Aquinii, Rodr.). Pseudobulbs up to 1 1/2 ft. tall, cylindric, somewhat fu...
-Cattleya. Part 8
32. Forbesii, Lindl (C. vestalis, Hoffm.). Pseudobulbs 8-12 in. tall, cylindric, 2-lvd.: leaves 4-5 in. long, oblong: peduncle bearing 2-5 flowers 3-4 in. across; sepals and petals a pale yellowish g...
-Cauliflower
(Brassica oleracea, Linn., variety botrytis, DC). A form of the common cabbage species, producing an edible head of malformed and condensed flowers and flower-stems (the word cauliflower means stem-fl...
-Broccoli
Broccoli, which is a long-season cauliflower, is in all respects like cauliflower except that its vegetative parts are somewhat coarser, the heads somewhat smaller, and it does not form an edible curd...
-Caulophyllum
(Greek, stem-leaf). Berberi-dacese. Blue Cohosh. Two species of perennial herbs (sometimes combined with Leontice), one in E. Amer. and the other in Asia, the former sometimes removed from the woods t...
-Ceanothus
(ancient Greek name). Rhamnaceae. Ornamental woody plants grown for their profusely produced white, blue or pink flower-clusters. Deciduous or evergreen shrubs or trees: leaves alternate or sometimes...
-Cecropia
(from Greek word referring to use of the wood of some species in making wind instruments). Moraceae. Milky-juiced trees, with peltate leaves, sometimes planted in grounds in tropics and warm countries...
-Cedrela
(from Cedrus, the wood resembling that of Cedrus). Meliaceae. Including Toona. Ornamental trees, grown for their handsome foliage; some are valuable timber trees. Trees with alternate, usually abrupt...
-Cedronella
(a little cedar, from the odor of C. triphylla, a species from the Canary Islands sometimes called Balm of Gilead). Labiatae. Herbs or shrubs, sometimes planted in borders in the middle and southern...
-Cedrus
(Kedros, ancient Greek name). Pinacese. Cedar. Trees grown for their persisting foliage and striking habit; they are also valuable timber trees. Large evergreen trees, with quadrangular, stiff, fasci...
-Ceiba
(aboriginal name). Bombacacese. Silk-Cotton. Kapok. Ceiba. Trees, one of which is widely known in the tropics for its great size as a shade tree, and for the cotton of its seed-pods. Eriodendron is ...
-Celastrus
(Kelastros, ancient Greek name). Cel-astracese. Woody plants grown chiefly for their brightly colored fruit; some also for their handsome foliage. Shrubs, usually climbing, with alternate, petioled, ...
-Celeriac
(Apium graveolens, Linn., variety rapa-ceum, DC). Umbelliferae. Fig. 856. An offshoot of the celery species, producing an edible root-part instead of edible leaves. Fig. 856. Celeriac trimmed for m...
-Celery
(Apium graveolens, Linn.). Umbelliferae. A major garden vegetable, grown for its blanched leafstalks which are eaten raw and also used in cookery. Biennial, sometimes annual, plants: If -stalks 6-15 ...
-Celery. Part 2
Soils As previously stated, great commercial plantations are on muck soils, although the business is not confined to such lands. The mucks usually provide ideal conditions for the culture of celery. ...
-Celery. Part 3
Starting The Plants The greatest care should be exercised in procuring seed, for inferior seed may result in pithy or hollow stalks, a poor stand of plants in the seed-bed, seedlings of low vitality,...
-Celery. Part 4
Planting In The Field As previously indicated, plants for the early crop should not be set in the open ground until about May 10 in the latitude of Philadelphia and New York. There is danger of injur...
-Celery. Part 5
Subsequent Tillage Practice In The North Celery is often inter-cropped with other vegetables. One of the most common plans is to plant five rows of onions about a foot apart as early in the spring as...
-Celery-Growing In The South
The method of raising celery seedlings is not the same in the South, and especially in Florida, as it is in the North. Sowing is done in July, August, and September, at a time of the year when there i...
-Celery-Growing In California
There are two principal celery-growing districts in California,-Orange County, which is situated in the swamp lands south of Los Angeles; and the northern district, which includes the peat or swamp la...
-Celosia
(Greek, kelos, burned; referring to the burned look of the flowers in some species). Amaran-tacese. Cockscomb. Popular garden annuals, grown for the showy agglomerated flower-heads and sometimes for c...
-Celtis
(ancient Latin name). Ulmaceae. Nettle-Tree. Woody subjects grown chiefly as shade or lawn specimens. Trees or rarely shrubs, sometimes spiny: leaves alternate, petiolate, stipulate, deciduous or per...
-Centaurea
(a Centaur, famous for healing). Composite. Centaury. Dusty Miller. Bachelor's Button. Cornflower. Knapweed. Annuals or hardy and half-hardy perennials with alternate leaves, useful for bedding, vases...
-Centaurea. Continued
7. Glastifolia, Linn A strong-growing border perennial with a rough much-branched and winged stem: leaves oblong, entire, decurrent, the basal leaves petiolate, sometimes divided: flowers yellow, the...
-Centradenia
(Greek for spurred gland, alluding to the anther glands). Melastomdceae. Tropical herbs or sub-shrubs grown in warmhouses for their showy-colored leaves and pretty flowers. Branches angled or winged:...
-Centranthus
(Greek, spurred flower). Valerian-acese. Centranth. Annual and perennial herbs, one of which is frequent in old gardens. Leaves opposite, entire, dentate, or pinnatisect: flowers in dense clusters, s...
-Centropogon
(Greek kentron, spur, and pogon, beard, referring to the fringed stigma). Campanuldceae. Sub-shrubs or shrubs, often scandent, grown under glass. Plants with alternate mostly dentate leaves, and axil...
-Centrosema
(Greek, spurred-standard). Legu-mindsse. Butterfly-Pea. Twining or trailing herbs, one of which is sometimes cultivated. Leaves pinnate, 3-7-foliolate: flowers in the axils, showy, white or reddish, ...
-Cephaelis
(Greek-made compound, referring to the flowers being borne in heads). Rubiacese. Tropical shrubs, sub-shrubs or herbs, one of which yields ipecac; some of them sometimes rarely seen in growing collect...
-Cephalanthus
(Greek, head and flower; flowers in heads). Rubiacese. Button-Bush. Bush grown for its attractive white flower-heads appearing in summer. Shrubs with opposite or whorled entire stipulate leaves: flow...
-Cephalaria
(Greek for head, alluding to the capitate flower-clusters). Dipsaceae. Coarse annual or perennial herbs planted to some extent in herbaries. Much like Dipsacus, but the heads less spiny and mostly sm...
-Cephalocereus
(referring to the crown of long hair). Syn. Pilocereus. Cactaceae. Mostly large columnar plants, single or branched, usually characterized by an abundance of wool or long white hair developing at the ...
-Cephalotaxus
(Greek, head; Taxus-Uke plant, with flowers in heads or clusters). Taxaceae. Yew-like plants, grown for their handsome evergreen foliage. Trees or shrubs, with evergreen linear pointed leaves with 2 ...
-Cephalotus
(Greek, head-shaped, in reference to the knob-like swelling behind each anther). Ceph-alotdcese, a monotypic family near Saxifragdcese. The one species C. follicularis, Labill. (Fig. 875), is abundant...
-Cerastium
(Greek for horn, alluding to the shape of the pod). Caryophyl-laceas. Mouse-Ear Chick-weed. Decumbent annuals or perennials, used in rockeries or for bedding and borders. Pubescent or hirsute herbs, ...
-Ceratolobus
(Greek for horned pod). Palmacex, tribe Caldmeae. Low or creeping pinnate palms allied to Calamus, and not as yet common in the American trade. Stems and If . - stalks spiny but not the If . - blades...
-Ceratonia
(Greek for horn, in reference to the large pod). Leguminosae. Carob. A handsome evergreen tree, bearing large pods that are used somewhat for human food but chiefly for forage. One of the Cassia trib...
-Ceratopteris
(Greek, horned fern). Ceratop-teridacese. Very succulent tropical ferns, forming also a distinct family. They are the only truly aquatic plants among true ferns and grow floating or rooted under water...
-Ceratostigma
(Greek, horned stigma). Plum-baginacese. Diffuse glabrous perennial herbs or sub-shrubs, one of which is in cultivation as a bedding and border plant. Ceratostigma differs from Plumbago in having no ...
-Ceratozamia
(Greek, horned Zamia; referring to the horned scales of the cones, which distinguish this genus from Zamia). Cycaddceae. Handsome Mexican foliage plants, with cycas-kke leaves, but less cultivated in ...
-Cercidiphyllum
(Cercis and phyllon, leaf; the leaves resemble those of Cercis). Trochodendraceae. Tree grown for its handsome foliage and habit. Leaves deciduous, usually opposite, petioled and palmately nerved: fl...
-Cercis
(Kerkis, ancient Greek name). Leguminbsas. Judas Tree. Red-Bud. Trees or shrubs grown for their pink flowers profusely produced early in spring before the leaves; very interesting, also, in mode of br...
-Cercocarpus
(Greek, tail and fruit; the fruit with a long, hairy tail). Rosacese. Mountain Mahogany. Small trees or shrubs but rarely grown for their attractive evergreen or half-evergreen foliage and the peculia...
-Cereus
(from the Latin, but of uncertain application). Cactaceae. Usually arborescent, columnar cacti with the surface covered with spiny ribs. Flowers large, borne singly along the sides of the stem; flowe...
-Cereus. Part 2
7. Sepium, Dc (C.Roezlii,Haage.) Upright, columnar, about 3 in. diam.: ribs 9, separated by sharp, somewhat serpentine grooves, obtuse, above the areoles, 2 radiating, slightly curved grooves form a ...
-Cereus. Part 3
16. Platygonus, Otto At first upright, later somewhat reclining, branching, at the base about 1 in. diam., tapering in the new growth: ribs 8, low, arched: areoles about 1/4in. apart, very small, yel...
-Cerinthe
(Greek, keros, wax; anthos, flower: the ancients thought that the bees visited the flowers for wax). Boraginacese. Annual or perennial herbs from Europe and Asia Minor, with alternate glaucous leaves ...
-Ceropegia
(Greek, wax and fountain, the flowers having a waxy look). Asclepiadaceae. Greenhouse vines of Africa and Asia. Stems fleshy, erect and twining among the other plants in nature, or pendulous: leaves ...
-Ceropteris
(Greek, wax fern). Polypodiacese. Hothouse ferns of rather small size, interesting for the powdery covering on the leaves. A rather small group somewhat related to Pteris, characterized most conspicu...
-Ceroxylon
(Greek, wax and wood, i.e., wax-tree). Palmdcese. Wax-Palm. Tall palms with ringed stems and pinnate leaves. Spineless, the trunk covered with wax: leaves clustered at the top, 15-20 ft. long when fu...
-Cestrum
(old Greek name). Inch, Habrothamnus. Solandceaz. Greenhouse shrubs (or low trees) some of them with a climbing habit, and grown in the open in southern California and elsewhere South. Leaves alterna...
-Chaenactis
(Greek, gaping ray: the marginal corollas often ray-like). Composite. West American low herbs or undershrubs sometimes planted in the open for ornament. Leaves alternate and mostly dissected: flowers...
-Chaenomeles
(Greek chainein, to gape, to split, and melea, apple: the fruit was supposed by Thunberg to split into five valves). Rosdceae, subfamily Pomese. Woody plants, grown chiefly for their handsome brightly...
-Chaenostoma
(gaping mouth, in allusion to the shape of the corolla). Scrophulariacese. African herbs or sub-shrubs sometimes planted in greenhouses, or in the open in mild climates. Leaves simple, mostly opposit...
-Chaetospermum
(from Greek, hair and seed). Limonia Chaetospermum, Roemer. Rutdcesae, tribe Citreae. A small spiny tree, proposed as a stock for citrus fruits. Chaetospermum bears hard-shelled fruits: leaves...
-Chalcas
(from Greek for copper, as the wood has a copper-colored grain). Murraea of Koenig. Rutacese. Small spineless trees or shrubs, suggested as a stock for citrus fruits. Leaves pinnate, alternate: flowe...
-Chamaebatia
(Greek, dwarf, and bramble, alluding to its bramble-like flowers). Rosacea. A woody plant, grown for its handsome white flowers and for the finely divided aromatic foliage. Low shrub, clothed with gl...
-Chamaebatiaria
(in allusion to the similarity of this plant to Chamsebatia). Rosaceae. Shrub grown for its handsome white flowers and the finely divided foliage; allied to the spireas. Deciduous, with glandular aro...
-Chamaecerasus
: Lonicera. (chamai, dwarf, and kuparissos, cypress; referring to its affinity). Pinaceae. Trees or shrubs grown for their handsome evergreen foliage; also valuable timber trees; Retinosporas, in par...
-Chamaecerasus. Continued
Lawsoniana, Parlatore (Cupressus Lawsoniana, Murr. C. Boursieri, Decne.) Lawson's Cypress. Tree, to 200 ft., with horizontally spreading and usually pendulous branches: branchlets frond-like arranged...
-Chamaedaphne
(chamai, dwarf, and daphne, the laurel in ancient Greek, alluding to its dwarf habit and evergreen leaves). Syn., Cassandra. Ericaceae. Leather-Leaf. Small plant, rarely cultivated for its early white...
-Chamaedorea
(Greek, dwarf and gift). Palmaceae. Spineless, erect, procumbent or rarely climbing usually pinnatisect or pinnate palms. Trunks solitary or cespitose, slender or reed-like: leaves simple, bifid at t...
-Chamaelirium
(dwarf or ground lily, a Greek combination). Liliacese. Sometimes spelled Chamaelirion. Rhizomatous whitish flowered hardy plant, sometimes planted in the herbary. Erect, tall unbranched herb 2-4 ft....
-Chamaerops
(Greek for dwarf bush). Palmaceae tribe Sabaleae. Low fan-leaved palms. Caudices cespitose, branched from the base and clothed with the bases of the If . - sheaths: leaves terminal, rigid, semi-orbic...
-Chard
(eft pronounced as in charge). Swiss Chard. Sea-Kale Beet. A form of the plant (Beta vulgaris) which has produced the common beet; known as Beta Cicla (p. 496). See Beet and Beta. The beet plant has ...
-Charieis
(Greek, elegant, from the pleasing flowers). Composite. Attractive hardy flower-garden annual. A small, branchy plant, 6-12 in. high, with blue or red aster-like flowers, on long stems: plant pubesce...
-Cheilanthes
(Greek, lip-flower, alluding to the indusium). Polypodiaceae. Semi-hardy or hothouse ferns of small size. Plants often hairy or woolly, with the sori terminal on the veins and covered with a roundish...
-Cheiranthus
(derivation in dispute, but probably from Greek for hand and flower). Cruciferae. Flower-garden perennials, with large purple, brown, orange or yellow fragrant bloom. Leaves alternate, entire, on a s...
-Chelone
(Greek for tortoise or turtle: the corolla fancied to resemble a reptile's head). Scrophulariaceae. Turtle-Head. Several North American perennial herbs, with showy flowers in short spikes or in panicl...
-Chenopodium
(goosefoot, alluding to the shape of the leaves). Chenopodidcex. Goosefoot. Widely dispersed weedy herbs, with very inconspicuous greenish flowers, some of which occur in gardens as oddities or for or...
-Cherimoya, Cherimoyer
(Quichua language of Peru, chirimuya, signifying cold seeds). (Annona Cherimola, Mill.). Figs. 903-905. An important table fruit of warm countries. See p. 293, Vol. I, for botanical description. The ...
-Cherry
Several kinds or types of small stone-fruits ripening in late spring and in summer, widespread and popular in domestic and commercial use. Figs. 906-910. Plate XXI. Plate XXI. Cherry. - Specimen fr...
-Cherry. Continued
The Cultivation And Handling Sweet cherries are most profitably grown on high, comparatively light, sandy, gravelly or even stony loams, while sour cherries do best on somewhat heavier soils. The for...
-The Cherry In California
In commercial importance, the cherry is least of the fruits of the temperate zone grown in California on a commercial scale-not considering the quince and nectarine, of which the product is almost ins...
-Chervil
A term applied to two umbelliferous plants that produce edible parts, neither of which is well known in America. The name is sometimes applied, also, to the sweet cicely. Salad chervil or leaf chervi...
-Chestnut
Three species of tree or true chestnuts are cultivated in this country for their nuts,-the European Castanea saliva, the American Castanea den-lata, the Japanese Castanea crenata. See Castanea. The ho...
-Chestnut. Part 2
Bush Chinquapin (C. Alnifolia) A shrub, rarely more than 3 feet in height, forming small thickets, by means of stolons, in sandy barrens. South Atlantic states, westward to Louisiana and Arkansas. Di...
-Chestnut. Part 3
Special Difficulties Leaf diseases are apparently subject to control by bordeaux mixture, but for the weevils, which damage the nuts previous to maturity, no satisfactory remedy has yet been discover...
-Chestnut. Part 4
Otto Otto, Tenn. Large, oblong, very downy at tip, very sweet, and rich. Rochester Rochester, N. Y. First fruited at Alton, 111. Nuts medium to large; somewhat rounded, usually three in a bur; of d...
-Chestnut. Part 5
The more important named varieties are as follows: Alpha New Jersey. Bur medium; nuts medium to large, generally three in a bur, dark, of fair quality, ripening very early. Tree upright, very vigoro...
-Chicory, Or Succory
(Cichbrium Intybus, Linn.). Composite Fig. 918. A native of Europe, naturalized in America and familiar to many as a weed, is a pot-herb, a salad, and the leading adulterant of coffee It came prominen...
-Chimaphila
(Greek, winter-loving; green in winter). Ericaceae. Pipsissewa. Perennial small plants, interesting for the white or pinkish flowers and the evergreen foliage, but little cultivated. Half shrubby or ...
-Chiococca
Rubiacese. Snowberry (which the name means in Greek). Shrubs, mostly climbing or trailing, of tropical Amer. (a half-dozen or so species), and 3 in extreme S. Fla. Flowers in axillary panicles, the co...
-Chionanthus
(Greek for snow and flower; alluding to the abundance of snow-white flowers). Oleaceae. Fringe Tree. Woody plants grown for their profusely produced white flowers. Shrubs or low trees, with deciduou...
-Chionodoxa
(Greek, snow and glory). Liliaceae. Glory-of-the-Snow. Very early-blooming hardy bulbs, flowers and leaves appearing together. Closely allied to Scilla, but differs, among other characters, in having...
-Chirantho-Dendron
(Greek, signifying handflower-tree). Sterculidcese. Odd - flowered ornamental tree of Mexico and to be expected in West Indies and elsewhere in cultivation. A monotypic genus, which together with the...
-Chlidanthus
(delicate flower, from the Greek). Amaryllidaceae. Tropical American summer - flowering bulbs. Allied to Zephyranthes. Flowers erect, yellow, fragrant, in a small 2-bracted umbel, terminating a solid...
-Chloris
(the goddess of flowers). Gra-minex. Finger-Grass. Annual or usually perennial grasses, sometimes grown for decoration. Plants with flat blades, compressed sheaths and digitate unilateral spikes: spi...
-Chlorocodon
(Greek for green and bell, alluding to the flowers). Asclepiaddcese. Twiners, one of which is planted far South. Large plants with opposite cordate entire heavy leaves, notched stipules and purplish ...
-Chlorogalum
(green and milk, from the Greek, referring to the juice of the plant). Liliaceae. Hardy West American bulbs, allied to Camassia. Tall plants with a tunicated bulb: leaves at base of stem long-linear,...
-Chlorophora
(Greek, referring to the fact that the fustic-tree bears a green dye). Moraceae. Two milky-juiced alternate-leaved trees, one in tropical Africa and one in tropical Amer. Leaves entire or toothed: dio...
-Chlorophytum
(name means, in Greek, green plant). Liliaceae. Rhizomatous herbaceous plants, one of which is familiar in greenhouses. Very like Anthericum, but differing in the thickened filaments of the stamens a...
-Chorizema
(fanciful Greek name). Sometimes spelled Chorozema. Leguminosse. Evergreen coolhouse small shrubs grown for the showy pea-like yellow orange and red, usually racemose flowers; spring- and summer-bloom...
-Chrysalidocarpus
(Greek for golden fruit). Palmaceae, tribe Arecese. Spineless stoloniferous fan palms, with medium fasciculate ringed stems. Leaves pinnatisect, long-acuminate; segments about 100, bifid at the apex,...
-Chrysanthemum
(Greek, golden flower). Including Pyrethrum. Compositae. Plate XXX. A diverse group of herbaceous and sub-shrubby plants, mostly hardy, and typically with white or yellow single flowers, but the more ...
-Chrysanthemum. Part 2
Aside from the florist's chrysanthemum (C. hor-torum), no particular skill is required in the growing of these plants, although great perfection is attained by some gardeners in the handling of indivi...
-Chrysanthemum. Part 3
6. Indicum, Linn Fig. 929. Much like the last, but leaves thin and flaccid, pinnately parted, with acute or mucronate teeth: outer involucral bracts broad and scarious except the herbaceous midnerve;...
-Chrysanthemum. Part 4
12. Frutescens, Linn. Marguerite Paris Daisy. Figs. 931, 932. Usually glabrous, 3 ft. high, perennial: leaves fleshy, green: heads numerous, always single; rays typically white, with a lemon-colored ...
-Chrysanthemum. Part 5
18. Maximum, Ramond Fig. 936. This perennial species has narrower leaves than C. lacustre, and they are narrowed at the base: height 1 ft.: stem more angled than the above, simple or branched at the ...
-Chrysanthemum. Part 6
Types Of The Common Chrysanthemum The common chrysanthemums of the florists (C. hortorum) are often called large-flowering, and autumn chrysanthemums, to distinguish them from the hardy outdoor k...
-Chrysanthemum. Part 7
8. The Reflexed Type Also called Recurved. Fig. 942. The reflexed forms can be easily broken up into 3 types, (a) the small and regular, (b) the large and regular, and (c) the large and irregular t...
-Chrysanthemum. Part 8
Section III. Anemones (Figs. 947 And 948; Also Figs. 938, 939) The distinctive characteristics of anemone varieties are their high, neatly formed centers and regularly arranged ray-florets. There are...
-Chrysanthemum. Part 9
2. Planting Cuttings should not be allowed to remain in the cutting-bench after the roots are 1/2 inch in length, or they will become hardened, which will check the growth. As soon as rooted, they sh...
-Chrysanthemum. Part 10
Enemies Green aphis (Aphis rufomaculata) and the black aphis (Macrosiphum sanboni) are sometimes very troublesome. They may be controlled by spraying with Black Leaf 40 tobacco extract, one part to...
-Chrysanthemum. Part 11. Culture Of Chrysanthemums For The Production Of New Varieties
The object of seed-saving is the improvement of existing varieties. It is not conclusive, however, that all seedlings will be improvements; in fact, it is far from this, as the greater proportion are ...
-Chrysanthemum. Part 12. Varieties
Of the long list of new varieties sent out each year, but few are retained after the second year's trial. This is probably due to the fact that most American growers are more interested in the commerc...
-Chrysanthemum. Part 13. Culture Of Chrysanthemums Out-Of-Doors
The kinds most suitable for out-of-door culture are those making abundance of rhizomes or underground stems, which withstand the winter and furnish the new growths for the successive years. The Pompon...
-Chrysobactron
(golden wand, from the Greek). Liliacese. Two New Zealand rhizomatous herbs, usually classed with bulbs by gardeners, bearing many small yellow flowers in a long raceme on the top of an elongated sc...
-Chrysobalanus
(golden acorn, from the Greek, referring to the fruit). Rosacea. Bushes or trees, planted far south for ornament; fruit often edible. Leaves thick and coriaceous, entire, glabrous: flowers white, rat...
-Chrysophyllum
(Greek, golden leaf, in reference to the color of the under surface of the leaves). Sapo-tacese. Handsome trees, grown far south for fruit and for ornament. Juice milky: leaves alternate, thick and s...
-Chrysopsis
(golden appearance, from the heads). Compositae. Mostly low and hairy perennials, sometimes planted in borders: heads of medium size and many-flowered, usually with numerous yellow rays; involucre bel...
-Chysis
(Greek for melting, in allusion to the pollen-masses). Orchidaceae. Orchids, pendulous from trees; grown in hothouses. Stems fusiform, leafy, thickening after the leaves drop: flowers fleshy, in shor...
-Cibotium
(Greek, a little seed-vessel). Cyatheaceae. A small group of tree-ferns from Mexico and Polynesia, with bivalved coriaceous indusia, differing from Dicksonia in having the outer valve entirely distinc...
-Cicer
(old Latin name for the vetch). Legu-minosae. Pea-like annual or perennial herbs, with 5-parted calyx, the lobes being nearly equal or the 2 upper ones somewhat shorter and con-nivent, oblong turgid 2...
-Cichorium
(from an old Arabic name). Composite. Seven or eight herbs, one of which is chicory and one endive. Perennial, biennial or annual, branching and diffuse when in bloom, mostly with deep hard roots, mi...
-Cimicifuga
Linn, (cimex, a bug; fugere, to drive away). Ranunculaceae. Bugbane. Tall hardy herbaceous perennials, ornamental, but bad-smelling, suited for the back of plantings or for partially shaded places in ...
-Cinchona
(from the Countess Chin-chon, wife of a Spanish Viceroy of Peru, who was cured of fever in 1638 by the use of Peruvian bark). Rubiacese. Plants widely known as yielding a remedy, in the bark, for mala...
-Cineraria
(ash-colored, from the Latin, referring to the gray foliage). Compositae. Herbs or under-shrubs, closely allied to Senecio, from which they are separated chiefly by technical characters of the achene....
-Cinnamomum
(the ancient Greek name). Laura-ceas. Evergreen trees and shrubs of Asia and Australia, with aromatic leaves and wood, of which a few are cultivated in the extreme southern United States. Leaves usua...
-Circaea
(Circe, the enchantress). Onagraceae. Enchanter's Nightshade. Six or seven herbs of low or moist woods in North America and other temperate and cold regions of the northern hemisphere, two of which ha...
-Cirrhopetalum
(tendril petal, alluding to the narrow lateral sepals). Orchidaceae. Epiphytes, grown in baskets or on blocks in a warmhouse. Pseudobulbs from a creeping stem: dorsal sepal free; lateral sepals much ...
-Cirsium
(old Greek name, referring to the use of the plant in an ailment). Compositae. Thistle. Prickly-leaved plants (largely biennial) of bold habit and showy purple, pinkish, white or even yellowish heads,...
-Cissampelos
(Greek for ivy and vine), Menisper-maceae. Mostly twining plants, shrubs and herbs, one of which is cultivated far south. Leaves various, mostly cordate or reniform, often peltate, alternate: flowers...
-Cissus
(Greek name of ivy). Vitaceae. Mostly tendril-climbing shrubs, a few of which are grown in the open, and others under glass for the handsome often colored foliage. Very like Vitis (with which some au...
-Cistus
(ancient Greek name). Cistaceae. Rock Rose. Low shrubs grown for their red or white hairy flowers. Plants usually with villous and glandular tomentum, aromatic: leaves opposite, mostly persistent, en...
-Citharexylum
(Zither-wood: used for the making of certain musical instruments). Verbendceae. Shrubs or trees, sparingly planted in southern California, and perhaps elsewhere South for ornament. Spiny or unarmed, ...
-Citrange
(from Citrus trifoliata and orange by syncopation: Ci[trus] tr[ifoliata] [or]ange). Rutaceae. A hybrid between the common orange and the hardy trifoliate orange, Poncirus trifoliata (Citrus trifoliata...
-Citron
(Citrus Medica,, Linn.). Rutaceae. Fig. 971. A large lemon-like fruit with a very thick peel and a small amount of very acid pulp; the peel is candied and used in confectionery and for culinary purpos...
-Citropsis
(Limonia Citropsis, Engler). Rutaceae. African Cherry Orange. Very interesting and as yet little-known citrous trees, of interest for use in hybridizing and for stocks, also promising as orname...
-Citrullus
(diminutive of Citrus, said to be in allusion to the shape of fruits and color of flesh resembling those characters in fruits of the orange or citron). Cucurbitaceae. Annual or perennial tendril-beari...
-Citrus
(ancient name of a fragrant African wood, afterward transferred to the Citron). Rutacese. Citron. Lemon. Orange. Small evergreen, more or less spiny trees or shrubs, grown for their edible fruits, and...
-Citrus. Part 2
2. Limonia, Osbeck (from Arabic limun, a lemon) (C. Medica variety IAmon, Linn. C. Limbnium, Risso). Lemon. Fig. 974. A small tree with long irregular branches: thorns short, stout and stiff: Ivs. ra...
-Citrus. Part 3
4. Grandis, Osbeck (C. Aurantium variety grandis, Linn. C. Aurantium variety decumana, Linn. C. decumana, Linn.). Grapefruit (or Pomelo). Shaddock. Pummelo. Fig. 975. A large round-topped tree, with ...
-Citrus. Part 4
6. Sinensis, Osbeck (C. Aurantium variety sinensis, Linn. C. Aurantium, Lour, et Auct., not Linn.). Common or Sweet Orange. Fig. 977. A medium-sized tree, with a rounded top and regular branches: spi...
-Citrus. Part 5
7. Nobilis, Lour. King Orange Small trees, with slender twigs and pointed leaves, with very narrowly winged or merely margined petioles: flowers small, white; stamens 18-24: fruit with a loose peel a...
-Cladothamnus
(klados, branch, and thamnos, bush, from the Greek). Ericaceae. Shrubs, rarely cult, for their handsome pink flowers Erect, with many virgate branches: leaves deciduous, alternate, entire: flowers pin...
-Cladrastis
(Greek, brittle branch). Virgilia of gardens. Leguminosae. Yellow-Wood Trees grown chiefly for their large panicles of white flowers and for their handsome foliage. Deciduous: winter-buds naked, seve...
-Clarkia
(Capt. Wm. Clark, companion of Lewis, explorer of the Rocky Mt. region and beyond, 1806). Ona-grdcese. flower-garden annuals. Herbs, with alternate mostly entire leaves, and showy flowers in the uppe...
-Claucena
(a personal name). Rutaceae. Small inermous trees: leaves pinnate: flowers in terminal panicles or loose racemes; ovary raised on a short disk, 4-5-celled, with 1-2 ovules in each cell; style short, d...
-Clavija
(Don Jose de Viera y Clavijo, of Madrid). Syn., Horta. Myrsinaceae; by Mez separated in the family Theophrastaceae. Thirty and more tropical American evergreen unbranched trees or shrubs, a few of whi...
-Claytonia
(after John Clayton, of Virginia, one of the earliest American botanists upon whose collections Gronovius based the Flora Virginica). Portulacaceae. Spring Beauty. Little smooth succulent herbs someti...
-Cleisostoma
(Greek, closed mouth, referring to the structure of the spur). Orchidaceae. Epiphytic orchids, adapted to the warmhouse. Stems leafy: leaves coriaceous, flat or nearly terete: sepals and petals adnat...
-Cleistocactus
(closed Cactus, referring doubtless to the peculiar flowers). Cactaceae. Slender columnar cacti, with few branches and many-ribbed: flowers short and narrowly curved, orange-red; ovary covered with sm...
-Clematis
(Greek name of a climbing plant). Ra-nunculacex. Familiar garden plants, prized for their handsome and often very showy flowers followed in many species by attractive feathery-tailed fruits. Climbing...
-Clematis. Part 2. The Kinds Of Clematis. (Jackson & Perkins Co.)
The hybrid varieties of Clematis, commonly known as the large-flowering sorts, are, when successfully grown, among the most beautiful of hardy climbing plants. The commercial propagation and growing o...
-Clematis. Part 3. Key To The Species
A. Sepals upright, forming a tubular or urceolate flower; stamens upright, oppressed, pubescent; or sepals more spreading and flowers with petaloid staminodes. B. Flowers without petaloid staminodes. ...
-Clematis. Part 4
Section Viorna - Group Crispae 1. Integrifolia, Linn Herbaceous, erect, becoming 2 ft. high: leaves rather broad, entire, ovate-lanceolate: flowers solitary, nodding; sepals 4, rather narrow, blue, ...
-Clematis. Part 5
10. Texensis, Buckl (C. coccinea, Engelm. C. Viorna variety coccinea, Gray). Climbing, to 6 ft.; glabrous: leaves glaucescent, subcoriaceous; leaflets broadly ovate, often obtuse, subcordate, 1 1/2-3...
-Clematis. Part 6
Group Atrageneae - 17. Verticillaris, Dc (Atragene americana, Sims). Fig. 983. Trailing or sometimes climbing, 8-10 ft.: usually 4 trifoliate leaves from each node; leaflets thin, ovate, acute, tooth...
-Clematis. Part 7
22. Florida, Thunb (C. jap6nica, Makino, not Thunb.). A slender plant, climbing 9-12 ft.: leaves variable, more or less ternate or biternate; leaflets small, ovate-lanceolate: flowers 2-4 in. across,...
-Clematis. Part 8
R.H. 1865:71. Gipsy Queen, Cripps. Deep violet. Alexandra, Jackman. Reddish violet. Star of India, Cripps. Five in. across, purple, barred with red. tunbridgensis, Cripps. Reddish purple, barred with...
-Clematis. Part 9
24. Patens, Morr. & Decne (C. caerulea, Lindl. C. azurea, Hort., ex Turcz.). Taller and more slender, and leaflets smaller and narrower than C. lanuginosa: flowers appearing on last year's branches o...
-Clematis. Part 10
31. Meyeniana, Walp Climbing rapidly; glabrous or slightly pubescent: leaves ternate; leaflets coriaceous, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, cordate or rounded at the base, entire, 2-3 in. long: panicle loo...
-Clematis. Part 11
41. Vitalba, Linn In England called Traveler's Joy. The most vigorous climber of the genus, ascending 20-30 ft.: leaves pinnate; leaflets ovate to ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, cordate at the base, pa...
-Clematis. Part 12
50. Serratifdlia, Rehd (C. koreana, Hort., not Komarov). Shrubby climber: leaves biternate, bright green, glabrous; leaflets ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, acuminate, inequally serrate, 1-2 1/2 in. ...
-Clematoclethra
(Clematis and clethra, referring to the similarity of the flower to that of Clethra and to the climbing habit). Dilleniacese. Shrubs grown for the profusely produced fragrant flowers and the attractiv...
-Cleome
(meaning uncertain). Capparidaceae. Odd spider-flowered plants sometimes grown in the flower-garden. Sub-shrubs or annual herbs, simple or branched, glabrous or glandular, with simple leaves or 3-7 l...
-Clerodendron
(Greek, chance and tree: of no significance). Includes Siphonantha and Volkameria. Verbendceae. Greenhouse climbers and hardy shrubs and other ornamental plants, grown for the showy white, violet or r...
-Clerodendron. Continued
4. Fragrans, Vent (C. coronaria, Hort.? Volkameria fragrans, Vent.). Pubescent, half shrubby, with angled branches, 3-5 ft.: leaves broadly ovate, with truncate or cordate base, acuminate, coarsely t...
-Clethra
(ancient Greek name of the Alder, transferred to this genus on account of the resemblance of the leaves). Clethraceae. White Alder. Shrubs or small trees grown for their handsome spikes of white fragr...
-Cleyera
(after Andrew Cleyer, Dutch physician of the seventeenth century). Ternstrozmeaceae. Greenhouse evergreen shrubs distinguished by the petals free or scarcely coalesced, the pilose anthers, numerous ov...
-Clianthus
(Greek, glory-flower). Leguminbsse. Glory Pea. Glory Vine. Parrot's Bill. Tender half-trailing shrubs, with large, showy flowers of unique appearance. Swainsona is an allied genus, but its general app...
-Cliftonia
(after Dr. Francis Clifton, an English physician, d. 1736). Cyrillaceae. Buckwheat Tree. Glabrous evergreen shrub or small tree, rarely cultivated for its early appearing racemes of white or pinkish f...
-Clinostigma
(Greek, inclined stigma). Pal-macese, tribe Areceae. Low spineless palms with the habit and somewhat the appearance of small kentias; feather-leaved. Trunks not over 8 ft., usually conspicuously ring...
-Clintonia
(after DeWitt Clinton, the famous Governor of New York and promoter of the Erie Canal). Liliaceae. A small group of low-growing, herbaceous plants of North America and Asia, with a few tufted, broad s...
-Clotbur
A. leaflets 5. Ternatea, Linn. (C. caerulea, Hort. Ternatea vulgaris, HBK.). leaflets 5, oblong, obtuse, short-petioled: flowers 1 in. or more long, rich blue, with beautiful markings, especially on t...
-Clivia
(after a Duchess of Northumberland and member of the Clive family). Syn., Imantophyllum. Amaryllidaceae. Tender bulbous plants with handsome evergreen foliage and showy, bright red or red and yellow f...
-Clover
Species of Trifolium (Leguminosae), particularly those that are useful in agriculture. The word is also applied to species of related genera, as Medicago. The sweet clover is Melilotus. Bush and Japan...
-Clytostoma
(Greek klytos, splendid or beauteous, and stoma mouth; alluding to the beautiful flowers). Bignoniaceae. Ornamental vines, grown for their beautiful flowers. Evergreen shrubs, climbing by leaf-tendri...
-Cnicus
(Latin name of Safflower, early applied to thistles). Composite. Blessed Thistle. A monotypic genus allied to Centaurea, and distinguished from it botanically by its heads being quite sessile and surr...
-Cobaea
(after Father Cobo, Spanish Jesuit of the seventeenth century, naturalist, and resident of America for many years). Syn. Rosenbergia. Sometimes incorrectly spelled Cobcea. Polemoniaceae. Attractive cl...
-Coccinia
(Latin, scarlet; referring to the ornamental gourds). Cucurbitacese,. Tender perennial vines, usually with tuberous roots, grown for ornament mostly indoors. Leaves angled or lobed, sometimes glandul...
-Coccoloba
(Greek, lobed berry, referring to the ends of the pear-shaped fruit). Sometimes spelled Coc-colobis. Including Campderia. Polygonacex. Tropical shrubs, trees or rarely tall woody climbers, grown for t...
-Coccothrinax
(a berry and Thrinax, in reference to the berry-like fruit). Palmaceae. Small or medium-sized palms, with fan-leaves. Trees (or rarely stemless) with slender stems, clothed above with the persistent ...
-Cocculus
(diminutive of kokkos, berry; the fruit being berry-like). Syn., Cebatha, Epibaterium. Menis-permdcese. Shrubs grown for their handsome foliage and the ornamental red or black fruits. Twining or erec...
-Cochlearia
(Greek, cochlear, a spoon; referring to the leaves). Cruciferae. More or less fleshy seaside small herbs, including scurvy-grass and related things; scarcely cultivated. Annual or perennial: leaves s...
-Cochlioda
(Greek for spiral, in reference to the structure of the lip). Orchidacese. A small group of orchids found at high elevations in South America, little grown, requiring treatment given Odontoglossum. P...
-Cochliostema
(Greek, spiral stamens). Com-melinacese. Curious and gorgeous plants cultivated under glass. Cochliostemas are epiphytes, with the habit of Bill-bergia and great axillary panicles of large flowers of...
-Coconut
The coconut, Cocos nucifera, is the most important of cultivated palms. Its nearest relatives, whether or not regarded as in the same genus, are natives of tropical America. For this and for other rea...
-Uses And Products Of The Coconut
The local uses of the coconut are almost unlimited. Besides being of practical utility in a very large number of ways to the people of the Malay-Polynesian region, it has, as a result of its practical...
-Copra
The principal coconut product exported from most producing regions is copra, which is the dried meat or hard endosperm of the fruit. To produce the best copra, nuts should be thoroughly and uniformly ...
-Cocos
(Portuguese, monkey, from the nut, which suggests a monkey's face). Palmaceae. This genus includes the coconut tree, C. nucifera, and a few pinnate palms cultivated for ornament in the North under gla...
-Cocos. Part 2
Cocos In California After passing through a severe test during the first week in January of the year 1913, the several species of Cocos palms are in a condition in which one may safely judge of their...
-Cocos. Part 3
cc. leaflets rigid. D. Form of leaflets sword-shaped. 5. butyracea, Linn. stems very tall, naked: leaves pinnate; leaflets simple: spathe cylindrical-oblong, 4-6 ft.; spadix as long as the spathe, 4-...
-Codlaeum
(probably from Greek for head, the colored leaves being used for crowning-wreaths, or from the Malayan name). Euphorbiaceae. Croton. Variegated Laurel. Tropical shrubs or trees grown for the variegate...
-Codlaeum. Part 2
Variegatum Blume, variety pictum, Muell. Arg. (C. medium, Baill. C. variegatum variety genuinum, Muell. Arg., in part. C. pictum, Hook. Croton variegatus, Linn. Croton pictus, Lodd. Phyllaurea Codia...
-Codlaeum. Part 3
Andreanum. Yellow to red veins, 2 1/2 x 9. I.H. 22:201. A.F. 23:241. Gng. 13:81. R.H. 1876, p. 234. Fig. 1018. Codiaeum interruptum. (An example of form appendiculatum.) Angustissimum (Angustifoli...
-Codlaeum. Part 4
Makoyanum. Broad leaves chocolate and carmine marking. Marquis De Castellane Maximum. Border and veins yellow or yellow with green blotches, 12 in. long. I.H. 14, p. 534; 19, p. 168. B.H. 19:65. Me...
-Codonopsis
(Greek, bell-like, alluding to the shape of the flowers). Campanulaceae. Twining or decumbent perennials, more or less hardy in the open, with showy blue, whitish or greenish flowers. Herbs, with tub...
-Coelia
(Greek, koilos, hollow: referring to the pollen masses). Orchidaceas. Epiphytic orchids of minor importance; culture of Epidendrum. Fig. 1020. Coelia Baueriana. The coelias are divided into 2 stro...
-Coelogyne
(hollow pistil). Orchidaceae. Popular epiphytic warmhouse orchids of the eastern hemisphere. Pseudobulbs tufted or at intervals on the stem: flowers in racemes, opening simultaneously or in successio...
-Coelogyne. Continued
Key To The Species a. Racemes with flowers opening in succession. 1. speciosa aa. Racemes with flowers opening all at once. b. Scape of the raceme naked between the pseudobulb and lowest, flower-brac...
-Coffea
(from the Arabian name for the drink, itself conjecturally derived from Caffa, a district in southern Abyssinia). Rubiacex. Woody plants, producing the coffee of commerce; as a horticultural subject, ...
-Coix
(an old Greek name). Gramineae. Tall, broad-leaved, branched grasses with bead-like inflorescence, one of them grown in gardens. Plant loose-growing: at the end of each peduncle is an indurated, glob...
-Cola
(native name). Sterculiaceae. Cola. Also called Kola, Korra, Gorra. One species is much grown in the tropics for the stimulating cola nut. The genus consists entirely of plants with unisexual or poly...
-Colchicum
(from Colchis, a country in Asia Minor, where the genus is most plentiful). Liliaceae. Meadow Saffron. Autumn Crocus. Autumn flowering, rarely spring-flowering, bulbous plants with crocus-like blossom...
-Colchicum. Continued
7. Agrippinum, Baker (C. Tessellatum, Hort.) Corms a trifle thicker than in No. 5: leaves 3-4, 6-9 in. long, 12-15 lines wide, margin wavy: flowers 2-4 from each spathe. F.S. 11:1153. - This is a mar...
-Cold-Storage, Refrigeration, Retarding
Dealers in bulbs, cut-flowers, nursery stock, fruits and vegetables employ cold-storage to retard the growth of bulbs and plants, or to preserve cut-flowers and produce, by using specially constructed...
-Coleus
(Greek for sheath, referring to the mona-delphous stamens). Labiatae. Common window-garden and greenhouse showy-leaved herbs, and a few less known species grown for the handsome flowers. Herbs or sma...
-Collards
A kind of kale. Probably several somewhat different plants pass as collards, the characteristic being that they produce tufts or rosettes of leaves that are removed and used as greens. Usually referre...
-Colletia
(Philibert Collet, 1643-1718, French botanist). Rhamnacese. Odd spiny shrubs grown under glass, and in the open in California and other warm regions. Leaves small and simple (or wanting), opposite: b...
-Collinsia
(after Zaccheus Collins, American philanthropist and promoter of science, Philadelphia, 1764-1831). Scrophulariaceae. Hardy flower-garden annuals mostly from California and western North America. Lea...
-Colocasia
(old Greek substantive name). Araceae. Perennial herbs with cordate-peltate leaves, which are often handsomely colored in cultivation; grown under glass, and one of the forms much used for planting ou...
-Color In Flowers
The range of simple color among flowers is not very extensive. There are singular and almost unaccountable intervals in that range where color is conspicuously absent in every genus. Indeed, there is ...
-The Restriction Of Color In Flowers
The very strict limitation of range in flower-colors demands careful study if it would be thoroughly understood. Augustin Pyramus de Candolle divided flower-colors into two classes, which he named xan...
-Colquhounia
(after Sir Robert Colquhoun). Labiatae. Tender plants with dense whorls of gaping flowers an inch long or more, colored scarlet and yellow. Erect or twining shrubs, woolly in all parts when young: lea...
-Columnea
(after Columna or Colonna, Italian writer on plants, sixteenth century). Ges-neraceae. Tropical American shrubs and climbers, sometimes grown under glass in choice collections. Flowers widely gaping,...
-Colutea
(Koloutea, ancient Greek name). Leguminosae. Bladder Senna. Shrubs grown chiefly for their attractive yellow or brownish red flowers and the ornamental bladder-like pods. Deciduous, with alternate, o...
-Colvillea
(after Sir Charles Colville, governor of Mauritius). Legumi-nosae. Showy - flowered tropical tree, a worthy rival of the royal poin-ciana, which is closely allied, but easily distinguished, especially...
-Comandra
(name alludes to the hairs in the flower). Santalaceae. Perhaps a half-dozen leafy herbs or sub-shrubs, one in Eu., and the others in N. Amer., more or less parasitically attached to the roots of othe...
-Comarum
(an old Greek name). Rosaceae. One species allied to Poten-tilla, and often referred to that genus but differing in the lateral style unknown inPotentilla. C. palustre, Linn. (Potentilla palustris, Sc...
-Combretum
(old Latin name). Com-bretacese. Tropical shrubs and trees, many of which are climbers by means of the persistent leaf-stalks. Leaves mostly opposite, in some species verticillate in 3's or 4's, enti...
-Commelina
(bears the name of early Dutch botanists). Also written Commelyna. Commelinaceae. Day-Flower. Perennial or annual herbs, of which a very few are cultivated in the open or under glass for their interes...
-Comparettia
(Andreas Comparetti, 1746-1811, Italian botanist). Orchidacex. A small group of graceful epiphytes. Pseudobulbs, 1-3-1 vd.: racemes simple or branched; flowers small, lateral sepals united in a singl...
-Compost
Mixed and rotted vegetable matter, particularly manure and litter, used as a fertilizer and amendment. The mixture of bulky fertilizing materials known as compost, while of little importance to the g...
-Congea
(from an East Indian vernacular name). Verbenaceae. A few species of climbing shrubs in Burma and the Malayan peninsula: leaves opposite and entire: flowers in peduncled capitate cymes which are combi...
-Conservatory
Primarily a glasshouse in which plants that have been brought to perfection-usually in other greenhouses-are to be placed for display or to be kept in condition. The conservatory should be as near th...
-Convallaria
(old name Lilium convallium, derived from convallis, a valley). Lilidceae. Lily-of-the-Valley. A dainty herb, much prized for its erect racemes of white delicately-scented flowers; perennial. Leaves ...
-Convolvulus
(Latin, convolvo, to entwine). Con-volvulaceae. Includes Calystcgia. Bindweed. Annual and perennial herbs, grown mostly in the open; some are twiners. Sometimes suffrutescent, twining, trailing, erec...
-Cooperia
(after Joseph Cooper, English gardener). Amaryllidaceae. Tender bulbous plants with the habit of Zephyranthes but night-blooming. Flowers fragrant, solitary, 2 in. or more across, waxy-white, tinged ...
-Copernicia
(from Copernicus). Palmaceae, tribe Corypheae. Tall fan-palms with their trunks frequently thickened above the base. Leaves flabellate, the petiole often with small spines; the small young leaves usu...
-Coprosma
(Greek name referring to the fetid odor of the plants). Rubiaceae. Shrubs or small trees, often trailing, of New Zealand, Australia and Polynesia, sometimes planted for the pretty fruit or variegated ...
-Coptis
(Greek, to cut, from the cut leaves). Ranunculaceae. Hardy perennial herbs of the cooler parts of the northern hemisphere, sometimes planted in bogs and moist places. Low, stemless plants, with slend...
-Corallorhiza
(Greek for coral-root). Orchidd-cex. Coral-Root. Low orchids, growing in woods and parasitic on roots, destitute of green foliage, the plant usually brownish or yellowish and inconspicuous. Flowers s...
-Corchorus
(name refers to some reputed virtue, as an eye remedy, of one of the species). Tiliacese. Shrubs or herbs of the tropics, two of which supply jute. The jute plants are C. capsularis Linn, and C. olit...
-Cordia
(an early German botanist, Valerius Cor-dus, born 1515). Boraginaceae. Warm-climate trees, shrubs or almost herbaceous, sometimes planted. Leaves mostly alternate, petioled, entire or dentate: flower...
-Cordyline
(club-like, referring to the fleshy roots). Lilidceae. Dracena. Dracena Palm. Greenhouse plants closely related to Dracaena; planted in the open in California and similar climates. Stems tall, often ...
-Cordyline. Continued
3. Australis, Hook (D. indivisa, Hort. D. calocoma, Wend.) Fig. 1053; 359, Vol. I. Arborescent, 15-40 ft. high: leaves densely rosulate, 1 1/2-3 ft. long, 1 1/2-21/2 in. wide; base 6-12 lines wide, a...
-Coreopsis
(Greek, signifying bug-like, from the fruit). Including Calliopsis. Composite. Tickseed. Annual or perennial herbs, flowering in summer or autumn, nearly all natives of eastern North America, some of ...
-Coriaria
(corium, skin, leather; a shrub used for tanning leather was described as frutex coriarius, by Pliny). Coriariaceae. Shrubs or perennial herbs grown chiefly for their ornamental fruits. Leaves decidu...
-Corn, Maize (Sweet And Pop)
A tender annual cultivated for its grain, which is used both for human and live-stock food, and for the herbage which is used as forage. As a horticultural crop, it is grown primarily for the unripe g...
-Sweet Corn (Zea Saccharata, Sturt.)
Figs. 1058-1060. This is a well-defined species-group, characterized by horny, more or less crinkled, wrinkled or shriveled kernels, having a semi-transparent or translucent appearance. Sturtevant, in...
-Varieties Of Sweet Corn
Some of the desirable varieties for the garden, the market, and for canning are fisted below. These varieties are named to show the range of variation and to indicate the leading groups or types, rath...
-Pop-Corn (Zea Everta, Sturt.)
Fig. 1058. Pop-corn is characterized by the excessive proportion of the corneous endosperm and the small size of the kernel and ear. The kernel split laterally shows the chit and corneous matter envel...
-Corn-Salad
(Valerianella olitoria, Poll.). Valeri-anacese. A spring and summer salad and pot-herb plant. Annual: mature plant 4-6 in. tall, forking: radical leaves tufted (the parts used), oblong and obtuse, na...
-Cornus
(ancient Latin name of Cornus mas). Cornaceae. Dogwood. Woody plants (one or two infrequently cultivated herbs), grown for their attractive flowers and fruits; some species also for the winter effect ...
-Cornus. Part 2
4. Alba, Linn (C. tatarica, Mill.). Shrub, to 10 ft., with usually erect stem and bright blood-red branches, mostly with glaucous bloom when young: leaves obtuse at the base, ovate or elliptic, somew...
-Cornus. Part 3
14. Paucinervis, Hance (C. quinquenirvis, Franch.). Shrub 4-6 ft.: young branches quadrangular, usually reddish brown: leaves short-petioled, of firm texture, oblong-obovate to elliptic-lanceolate, a...
-Coronella
(Latin, a little crown: from the arrangement of the flowers). Leguminosae. Crown Vetch. Shrubs and herbs, some grown in the hardy garden and some in greenhouses, for their yellow or purple bloom. Ann...
-Correa
(after Jose Francesco Correa de Serra, Portuguese author, 1750-1823). Rutaceae. Tender Australian shrubs, rarely cultivated under glass. Shrubs, usually with dense, minute, stellate hairs: leaves opp...
-Cortaderia
(from Cortadero, the native name in Argentina). Gramineae. Pampas-Grass. Large reed-like perennials with numerous long, narrow blades and a large striking plume-like inflorescence. Species six, South ...
-Cortusa
(named by the herbalist Matthiolus after his friend Cortusus, professor of botany at Padua). Primulaceae. Scapose, perennial, pubescent herbs with long-stalked, cordate-ovate leaves and purple umbella...
-Coryanthes
(Greek, korys, helmet, and anthos, flower, referring to the shape of the lip). Orchidaceae. Epiphytic orchids requiring warmhouse conditions. Pseudbulbous: leaves plicate, lanceolate: flowers in race...
-Corydalis
(Greek, lark, the spur of the flower resembling a lark's spur). Fumariaceae. Hardy plants allied to the Dutchman's breeches. Erect or prostrate herbs, usually perennially rooted, but often annuals: l...
-Corylopsis
(Corylus and opsis, likeness; in foliage resembling the hazel). Hamamelidaceae. Woody plants, grown chiefly for their yellow fragrant flowers appearing in early spring and for the handsome foliage. D...
-Corylus
(ancient Greek name). Betulaceae. Hazel. Filbert. Cobnut. Woody plants grown for their handsome rather large foliage and some species for their edible nuts. Deciduous shrubs, rarely trees: leaves alt...
-Corynocarpus
(Greek, club-fruit, alluding to the shape). Anacardiaceae; by Engler made the sole representative of Corynocarpaceae. A very few New Zeal, and Polynesian evergreen trees, one of which is introduced in...
-Corypha
(Greek for summit or top,-where the leaves grow). Palmaceae, tribe Corypheae. Tall fan-leaved palms with a spineless stout trunk. Leaves terminal, large, orbicular, flabellately divided to the middle...
-Cosmos
(from the Greek word with a root idea of orderliness; hence an ornament or beautiful thing). Syn., Cosmea. Composite. Annual or perennial herbs, now popular as flower-garden subjects. Often tall, usu...
-Cost-Accounting
The keeping of profit-and-loss records, and the drawing of conclusions from them for the improvement of the business. In recent years, the application of cost-accounting and efficiency methods to far...
-Costus
(old classical name). Zingiberaceae. Spiral Flag. Perennial thick-rooted tropical herbs, cultivated under glass for their flowing-limbed showy flowers, which are in terminal bracteate spikes. Stems s...
-Cotinus
(ancient Greek name of a tree with red wood). Anacardiaceae. Smoke-Tree. Chittam-Wood. Woody plants, grown chiefly for the attractive feathery fruiting panicles and for the handsome foliage turning br...
-Cotoneaster
(cotoneum, quince, and aster, similar: the leaves of some species resemble those of the quince). Rosaceae, subfamily Pomeae. Shrubs, rarely small trees, chiefly grown for their ornamental red or black...
-Cotoneaster. Part 2
8. Tomentosa, Lindl Shrub, to 6 ft.: leaves broadly oval, obtuse, dull green above and pubescent when young, whitish tomentose beneath, 1-2 1/2 in. long: flowers 3-12, white, calyx tomentose outside:...
-Cotoneaster. Part 3
18. Racemiflora, Koch (C. Nummularia, Fisch. & Mey. C. Fontanesii, Spach) Shrub, to 4 ft., with erect or spreading branches, rarely prostrate: leaves roundish or broad-ovate, obtuse or acute, whitish...
-Cotton
Cotton belongs to the genus Gossypium (name used by Pliny), of the Malvaceae. The species are now much confused, but it is generally agreed that the sea island cotton is of the species G. barbadense, ...
-Dioica
Hook. f. (Leptinella dioica, Hook. f.). stems glabrous or slightly hairy, 1 ft. or less long, creeping: leaves solitary or tufted, not thick or stiff, stalked, 2 in. or less long, linear-obovate to sp...
-Cotyledon
(a name used by Pliny, meaning a cavity, having reference to the concaved or cup-like leaves of some kinds). Crassuldceae. Succulent herbs or shrubs, rarely annual, grown mostly for their oddity, but ...
-Cotyledon. Part 2
2. Barbeyi, Schweinf Whole plant hoary-white, tall and branching: leaves thick, fleshy, shovel-shaped: flowers olive-green and red, 1 in. long, in a close panicle. Blooms freely in spring and summer....
-Cotyledon. Part 3
16. Secunda, Baker (Echeveria Secunda, Booth) Fig. 1083. Stemless: leaves in a rosette, crowded, cuneiform, mucronate, glaucous, curving upward: flowers in a 1-sided, recurved spike, reddish yellow; ...
-Couroupita
(from a vernacular name in Guiana). Lecythidaceae. Trees of tropical Amer. (about 9 species) sometimes planted as oddities or for shade, particularly for the curiosity of the great ball-like fruits bo...
-Cover-Crops
Green temporary crops, grown for the purpose of improving the soil, either as protection or to be turned down as green manure; word used chiefly in speaking of fruit-growing operations. The use of co...
-Cowpea
Fig. 1086. The American name for the cultivated forms of Vigna catjang, Walp. (1839), and Vigna sinensis, Endl. (1848), two of the Leguminosae allied to Dolichos and Phaseolus; grown for forage, and t...
-Crambe
(old Greek substantive). Cruciferae. Herbs or sub-shrubs, one grown in the vegetable-garden, and one or two in the hardy herbary. Annuals, biennials or perennials, with thickened stems, and more or l...
-Cranberry
A name applied to trailing species of the genus Vaccinium (Ericdceae); much grown in North America for the fruit. Plate XXIX. Plate XXIX. Cranberry-picking in a New Jersey bog. Of the true cranber...
-Cranberry. Part 2
Preparation And Tillage Before cranberries are planted, the land must be cleared of all its natural growth, the stumps and roots removed and the ground leveled to a greater or less extent. The more n...
-Cranberry. Part 3
Varieties There are now many varieties of cranberries in cultivation, all of them having been selected from wild vines or vines that appeared naturally in cultivated bogs. These varieties vary in sha...
-Cranberry. Part 4
History Cranberry-culture began about a century ago in Massachusetts on the Cape Cod Peninsula. William Kenrick, writing in 1832 in the Orchardist, says that Capt. Henry Hall, of Barnstable, has c...
-Craniolaria
(from a fancied resemblance of the pod to a skull or cranium). Martyniaceae. Coarse but interesting flower-garden annual. Wide-spreading low viscid-hairy rank forking herb: leaves large, opposite, lo...
-Crassula
(Latin thickish; referring to the thick leaves and stems). Crassulaceae. Fleshy and leafy greenhouse shrubs or herbs, grown for the grotesque appearance of some of the kinds and also for the bloom. V...
-Crataego-Mespilus
This name has been bestowed on a graft hybrid between Crataegus mon-ogyna and Mespilus germanica, discovered in 1894 in the garden of M. Dardar at Bronvaux near Metz, Germany. Like Laburnum Adamii, wh...
-Crataegus
(ancient Greek name, derived from kratos, strength, on account of the hardiness of the wood). Rosaceae, subfamily Pomeae. Crategus. Hawthorn. Woody plants grown for their handsome foliage, attractive ...
-Crataegus. Part 2
The fruit can be sown broadcast in beds without any separation of the seeds, and heavily mulched until the spring of the second year, when the mulching should be removed. This method, however, is not ...
-Crataegus. Part 3
f. Leaves dark green and shining above. G. Stamens 10: under side of leaves glabrous or nearly so. H. Anthers rose-color or purple. I. fruit glabrous: corymbs glabrous. J. Shape of Ivs. cuneate-obo...
-Crataegus. Part 4
1. Molles 1. Mollis, Scheele (C. tiliifblia, Koch. C. acerifolia, Hort. C. coccinea variety mollis, Torr. & Gray). Tree, to 30 ft., with short, stout thorns: leaves broadly ovate, sharply and doubly...
-Crataegus. Part 5
4. Coccineae 11. Pedicellata, Sarg Tree, to 20 ft., with rather slender spreading or ascending branches forming a symmetrical head: spines straight or slightly curved, l 1/2-2 in. long: leaves broad...
-Crataegus. Part 6
20. Canbyi, Sarg Shrub or bushy tree, to 20 ft.: branches wide-spreading, with thick usually straight spines: leaves oblong-obovate to elliptic, acute or obtuse, coarsely and often doubly serrate abo...
-Crataegus. Part 7
13. Uniflorae 29. Uniflora, Moench (C. parvifolia, Ait. C. tomentosa, Eggleston, not Linn. C. florida, Loud.). Dense, low shrub, with numerous slender spines, rarely spineless, 3-8 ft.: leaves on sh...
-Crataegus. Part 8
16. Douglasianae (Page 3567) 37. Douglasii, Lindl (C. sanguined variety Douglasii, Torr. & Gray). Tree, to 40 ft., with slender, often pendulous branches, unarmed or with short spines: leaves short-...
-Crataegus. Part 9
46. Monogyna, Jacq (C. Oxyacantha, Hort.). Shrub or tree, to 20 ft., with stout spines: leaves on rather slender petioles, ovate, 3-7-lobed, lobes with few teeth at the apex, 1-2 in. long: corymbs ma...
-Crataegus. Part 10
Pedicellata Tree, to 15 ft., spiny: leaves broadly ovate, acuminate, rounded or cuneate at the base, dark yellow-green, slightly hairy on the veins below while young: corymbs 10-14-flowered; flowers ...
-Crataegus. Part 11
Origin unknown. - C. Holmesiana, Sarg. Allied to C. pedicellata. Tree, to 30 ft.: leaves oval or ovate, slightly lobed, at maturity yellowish green, glabrous: flowers 1/2-3/4in. across; stamens usuall...
-Crataeva
(after Cratevas, an obscure writer on medicinal plants, not, as sometimes stated, at the time of Hippocrates, but at the beginning of the first century B. C., since he named a plant after Mithridates)...
-Craterostigma
(Greek, referring to character of stigma). Scrophularidceae. Torenia-like perennial low nearly stemless herbs of E. and S. Africa, sometimes grown under glass. Leaves radical, plantago-like, many-nerv...
-Crepis
(Greek for Sandal; application obscure). Compositae. A large group of annual, biennial and perennial herbs, a few of which are now and then grown in outdoor gardens for the showy flowers. Much like H...
-Crescentia
(after Crescenzi, thirteenth century Italian agricultural writer). Bignoniaceae. This genus is chiefly interesting for the calabash tree, which has no near allies of horticultural importance; yields t...
-Cress
A name applied to the pungent herbage of several species of the Cruciferae, used as salad. The leaves of the ordinary garden cress (Lepidium sativum), sometimes called peppergrass, have a pleasant pu...
-Crinum
(Greek name for a lily). Amaryllidaceae. Large and showy flowering bulbs, mostly tender, closely allied to Amaryllis and distinguished by the longer perianth-tube; flowers usually white or in shades o...
-Crinum. Part 2
Crinums In Florida And The South The various species of Crinum belong to the most important, the most beautiful and the most popular of Florida garden plants. No plants grow so easily, with so little...
-Crinum. Part 3
C. Caribaeum Reminds one of C. americanum, but flower-stem grayish purple on a green ground. Flowers pure white, very fragrant. Rare. C. Crassipes Bulbs conical, very large, 8 to 10 inches in diame...
-Crinum. Part 4
C. Yemense Flowers pure white, bell-shaped and somewhat fragrant. Bears seeds. Excellent for cross-breeding purposes. C. Zeylanicum (Often Sold As C. Kirkii) Perhaps the most common of all the crin...
-Crinum. Part 5
7. Amcenum, Roxbg Bulb globose, 2-3 in. diam., with a very short neck: leaves 10-12, suberect, linear, 2 ft. or less long, rough-edged, tapering to the apex: flowers 6-12, the peduncle standing 1-2 f...
-Crinum. Part 6
17. Zeylanicum, Linn Bulb globose, 5-6 in. thick: leaves 6-10, thin, sword-shaped, 2-3 ft. long, 3-4 in. wide, wavy, margin roughish; peduncle long and not very stout, often tinged red; flowers 10-20...
-Crinum. Part 7
27. Lineare, Linn. F Bulb small, ovoid: leaves linear, 1 1/2-2 ft. long, 1/2in. broad, glaucous, channeled on the face, the margin entire: flowers 5-6, the peduncle slender and about 1 ft. long, th...
-Crocosmia
(Greek, odor of saffron, which is perceivable when the dried flowers are placed in warm water). Iridaceae. Gladiolus-like garden plant. This genus has but one species, and is not clearly distinguishe...
-Crocus
(Greek name of saffron). Iridaceae. Low spring-flowering and autumn-flowering garden bulbs; showy, and well known. Stemless plants (the grass-like leaves rising from the ground or corm), with solid b...
-Crocus. Part 2. Culture
Many forms of crocus are well known, where they are justly valued as among the showiest and brightest of winter and spring flowers. They thrive in any ordinary soil. About two-thirds of the species ar...
-Crocus. Part 3
9. Versicolor, Ker (C. fragrans, Haw. C. Reinwardtii, Reichb.). Corm 3/4in. or less in diam., with tunics of matted parallel fibers: leaves 4-5, as high as the flowers, otherwise like the last: upper...
-Crocus. Part 4
21. Candidus, Clarke (C. Kirkii, Maw) Corm globose, 3/4in. diam.; tunics of matted parallel fibers: leaves as high as the flower, becoming 1/4in. broad, the margin ciliated and the keel very narrow: ...
-Crop
The product secured from an area of cultivated plants; as, a crop of wheat, a crop of mushrooms, a crop of violets. The word is used generically for classes of products, as grain crop, root crop, fore...
-Crossandra
(Greek, fringed anthers). Acanthaceae. Warmhouse evergreen shrubs of minor importance. Upright, with entire or somewhat toothed, often verticillate leaves, glabrous, or the infloresence hairy: flower...
-Crotalaria
(Greek, rattle, castanet; from the rattling of the seeds in the pod). Leguminosae. Rattle-Box. Annual outside herbs, and shrubs grown in greenhouses or in the open far South. Herbs or shrubs of vario...
-Croton
(Greek name, probably of the castor bean). Euphorbiacese. Herbs, shrubs or trees of no special horticultural value; some cultivated for economic products which they yield. Pubescence stellate or scal...
-Crucianella
(Latin, a little cross; from the arrangement of the leaves). Rubidceae. Crosswort. Hardy rock plants of minor importance. Herbs, often woody at the base: branches usually long, slender, 4-cornered: u...
-Cryptanthus
(Greek, for hidden flower). Brome-liacex. Brazilian epiphytal bromeliads, differing from AEchmea and Billbergia (which see for culture) in the tubular calyx and the dense heads of flowers nearly sessi...
-Cryptocoryne
(Greek-made name, referring to the spadix being inclosed or hidden in the spathe). Syn. Myrioblastus. Araceae. Aquatic or paludose herbs of 20-30 species in tropical Asia and the Malayan Archipelago, ...
-Cryptogramma
(Greek, a concealed line, alluding to the sub-marginal sori). Polypodiaceae. Hardy subalpine ferns of both hemispheres of interest mainly to the collector. Leaves of 2 sorts, the fertile leaves contr...
-Cryptomeria
(Greek, kryptos, hidden, meros, part; meaning doubtful). Pinacese. Ornamental evergreen cultivated for its handsome habit and foliage. Large pyramidal tree, with a straight slender trunk, covered wit...
-Cryptophoranthus
(Greek, meaning to bear hidden flowers). Orchiddceae. A few tropical American orchids closely allied to Masdevallia and Pleurothallis, remarkable for the almost closed flower within which is hidden th...
-Cryptostegia
(Greek, krupto, conceal, and stego, cover; referring to the 5-scaled crown in the corolla-tube, which is not exposed to view). Asclepiadaceae. Tropical climbers. Leaves opposite: flowers large and sh...
-Cryptostemma
(Greek, hidden crown). Composite. Two or 3 hoary herbs, by some united with Arctotis, apparently not in the trade, but sometimes mentioned in gardening literature: diffuse or creeping, with basal or a...
-Ctenanthe
(Greek, comb-flower). Marantaceae. About a dozen Brazilian plants closely allied to Cala-thea and Maranta, differing from the former in belonging to the 1-seeded section of the family and from the lat...
-Cucumber
Plate XXXI. The common cucumbers are derived from an Asian species, Cucumis sativus (see Cucumis), which has long been known in cultivation. The so-called West India gherkin, which is commonly classed...
-Cucumber. Continued
Forcing Of Cucumbers The commercial production of cucumbers under glass has assumed large proportions. This crop ranks second in commercial importance among greenhousegrown vegetable crops, lettuce o...
-Cucumis
(old Latin name). Cucurbitaceae. Tendril-bearing soft tender herbs, some of which are grown for their edible fruits. Annual or perennial-rooted (the common cultivation species annual), with large alt...
-Cucurbita
(classical name). Cucur-bitacese. Gourd. Pumpkin. Squash. Vine-like tender herbs, tendril-bearing, grown for their edible and ornamental fruits. Annual, or the root perennial-rhizo-matous, rough-hair...
-Cudrania
(derivation unknown). Moraceae. Woody subjects cultivated for their foliage and as hedge plants. Deciduous trees or shrubs, often thorny, with alternate, petioled and stipulate leaves: flowers dioeci...
-Cunninghamia
(after J. Cunningham, botanical collector, who discovered this conifer in China in 1702). Pinaceae. Evergreen trees cultivated for their handsome foliage. Trunk stout: branches verticillate, spreadin...
-Cuphea
(Greek, curved; referring to the prominent protuberance at the base of the calyx-tube). Lythrdceae. Mostly small greenhouse and conservatory plants. Plants often clammy: leaves opposite, rarely whorl...
-Cupressus
(ancient Latin name from Greek, Kuparissos). Cypress. Pinaccx. Evergreens, cultivated for their graceful habit and thedark green or glaucous foliage; some are timber trees. Trees, rarely shrubs, with...
-Curculigo
(Latin, curculio, weevil; referring to the beak of the ovary). Amaryllidaceae. Warmhouse and conservatory foliage plants with the habit of a young palm and an odd flower-cluster. Stemless herbs, with...
-Curcuma
(Arabic name). Zingiberacae. Curious and showy warmhouse herbaceous plants with great spikes of large concave or hooded bracts, from which the flowers scarcely protrude. Erect herbs, the stem rising ...
-Currant
The currants grown for their fruit in America are derived mainly from two species, namely, the European red currant, Ribes vulgare (R. rubrum) (Fig. 1151), and the European black currant, R. nigrum (F...
-Currant. Part 2
Propagation Of Currants The usual method of propagating currants is by means of cuttings. These root very readily and good plants are secured after one season's growth. The best time to make the cutt...
-Currant. Part 3
Pruning The black and red currants bear most of their fruit on wood of different ages; hence the pruning of one is a little different from the other. The black currant bears most of its fruit on wood...
-Currant. Part 4. Injurious Insects
Some of the most injurious insects affecting the currant: Currant Aphis (Myzus Ribis) When the leaves of currant bushes are nearly full grown, many of them bear blister-like elevations of a reddish ...
-Cut-Flower Industry In North America
The feature that most distinguishes American floriculture from that of Europe is the great preponderance of the cut-flower trade as compared with the sales of plants. Forty years ago the passion of Am...
-Cut-Flower Industry In North America. Part 2
The Present Cut-Flower Production Having made these important advances in cultural methods, it needed but the introduction of the epoch-making rose, Catherine Mermet, to place the rose in the first p...
-Cut-Flower Industry In North America. Part 3
The Selling The marketing of cut-flowers is a business of itself. Many an excellent grower fails because he is not expert in selling his blooms. The cutting of the blooms must be properly done and at...
-Cut-Flower Industry In North America. Part 4
The Changing Demands The uses to which cut-flowers are put have changed. Forty years ago the taste was for formal designs. The flowers were picked with short stems, and in the case of carnations only...
-Cut-Flower Industry In North America. Part 5
The Cutting-Bed Under glass cuttings are commonly planted in pure sand, such as a mason would use for making mortar. Sphagnum moss is sometimes used and various substances like brick-dust, coal-ashes...
-Cut-Flower Industry In North America. Part 6
In a hardwood cutting of lemon verbena all leaves are taken off, in zonale geraniums from the open ground few if any are left, in coleus and verbena about one half are removed, while in Olea fragrans,...
-Cut-Flower Industry In North America. Part 7
Long Cuttings Of Ripened Wood In Open Air This method is used to propagate many hardy trees and shrubs, e.g., willows, currants, grapes, forsythia. Wood of the current year's growth is gathered in au...
-Cut-Flower Industry In North America. Part 8
Tender plants require the same or a little higher temperature than that in which they thrive. In sweet potato, the tuber is cut lengthwise and laid, with the cut side down, on moist sand or moss, the...
-Cyananthus
(Greek for blue flower). Cam-panulacese. Ten or a dozen herbs, probably mostly perennial, of the high mts. of Cent, and E. Asia, with showy blue flowers terminating the ascending mostly simple hairy s...
-Cyanotis
(Greek, referring to the blue petals). Commelindceae. Probably 40 creeping, ascending or weak branching often woolly or hairy herbs, much like Tradescantia; they are native in warm countries about the...
-Cyathea
(Greek, a cup, alluding to the indusia). Cyatheaceae. A large genus of tree ferns in both hemispheres, with a globose indusium which ultimately ruptures at the apex and becomes cup-shaped. All the spe...
-Cycas
(Greek kukas, the name of a palm tree). Cycadaceae. Several beautiful palm-like plants, common in cultivation under glass. Plate XXXIII. The Cycadaceae are of great interest because they occupy a pla...
-Cycas. Continued
Circinalis Linn. (C. Thoudrsii, R. Br.). Fern Palm. A palm-like tree with cylindrical trunk and a crown of glossy, fern-like, stiff but gracefully curved pinnate leaves: trunk clothed with the compac...
-Cyclamen
(classical name, probably from the Greek word for circle, in allusion to the spirally twisted peduncles). Primulaceae. Herbaceous and low plants, with a flattish tuber or corm, grown sometimes in the ...
-Cyclamen. Continued
At all times, the pots should be well drained. - The Giganteum strains of the Persian cyclamen produce the largest blooms, but at the expense of quantity. For the average cultivator it is better to tr...
-Cyclanthera
(Greek, anthers in a circle). Cucur-bitdcese. Annual- or perennial-rooted herbs, one of which is sometimes grown for its ornamental character. Climbing by tendrils, glabrous or pubescent: leaves enti...
-Cyclanthtjs
(flowers in a circle). Cyclanthacese. A tropical American genus of 4 species giving name to a small order which is allied to the palms. They are acaulescent palm-like herbs with a milky juice: leaves ...
-Cyclophorus
(Greek, circle-bearing). Polypodi-acese. An E. Indian and Malaysian genus of simple-lvd. ferns, related to some species of Polypodium. The genus is characterized by having creeping scaly rootstocks, s...
-Cycnoches
(Greek, swan's neck, referring to the shape of the column). Orchidaceae. Epiphytic orchids, requiring warmhouse treatment when growing. Pseudobulbs fusiform: leaves plicate: flowers of 2 sexes, the p...
-Cydista
(Greek, kydistos, most glorious; alluding to the beautiful flowers). Bignoniaceae. Ornamental vines, grown for their beautiful flowers. Evergreen shrubs, climbing by If . - tendrils: leaves opposite,...
-Cydonia
(the fruits known to the Romans as Mala Cydonia, apples from Cydon, now Canea, in Crete). Rosaceae, subfamily Pomeae. Quince. Shrub or small tree, grown for its fruit, which is much used for preserves...
-Cymbidium
(boat, from the Greek, referring to the shape of the lip). Orchidaceae. Handsome epiphytal, rarely terrestrial orchids, requiring warmhouse conditions. Stems pseudobulbous or not so: leaves coriaceou...
-Cymbopetalum
(Latin, signifying boat-petal, from the shape of its petals). Annonaceae. A group of plants remarkable for the fragrance of their aromatic flowers. Flowers with the 3 inner petals having the margin i...
-Cymbopogon
(Greek kumbo, a cup, and pogon, beard). Gramineae. Oil-producing grasses. The genus resembles Andropogon, of which it is considered by some a subgenus, but differs in having some of the lower pairs o...
-Cynanchum
(Greek, dog strangle). Asclepiaddcese. Herbaceous or sometimes half woody at the base, twining, sometimes seen in gardens. In the restricted sense as limited by Bentham & Hooker, perhaps 25 species d...
-Cynara
(involucre spines likened to a dog's tooth). Composite. Artichoke and Cardoon. Thistle-like perennial herbs, mostly coarse, and sometimes prickly: leaves commonly large, variously lobed or pinnatisec...
-Cynodon
(Greek kuon, a dog, and odons, a tooth). Graminae. Low creeping perennials, used for lawns and pasture. Fig. 1189. Cynodon dactylon. (Natural size.) Flowers in slender digitate spikes; spikelets 1...
-Cynoglossum
(Greek, hound's tongue, from the shape and soft surface of the leaves of the commonest species). Borraginaceae. A widely dispersed genus of little horticultural interest, being mostly tall, coarse, we...
-Cynorchis
(Greek for dog orchid). Orchidaceae. Terrestrial orchids, grown in the warmhouse. Flower-clusters loose; sepals and petals similar, or the petals smaller, spreading; Up spreading, 3-5-lobed, spurred;...
-Cynosurus
(Greek kuon, a dog, and oura, a tail). Gramineae. Dog's-tail-Grass. Cespitose grasses with flat blades and spike-like panicles, two species of which are cultivated as ornamental grasses and in lawns a...
-Cypella
(application obscure). Iridaceae. South American bulbs, resembling Iris. Half-hardy: bulb tunicate: leaves radical or cauline: flowers 1-3 from a spathe, yellow, orange or blue; segments free, narrow...
-Cyperorchis
(Cyperus and Orchis, from the sedge-like appearance). Orchiddceae. Epiphytic orchids, thriving in the warmhouse. Very closely allied to Cymbidium, from which it differs in the narrower sepals and pet...
-Cyperus
(ancient Greek name). Cyperdceae. A large genus of the sedge family, inhabiting both tropical and temperate regions. The species in cult, are all perennials from rootstocks or tubers: leaves grass-lik...
-Cyphokentia
(allied to Kentia, differing, among other things, in having a lateral protuberance or tumor on the fruit, whence the name). Palmaceae. Feather-lvd. robust spineless palms, of very few species in New C...
-Cyphomandra
(from the Greek, referring to the hump-shaped anthers). Solanacex. South American spineless shrubs or small trees, one of which is sometimes grown for its edible fruit. The genus is distinguished fro...
-Cyphophcenix
(hump and Phoenix, a palm). Palmaceae, tribe Areceae. A rather unimportant genus of unarmed, stout-stemmed palms, with terminal pinnatisect leaves. Leaflets acute at the apex, sword-shaped, the base ...
-Cyphosperma
(Greek, hump and seed). Pal-macese, tribe Areceae. Unarmed stout-stemmed palms with a crown of pinnately divided, terminal leaves. Leaflets leathery, sword-shaped, the apex narrowly oblique, the base...
-Cypripedium
(Venus'-slipper). Lady's Slipper. Moccasin-Flower. Orchiddceae. Attractive hardy orchids, often planted in moist cool borders, bogs, and sometimes in rock-gardens. Stems very short, with a pair of le...
-Cyrilla
(after Dominico Cyrillo, professor of medicine at Naples, 1734-1799). Cyrillaceae. Woody or nearly tree-like, rarely cultivated for its handsome bright green foliage and white flowers in slender racem...
-Cyrtanthus
(Greek, curved flowers; from their pendulous habit). Amaryllidaceae. Tender bulbs from South Africa, known only in a few American greenhouses. Flowers umbellate, pendulous or erect, usually red or wh...
-Cyrtomium
(Greek, a bow;). Polypodidcese. Asiatic half-hardy or greenhouse ferns of rigid habit. Leaves simply pinnate, anastomosing veins and firm indusia fixed by the depressed center. It differs from Polyst...
-Cyrtopodium
(Greek for curved foot, from shape of lip). Orchidaceae. Epiphytes, grown in warmhouses. Stems fusiform, bearing plicate leaves: scapes radical, bearing numerous flowers, pure yellow or spotted with ...
-Cyrtosperma
(Greek, curved seed). Araceae. A handsome warmhouse tuberous foliage plant, with large, hastate red-veined leaves resembling an alocasia, but easily distinguished by its spiny stems. Herbs with tuber...
-Cyrtostachys
(Greek for a curved spike). Palmaceae, tribe Areceae. Three or four palms of the Malayan region of stately habit, but little known in this country. Stem spineless, slender and tall, crowned by a grac...
-Cystopteris
(Greek, bladder-fern). Polypodid-cese. Native ferns, with delicate foliage; deserve to be planted in the hardy fern garden. Sori round, covered by a delicate indusium which is attached under one side...
-Cytisus
(Greek name for a kind of clover). Legu-minbsae. Broom. Woody subjects, chiefly grown for their profusely produced yellow or sometimes white or purple flowers. Mostly low shrubs, rarely small trees: ...
-Cytisus. Part 2
5. Purpureus, Scop Procumbent or erect shrub, to 2 ft., quite glabrous: leaves rather long-petioled; leaflets oval or obovate, dark green above, 1/2-l in. long: flowers 1-3, purple; calyx reddish: po...
-Cytisus. Part 3
13. Nigricans, Linn (Lembotropis nigricans, Griseb.). Shrub, 2-4 ft., with erect, appressed-pubescent branches: leaves long-petioled; leaflets obovate or oblong-obovate, glabrous above, appressed-pub...
-Dabcecia
(after its Irish name, stem Dabeoc's Heath). More commonly spelled Daboecia, and sometimes Dabeocia. Syn., Boretta. Ericaceae. Shrub cultivated for its purple flowers appearing in summer. Low evergre...
-Dacrydium
(Greek-made name, referring to the tear-like exudations). Taxaceae. About 16 species of New Zeal., Austral., Malaya and Chile, being trees or shrubs with closely imbricated scale-like leaves on old tr...
-Dactylis
(Greek daktulos, a finger). Gramineae. A perennial tufted grass with flat blades, thin prominent ligules and sheaths closed nearly to the throat, grown for forage and one form for ornament. Panicles ...
-Daedalacanthus
(Greek words, signifying an acanthad of curious structure). Acanihaceae. Tropical shrubs or sub-shrubs, with blue or rose-colored flowers, sometimes grown under glass and in the open in warm countries...
-Daemonorops
(probably means God-like, of divine appearance). Palmaceae, tribe Lepidocarpeae. Slender pinnate palms grown for their graceful foliage, but little known in Amer. outside of botanic gardens. Differs f...
-Dahlia
(named after Professor Andreas Dahl, a Swedish pupil of Linnaeus, and author of Observa-tiones Botanicae). Syn. Georgina. Compositae. Stout perennial herbs, sometimes somewhat woody, much grown out-...
-Types And Varieties Of The Dahlia
Practically all of the named varieties of dahlias have come from one immensely variable species, usually known as D. variabilis, but more properly as D. rosea. For garden purposes, however, a second f...
-Types And Varieties Of The Dahlia. Part 2
The Single dahlias may be freely produced, but they are not so lasting for cut-flowers. The Single type has had many ups and downs. In the reaction against formalism, it came to the front about 1881, ...
-Types And Varieties Of The Dahlia. Part 3
The dahlia may not be denied such possibilities, for in G.C. III. 20:339 (1896) a new dahlia was described in which the quills are really tubes for two-thirds of their length. Fig. 1210. A Show dah...
-Types And Varieties Of The Dahlia. Part 4
The main types of dahlias may perhaps be distinguished more clearly by the following scheme: Fig. 1213. Single cactus dahlia. (XH) a. Plants very dwarf. 1. The Tom Thumb Types. aa. Plants not v...
-Types And Varieties Of The Dahlia. Part 5
Literature As in many other cases, the magazine literature of the dahlia is the most bulky, and, in some respects, more important than the books on the subject. C. Harman Payne published a bibliograp...
-Types And Varieties Of The Dahlia. Part 6
Kinds Of Stock Dahlias are offered in five forms: large clumps, ordinary field-roots, pot-roots, green plants and seeds. The clumps give the best satisfaction the first year, but are entirely too lar...
-Dais
(Greek, pine torch; application not obvious). Thymelaedceae. Contains a woody plant that yields a strong fiber, and is also rarely cultivated for ornament, especially in Florida and southern Californi...
-Daisy
(i. e., day's eye, in allusion to the sun-like form of the flower). A name applied to the flowers of many Compositae, but it properly belongs to the Bellis perennis of Europe, a low early-flowering pl...
-Dalbergia
(N. Dalberg, a Swedish botanist, 1730 to 1820). Leguminosae. Nearly 100 species of trees, shrubs, or climbers, belonging to tropical regions all over the world, a few of which have been introduced to ...
-Dalea
(Samuel Dale, 1659-1739, English botanist and author on pharmacology). Syn. Parosela. Legu-minosse. More than 100 herbs and small shrubs bearing purple, blue, white or even yellow flowers in terminal ...
-Dalechampia
(from J. Dalechamps, French savant of sixteenth century). Euphorbiacese. Climbing or rarely erect tropical shrubs; one rarely cultivated in warmhouses for its ornamental bracts. Leaves alternate, sim...
-Dalibarda
(after Thomas Francois Dalibard, French botanist). Rosdceae. A low-growing native hardy herbaceous perennial, with foliage resembling violet and flowers like those of a strawberry, sometimes grown in ...
-Damnacanthus
(Greek, referring to the powerful spines). Rubiacese. A tender evergreen shrub, chiefly valued for its coral-red berries, which remain on the bush until the flowers of the next season are produced. D...
-Damping-Off
A gardeners' phrase for a disastrous rotting of plants, especially of seedlings and cuttings, and commonly at the surface of the ground. It is usually associated with excessive moisture in the soil an...
-Dandelion
(i. e., dent de lion, French for lion's tooth; referring to the teeth on the leaves). The vernacular of Tardxacum officinale, Weber, a stemless perennial or biennial plant of the Compositae, a common ...
-Daphne
(Greek name of Laurus nobilis). Thy-melseacex. Ornamental woody plants, chiefly grown for their handsome foliage and sweet-scented, white, purple, lilac or rarely greenish flowers, which, with some sp...
-Daphne. Continued
5. Blagayana, Freyer. Branches often ascending, glabrous: leaves cuneate, obovate or oblong, glabrous, 1-1 1/2 in. long: heads many-flowered; flowers white or yellowish white, fragrant, nearly glabrou...
-Daphniphyllum
(Greek, laurel leaf, from the similarity of the leaves). Euphorbiaceae. Broad-leaved evergreen hardy or semi-tropical shrubs or small trees, sometimes cultivated for their handsome large foliage. Lea...
-Darlingtonia
(after William Darlington, of West Chester, Pa., author of Memorials of John Bartram and Humphrey Marshall, and of Morula Cestrica.) Sarraceniaceae. A monotypic genus of American pitcher-plants wh...
-Darwinia
(Dr. Erasmus Darwin, an English nature-student). Myrtaceae. About 40 Australian evergreen shrubs, a very few of which are sometimes grown for the colored flower-like campanulate involucres that hold t...
-Dasylirion
(Greek, tufted lily). Liliaceae. Stiff short-trunked desert plants, with crowded leaves and elevated panicles of small mostly white or whitish flowers. Caudex or trunk erect and woody: leaves numerou...
-Date
A palm, Phoenix dactylifera, Linn., native to North Africa or Arabia and extensively planted in countries inhabited by Arabs, and having arid or desert conditions. Figs. 1223-1226. It is also grown to...
-Date Propagation
It is always preferable to propagate dates from suckers unless one desires to originate new varieties, not only on account of the knowledge of the sex (it being hardly necessary to state that the sex ...
-Date Propagation. Continued
The date seems to enjoy not only a high atmospheric temperature, but a high temperature of the water supplied in irrigation as well. In irrigating small crops by flooding, it is necessary in midsummer...
-Datisca
(old Greek name, applied to some doubtful plant). Datiscaceae. Tall perennial herbs, one of which is sometimes planted in gardens. Glabrous branching hemp-like plants with pinnately compound or terna...
-Datura
(Arabic name). Syn. Brugmansia. Sol-anacese. Thorn-Apple. Several large plants cultivated for their huge trumpet-like flowers, which have an odor that is very pleasant to some persons. Annual or pere...
-Daucus
(ancient Greek name). Umbelliferae. Perhaps 60 annual and biennial herbs of very wide distribution. One or 2 species are native to N. Amer.; one species of Daucus is the common garden carrot, and the ...
-Davallia
(a personal name). Polypodiaceae. Ferns, some of them grown under glass, and the smaller species making good plants for hanging-baskets. Tropical plants, usually with firm, somewhat finely divided fo...
-Davidia
(after Armand David, French missionary, botanized in China from 1862 to 1873). Nyssacese. Ornamental deciduous trees, cultivated for their handsome foliage and the large and showy white flowers. Leav...
-Debregeasia
(derivation unknown; probably named after a person). Syn., Morocorpus. Urticaceae. Upright shrubs, grown for their handsome foliage and ornamental yellow or red fruits, which are edible. Leaves alter...
-Decaisnea
(after Joseph Decaisne, French botanist, who wrote much on the botany of cultivated plants; 1809-1882). Lardizabalaceae. Woody subjects grown for the large pinnate foliage and the conspicuous fruits. ...
-Decumaria
(Latin, decumus, tenth, referring to the number of the parts of the flower). Saxifragaceae. Climbing shrubs, cultivated for their handsome glossy foliage and clusters of attractive white flowers. Cli...
-Deeringia
(Karl Deering, died 1749; born in Saxony, practicing physician in London and author of catalogue of plants of England). Amarantaceae. About a half-dozen species of climbing herbs or sub-shrubs, from M...
-Delarbrea
(after a French naturalist). Araliaceae. Tall tender shrubs from New Caledonia, grown in hothouses. Leaves alternate, decompound, gracefully arching, the leaflets leathery and entire or slightly cut:...
-Delphinium
(Greek, a dolphin, from the resemblance of the flower). Ranunculaceae. Larkspur. A group of beautiful hardy plants grown in borders for their handsome spikes of flowers and stately stems of foliage. T...
-Delphinium. Part 2
2. Consolida, Linn (Consolida arvensis, Opiz). An erect, hairy annual, 1-1 1/2 ft. high: leaves similar to D. Ajacis: flowers few, loosely panicled, pedicels shorter than the bracts, blue or violet o...
-Delphinium. Part 3
12. Menziesii, Dc Plant sparingly pubescent: stem simple, slender, 1/2-1 1/2 ft. high, few-lvd.: leaves small, 3-5-parted, the divisions mainly cleft into linear or lanceolate lobes; petioles hardl...
-Dendrobium
(tree and life; they are epiphytic). Orchidaceae. Epiphytic orchids of great horticultural merit, grown in hothouses and greenhouses. Pseudobulbs (stems), tufted or arising at intervals from a creepi...
-Dendrobium. Part 2
hh. Sepals and petals glabrous externally. I. Pseudobulbs gradually attenuated from a thick bulbous base. Section IX. Species 60. ii. Pseudobulbs not bulbous at base. J. Flowers, at least the lip, p...
-Dendrobium. Part 3
Section IV A. Sepals and petals not yellow. b. Lip deeply fimbriate...............15. Devonianum bb. Lip entire or minutely fimbriate. c. Nodes of pseudobulb much thickened. D. Pseudobulbs thick. ...
-Dendrobium. Part 4
21. Monile, Kranzl (D. Japonicum, Lindl.) Pseudobulbs up to 1 ft. long, slender-clavate: flowers solitary or in pairs, fragrant, white except for a few purple spots on the lip; sepals narrower than p...
-Dendrobium. Part 5
32. Nobile, Lindl Fig. 1236. Pseudobulbs up to 2 ft. long, erect or nearly so, tufted, nearly round: flowers in 2's or 3's, 2 1/2-3 in. across; sepals and petals white, the upper portion, varying in ...
-Dendrobium. Part 6
43. Clavatum, Wall Pseudobulbs up to 3 ft. long, cylindric, pendulous: racemes 4-6-flowered; flowers 2-3 in. across; sepals and petals orange-yellow, the former oval-oblong, about half as wide as the...
-Dendrobium. Part 7
52. Ramosum, Lindl (D. Ruckeri, Lindl.). Pseudobulbs up to 1 1/2 ft. tall, slender: flowers solitary or in pairs, about 1 1/2 in. across; sepals and petals pale primrose-yellow, the dorsal sepal oblo...
-Dendrobium. Part 8
63. Phalaenopsis, Fitzgerald Fig. 1238. Pseudobulbs slender, up to 2 ft. long, leafy above: peduncle terminal or nearly so, slender, bearing a terminal raceme of 8-15 flowers which are 2 1/2-3 1/2 in...
-Dendrobium. Part 9
72. Chrysotoxum, Lindl Pseudobulbs up to 1 1/2 ft. tall, clavate or fusiform: racemes drooping, many-flowered; flowers about 2 in. across, golden yellow, except the reddish streaked orange-yellow dis...
-Dendrobium. Part 10
New Guinea. B.M. 7745. - D. Jerdonianum, Wight=D. nutans. - D. kardense, Schlecht. Flowers solitary in axil of If. at apex of the stem, small, white. A curious species. New Guinea. - D. Madonnee, Rolf...
-Dendromecon
(Greek dendron, tree; mecon, poppy). Papaveracex. An outdoor shrub in California, with bright yellow flowers; sparingly grown elsewhere. Smooth low branching plant with rigid alternate mostly entire ...
-Dennstaedtia
(August Wilhelm Dennstedt, early German botanist). Polypodiaceae. Hardy or greenhouse ferns of wide distribution, often referred to Dick-sonia but belonging to a different family from the tree ferns o...
-Dentaria
(Latin, dens, tooth; referring to the toothed rootstocks). Cruclferae. Toothwort. Small early-flowering herbs, sometimes offered by dealers in native plants. Hardy herbaceous perennials, usually with...
-Derris
(Greek, a leather covering). Syn. Deguelia. Leguminosae. Tropical, tall woody climbers (sometimes trees), one of which has been offered in S. Calif., but is now apparently out of cult, there. Leaves a...
-Deschampsia
(for Deslongchamps, a French botanist, 1774-1849). Gramineae. Tufted perennials with shining spikelets in narrow or loose panicles, sometimes grown for dry bouquets. Spikelets mostly 2-flowered, with...
-Floral Design
An important feature of the work of a retail florist is the making of floral designs or set pieces. Fig. 1242. This work is directly opposed to the informal arrangement of flowers which is so much a...
-Floral Design. Continued
If a single spray of cattleyas is placed among the roses and valley, the effect is enriched wonderfully. Magnolia and leucothoe leaves are also used extensively for wreaths, but this foliage is heav...
-Desmanthus
(name refers to flowers being in bundles). Syn. Acuan. Leguminpsae. About 10 herbs or shrubs in subtropical N. Amer., and 1 in the tropics of the Old World, a few of the American species reaching well...
-Desmodium
(Greek, a band or chain; referring to the jointed pods). By some called Meibomia. Legumi-nbsse. Tick Trefoil. Mostly herbs, upwards of 170 species, in temperate and warm regions of Amer., Asia, Africa...
-Desmoncus
(band and hook, referring to hook-like points on the leaves). Palmaceae. About 25 palms of U. S., S. Mex. to Bolivia and Brazil, differing from Bactris in the long slender climbing caudex and technica...
-Desmos
(Greek, chain, on account of the fruit resembling nodes chained together). Annonaceae. A genus established in 1790 by Loureiro and based upon Desmos cochinchinensis (Unona Desmos, Dunal, 1817; Unona c...
-Deutzia
(named by Thunberg in honor of his friend and patron, Johann van der Deutz). Saxifragaceae. Very ornamental shrubs grown for their showy white or blush flowers appearing in spring or early summer. Up...
-Deutzia. Part 2
4. Schneideriana, Rehd Shrub, to 6 ft.: leaves elliptic-ovate to elliptic-oblong, short-acuminate, sharply serrulate, stellate-tomentose and whitish below, 1 1/2-3 in. long: panicles broadly pyramida...
-Deutzia. Part 3
11. Kalmiaeflora, Lemoine (D. parviflora X D. pur-purascens). Leaves oblong to ovate-oblong, short-acuminate, broadly cuneate at the base, serrulate, rough above, slightly stellate pubescent below, 1...
-Dewberry
A blackberry-like fruit of trailing and climbing habit, now considerably grown in North America. The botanist makes no distinction between dewberries and blackberries. But to the fruit-grower, traili...
-Dianella
(diminutive of Diana, goddess of the hunt). Liliaceae. Tender perennial rhizomatous plants, related to Phormium. Leaves hard, linear, sheathing, grass-like, crowded at base of stem, often 2-3 ft. lon...
-Dianthera
(double anther referring to the separated anther-cells). Acanthdceae. Water-Willow. Herbs, mostly of greenhouses and warmhouses, and sometimes of open planting in mild climates. Glabrous or pilose pe...
-Dianthus
(Greek for Jove's flower). Caryophylla-ceae. Pink. Small herbs, many of them prized for their rich and showy flowers in the open garden; and one is the carnation. Some of them are deliriously fragrant...
-Dianthus. Part 2
3. Barbatus, Linn Sweet William. Fig. 1251. Readily grown from seed and flowering well the second year: glabrous, the stems 4-angled, 10-20 in. high, simple or branched only above: Ivs. broad and fla...
-Dianthus. Part 3
19. Caryophyllus, Linn Carnation. Clove Pink Picotee. Grenadine. Figs. 801-818. Plate XXII. Cespitose, glabrous, 1-3 ft., the stems hard or almost woody below, the nodes or joints conspicuous: leaves...
-Diapensia
(ancient name of obscure application). Diapensidcese. Two alpine-arctic species, one nearly circumpolar and one Himalayan, the former at least sometimes transferred to alpine gardens and rockeries. Di...
-Diascia
(to adorn, Greek, having regard to the attractive flowers). Scrophularidceae. Low and slender herbs, mostly annual, one of which is recently grown in flower-gardens. Leaves usually opposite: flowers ...
-Dicentra
(Greek, dis, kentron, two-spurred, but originally misprinted Dielytra, and then supposed to be Dielytra). Fumariaceae; by some this family is combined with Papaveraceae. Charming hardy perennial plant...
-Dichorisandra
(compounded of Greek words referring to the division of the stamens into two series). Commelinaceae. Tropical perennial herbs, with handsome foliage, often beautifully variegated, and rich blue flower...
-Dichroa
(Greek, dis, two, and chros, color). Syn. Addmia. Saxifragaceae. Rare greenhouse shrub in habit resembling a Hydrangea, with violet-blue flowers in a pyramidal panicle a foot across, and handsome blue...
-Dichrostachys
(two-colored spikes). Legu-minosae. Stiff shrubs, with bipinnate leaves and small leathery lfts, and very small polygamous flowers in spikes, sometimes mentioned as useful for cult, in warmhouses. The...
-Dicksonia
(named for James Dickson, an English botanist, 1738-1822). Cyatheaceae. Tree ferns of greenhouses. Plants with a distinctly 2-valved inferior indusium, the outer valve formed by the apex of the leaf ...
-Dictamnus
(old Greek name, supposed to indicate foliage like the ash: hence Fraxinella, diminutive of the Latin Fraxinus, an ash). Rutaceae. Gas-Plant. Burning-Bush. Fraxinella. Dittany. A hardy perennial herb....
-Dictyosperma
(Greek, netted seed). Palmaceae. Areca-like palms, comprising several species of desirable pinnate house and table palms that are becoming deservedly well known. Slender spineless palms, with a ringe...
-Didymocarpus
(twin fruit). Gesneriaceae. Attractive warmhouse herbs, with few showy flowers. A polymorphous genus, distributed in E. India, Malaya, China, and tropical Africa, differently named and defined by dif...
-Didymochljena
(Greek, twin cloak; alluding to the indusium). Polypodiaceae. Greenhouse ferns of rather coarse foliage. Indusium elliptical, emarginate at the base, attached along a central vein, free all around th...
-Didymosperma
(Greek, double-seeded). Pol-mdcese, tribe Areceae. Low or almost stemless pinnate oriental palms. Leaves terminal, unequally pinnatisect, silvery-scaly below; segments opposite, alternate, solitary, ...
-Dieffenbachia
(J. F. Dieffenbach, a German botanist, 1794-1847) Ardceae. Popular hothouse plants, grown for their handsome and striking foliage. Low, shrubby perennials: stems rather thick, inclined or creeping at...
-Diervilla
(after Diereville, a French surgeon, who took D. Lonicera to Europe early in the eighteenth century). Caprifoliaceae. Weigela. Ornamental deciduous shrubs, grown for their showy flowers appearing prof...
-Diervilla. Continued
7. Japonica, Dc Fig. 1263. Shrub, to 6 ft.: leaves oblong-obovate or elliptic, acuminate-serrate, sparingly pubescent above, tomentose beneath: flowers usually in 3-flowered, short-peduncled cymes, o...
-Digitalis
(Latin, digitalis, finger of a glove, referring to the shape of the flowers). Scrophulariaceae, Foxglove. A fine genus, numbering several species, and some hybrids, of hardy or half-hardy herbaceous p...
-Dillenia
(named by Linnaeus for J. J. Dillenius, 1684-1747, botanist and professor at Oxford, author of important botanical works). Dilleniaceae. Tall tropical trees from Asia, Indian Archipelago, Philippines,...
-Dimorphotheca
(Greek, two-formed achenes). Compositae. Cape Marigold. Annual and perennial herbs or sub-shrubs, some of which are excellent flower-garden plants. Leaves alternate or radical, entire, toothed, or in...
-Dioclea
(after Diocles of Carystos, said to be second only to Hippocrates among the ancient3 for his knowledge of plants). Leguminosae. Tender shrubby twiners, with delicate trifoliolate leaves and blue, viol...
-Diokaea
(Greek name for Venus). Droserdceae. Vends Fly-trap. A remarkable monotypic genus of insectivorous plants, often grown for curiosity and in botanical collections. Leaves 1-5 in. long, 4-8 in number, ...
-Dioon
(Greek, two and egg; each scale covers two ovules and the seeds are in pairs). Cycaddceae. Handsome foliage plants suitable for warm or temperate palm houses and for planting in the open far South. T...
-Dioscorea
(Dioscorides, Greek naturalist of the first or second century of the Christian era). Dios-coreacese. Twining herbs from tuberous or thickened rootstocks, grown as arbor vines or under glass for the fo...
-Diosma
(Greek, divine odor). Rutaceae. Small tender heath-like shrubs from southwestern Africa. Leaves alternate or opposite, linear-acute, channeled, serrulate or sometimes ciliate, glandular-dotted: flowe...
-Diospyros
(Dios, Jove' s, pyros, grain; alluding to its edible fruit). Ebenaceae. Persimmon. Ebony. Woody plants grown partly for the handsome foliage and partly for their edible fruits; some species are valuab...
-Dipcadi
(meaning uncertain). Including Tricharis and Uropetalum. Liliacese. Tender bulbous scapose plants of minor importance, allied to Galtonia. Leaves radical, thickish, narrowly linear: scape simple and ...
-Dipelta
(Greek dis, twice, and pelte, shield; two of the floral bracts are shield-like). Caprifoliaceae. Ornamental deciduous shrubs, grown for their handsome pinkish or purple flowers. Leaves opposite, shor...
-Dipidax
(double fountain, from the pair of nectaries at the base of the perianth-segments). Liliaceae. Two species in S. Africa, with tunicated corms, simple stems and small whitish more or less tinted flower...
-Dipladenia
(Greek, double gland, referring to the two glands at base of ovary, which distinguish this genus from Echites). Apocynaceae. A charming genus of greenhouse twiners (sometimes erect), mostly from Brazi...
-Dipladenia. Continued
A. Flowers white; throat yellow inside. boliviensis, Hook. Plant everywhere glabrous: stems slender: leaves petioled, 2-3 1/2 in. long, oblong, acuminate, acute at base, bright green and glossy above,...
-Diplarrhena
(Greek, two anthers; the third being imperfect). Iridacese. Tender rhizomatous plants from Australia and Tasmania, with white and variegated flowers. Herbs: rhizome short: stems erect, simple or somew...
-Diplazium
(Greek, doubled). Polypodiaceae. Rather large, coarse ferns, of greenhouse culture. Allied to Asplenium, but with the indusia often double, extending along both sides of some of the free veins. The d...
-Diplothemium
(Greek, double sheathed). Pal-maceae, tribe Cocoineae. Spineless pinnate palms, low or stemless, or often with ringed, stout, solitary or fascicled trunks. Leaves terminal, pinnatisect; segments crow...
-Dipsacus
(to thirst, from the Greek, because the bases of the connate leaves in some species hold water). Dipsacaceae. Teasel. Stout tall biennial or perennial herbs of the Old World, two or three of which are...
-Dipteronia
(Greek dis, twice and pteron wing: the fruit consists of two winged carpels). Aceraceae. Ornamental deciduous tree with handsome large pinnate foliage. Leaves opposite, petioled, odd-pinnate, with 9-...
-Dirca
(Dirke, mythological name; also a spring near Thebes). ThymelAeaceae. Leatherwood. Two North American small early-blooming shrubs, sometimes planted. Fig. 1276. Fuller's teasel - Dipsacus fullonum....
-Disa
(origin of name unknown). Orchidaceae. Terrestrial orchids, mostly South African, of which several are known to fanciers, but only one of which is in the American trade. Sepals free, spreading, upper...
-Disanthus
(Greek, dis, twice, and anthos, flower; the flowers being in 2-flowered heads). Hamamelidaceae. Ornamental shrub, grown for its handsome foliage, assuming beautiful autumnal tints. Deciduous, glabrou...
-Plant Diseases And Insects
Under one head it is thought best to bring together the discussions of the so-called enemies of plants, - the parasitic fungi and the depredating insects, together with the means of control. This comp...
-Plant Diseases And Insects. Part 2
Yet in each case here mentioned, as well as in most of the other of our common and destructive diseases, cheap and effective means of control are within the reach of every grower. The value and effic...
-Plant Diseases And Insects. Part 3
Physiological disease is a term under which is included all those diseases the cause of which cannot be attributed to some parasitic organism. Their origin is variously attributed to abnormal enzymic ...
-Plant Diseases And Insects. Part 4
Many fungous pathogens are now known to pass from one generation of the host plant to the next through the seed. The smut parasites of cereals afford remarkable examples of this habit. In the case of ...
-Ecological Conditions As Affecting Plant Disease
By ecology is meant the influence of such environmental factors as climate, weather, soil and fertilizers, on the disease, its severity, epidemic occurrence, and the like. These factors may influence ...
-Control Of Plant Diseases
By the term control is meant the profitable reduction of the losses ordinarily sustained from a given disease. The absolute prevention of many plant diseases is either impossible or unprofitable. The...
-Plant Diseases And Insects. Part 7
Fungicides A fungicide is any material or substance that kills fungi or their spores. The word is used particularly for those substances employed in the warfare against parasitic fungi. A satisfacto...
-Plant Diseases And Insects. Part 8
Substances Bordeaux Mixture A bluish green copper compound that settles out when freshly slaked lime and a solution of copper sulfate (blue-stone) are mixed. Many formulas have been recommended and ...
-Plant Diseases And Insects. Part 9
Potassium Sulfid (Liver Of Sulfur) Simple solution, three ounces in ten gallons of water. For mildew in greenhouses, on rose bushes and other ornamentals. Resin-Sal-Soda Sticker Resin, two pounds; ...
-Plant Diseases And Insects. Part 10
Anemone. Root-Decay (Sclerotinia Tuberosa) Rhizomes decayed and large lumps form on the outside. Control Eradicate affected rhizomes and the cup-like fungous bodies near such plants. Rust Several...
-Plant Diseases And Insects. Part 11
Calathea. Leaf-Blight (Cephaleurus Parasiticus) The epidermal cells contain the alga, which spreads over the leaf, blackening and killing it. Control Remove diseased leaves. Calceolaria. Leaf-Blig...
-Plant Diseases And Insects. Part 12
Cordyline. Blight See under Orchids. Coreopsis. Mildew (Sphaerotheca humuli variety fuliginea) - Powdery mildew of the leaves. Control Dust with sulfur. Corn. Smut (Ustilago Zeae) Boils on stal...
-Plant Diseases And Insects. Part 13
Ficus. Leaf-Spot (Leptostromella Elasticw) Causes spots on leaves. See also under Fig. Fig. Leaf-Spot (Cercospora bolleana) - Brown spots on leaves. Leaves turn yellow and drop off. Control Spray ...
-Plant Diseases And Insects. Part 14
Juniperus. Cedar Apples (Gymnosporangium Spp.) Large or small red and woody growth at tips of branches. Gelatinous in wet weather. Control Prune off affected parts. Keep apples, pears, and hawtho...
-Plant Diseases And Insects. Part 15
Smut ( Urocystis Cepulae) Black pustules on leaves and bulbs. Seedlings may be killed outright. Control Grow seed in new soil. Drill in with the seed one hundred pounds of sulfur and fifty pound...
-Plant Diseases And Insects. Part 16
Brown-Rot See under Peach. Polygonum. Tar-Spot (Rhytisma Bistortae) Black tar-like spots on leaves. Control Burn affected leaves. Pomegranate. Internal Rot (Sterigmatocystis Castanea) Central c...
-Plant Diseases And Insects. Part 17
Scilla. Bulb-Rot (Sclerotinia Bulborum) Yellow stripes and blotches on leaves in early summer, with olive-brown mold on them. Rots the bulb later. . Control -Destroy affected plants. Spray with pot...
-Insect Enemies Of Plants
The animals which constitute the insect world play an important part in most horticultural operations. The busy bee is an indispensable aid in the production of many fruits, but the equally busy jaws ...
-Insect Enemies Of Plants. Part 2
Their Sensations Insects can see, feel, hear, taste and smell, and they may also possess other senses, as a sense of direction. Many insects have two kinds of eyes. On each side of the head the large...
-Insect Enemies Of Plants. Part 3
Their Number, Size And Age Experts guess that there are from 2,000,000 to 10,000,000 different kinds of insects in the world. Only about 400,000 of these have yet been described and named by man. Bet...
-Beneficial Insects
The horticulturist has many staunch and true friends among the insects. The honey-bee, the many wild bees, and other insects, as they visit the blossoms to get food for themselves, for their young, an...
-Injurious Insects
There are now several thousand different kinds of insects that may be classed as injurious in the United States and Canada. Over 600 kinds were exhibited at the Columbian Exposition in 1893. All of th...
-Borers
These are the larvae of several different kinds of insects, which burrow into and feed upon the inner bark, the solid wood, or the interior pith of the larger roots, trunks, branches, and stems or sta...
-Bud-Feeding And Leaf-Feeding Insects
The buds and leaves of horticultural crops often swarm with legions of biting and sucking insects. A mere enumeration of the different kinds of these pests would weary the reader. Some insects, like t...
-Fruit-Eating Insects
Wormy apples, pears, quinces, plums, peaches, cherries, apricots, grapes, currants and nuts are often the rule rather than the exception. The codlin-moth or apple-worm often ruins from one-third to ...
-Plant-Lice
Scarcely a plant escapes the little suction pump or beak of some kind of a plant-louse or aphis. More than 300 different kinds of plant-lice have been identified in the United States, and nearly every...
-Scale Insects
Since the advent of San Jose scale into the eastern United States, scale insects of all kinds have attracted world-wide attention. They are all small insects, and derive their name from the fact that ...
-Insect Literature For Horticulturists
Horticulturists should keep in close touch with the experiment stations and state entomologists of their own and of other states, and also with the Department of Agriculture at Washington; for it is f...
-Mites
Mites belong to the class of animals known as Arachnida, which are closely related to insects. Spiders and scorpions also belong in this group. Mites are small creatures, usually possessing four pairs...
-Nematodes
A species of nematode worm (Hetero-dera radicicola) lives parasitically in the roots of a wide variety of wild and cultivated plants producing enlarged knots or swellings. This disease is known as roo...
-Insecticides
Insecticides are substances used to kill insects, as poisons, washes and gases. Insects are subject to many natural checks, such as wind, rains, sudden changes of temperature, the attacks of parasites...
-Contact Insecticides
The most important contact insecticides are soaps, sulfur, sulfur compound, and oily or resinous emulsions. Soaps The most commonly used soap solution is that prepared from fish-oil soap. The commer...
-Emulsion Insecticides
Emulsions are oily or resinous sprays in which these substances are suspended in water in the form of minute globules, a condition brought about by the addition of soap. They form an important class o...
-Tobacco as Insecticide
Tobacco is one of our most useful insecticides. The poisonous principle in tobacco is an alkaloid nicotine, which in the pure state is a colorless fluid; slightly heavier than water, of little smell w...
-Pyrethrum. Insecticides
A very fine, light brown powder, madefrom the flower-heads of species of pyrethrum. It is scarcely injurious to man. Three brands are on the market: Persian insect-powder, made from the heads of Pyre...
-Insecticides. Part 2
Bait, Vegetable Bait Spray a patch of clover or some other plant that the insects will eat with pari3 green or some other arsenical; mow it close to the ground, and while fresh place it in small pile...
-General Practices For destroying Insects
Cleanliness Much can be done to check the ravages of insects by destroying their breeding-places and hiding-places. Weeds, rubbish, and refuse should be eliminated. Hand-picking is often still the b...
-Fumigation
Poisonous gases are widely used in killing insects under certain conditions. Hydrocyanic acid gas is employed in the fumigation of greenhouses and citrus trees. It is a most deadly and effective mater...
-Fumigation. Continued
Fumigation Of Citrus Trees In this case, the tree to be fumigated with the hydrocyanic acid gas is covered with an octagonal sheet tent (Fig. 1325) made of six and one-half ounce special drill or eig...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects
Abutilon. Abutilon Moth (Cosmophila Erosa) A pale pea-green caterpillar striped with lemon-yellow often defoliates the plants in the southern states. Treatment The young caterpillar may be killed...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 2
Aesculus. Tussock-Moth See Apple. Agave. Oleander Scale See Hedera. Red Scale See Citrus. Alder. Alder Blight Aphis (Pemphigus tessellata) occurs in colonies on the branches and appears as co...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 3
Treatment To kill eggs spray with miscible oil, one gallon in fifteen gallons of water, making the application as late as possible before the buds open. If the eggs have been neglected, recourse must...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 4
Treatment Same as for fall canker-worm except the bands should be applied in early spring. Case-Bearers The pistol-case-bearer (Coleophora malivorella) and the cigar-case-bearer (C. fletcherella)...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 5
Treatment Kill the eggs by saturating the masses with crude coal-tar creosote, to which a little lamp-black has been added as a marker. When the young caterpillars hatch, spray the trees with arsenat...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 6
Treatment The young nymphs may be killed by thorough spraying with Black Leaf 40 tobacco extract, one pint in one hundred gallons water, adding four pounds of soap, (1) when blossoms show pink, (2)...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 7
Scurfy Scale (Chionaspis Furfurus) This whitish, pear-shaped scale, about 1/8 inch in length, often incrusts the bark, giving it a scurfy appearance. It hibernates as purplish eggs under the old scal...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 8
Cottony Cushion Scale See Citrus. European Fruit Lecanium See Plum. Frosted Scale (Eulecanium Pruinosum) A large soft-bodied scale, 1/2 inch in length, hemispherical in shape with a frost-lik...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 9
Root-Louse (Aphis Maidiradicis) Small bluish green plant-lice infesting the roots, causing the plants to turn yellow and sickly. Treatment Mix tobacco dust into the soil around the plants when tr...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 10
Treatment Rotation of crops. Beet Leaf-Hopper (Eutettix Tenella) A small, pale yellowish green leaf-hopper punctures the leaves, causing, the disease, curly top. Present in the western states. ...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 11
Oyster-Shell Scale See Apple. Bignonia. Hemispherical Scale See Citrus. Mealy-Bugs See Citrus. Billbergia. Pineapple Scale See Pineapple. Blackberry See Bramble Fruits. Bramble Fru...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 12
Treatment Thorough spraying with Black Leaf 40 tobacco extract, three-fourths of a pint in one hundred gallons water, adding four or five pounds of soap. Cabbage-Looper (Antographa Brassicae) '...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 13
Cottony Cochineal Insect (Dactylopius Confusus) A scale insect covered with large flocculent masses of pure white wax. Control Usually kept in check by its predaceous enemies. Melitara Junctol...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 14
Celery. Carrot Rust-Fly (Psila Rosae) Minute whitish yellow maggots infesting the roots and stunting the plants. Preventive Late sowing and rotation of crops. Celery or carrots should not follow ...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 15
Two-Lined Chestnut Borer (Agrilus Bilineatus) Slender, flattened grubs, 3/4inch long when mature, burrowing under the bark and girdling the trees. Treatment -Cut and burn infested trees to preven...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 16
Treatment Fumigation with full dosage schedule. Florida Wax Scale (Ceroplastes Floridensis) Oval convex, white or pinkish, waxy scales with the upper surface evenly lobed, 1-12 to 1/8 inch in dia...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 17
Control Fumigation with full dosage schedule. On deciduous trees lime-sulfur solution, one part in nine parts of water; or distillate emulsion. Silver Mite (Eriophyes Oleivorus) A minute, elongat...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 18
Hemispherical Scale See Citrus. Mealy-Bug See Citrus. Coleus. Mealy-Bug See Citrus. Orthezia Insignis Ocherous to dark green scale insect covered with a white waxy secretion extending pos...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 19
Grasshoppers (Acrididx) Poison them with the following mixture: Bran, twenty pounds; paris green, one pound; syrup, two quarts; oranges or lemons, three fruits; water, three and one-half gallons. Mix...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 20
Treatment Reflow for from twenty-four to thirty-six hours soon after the middle of May. It may be necessary to reflow a second time. Destroy all caterpillars washed ashore while the water is on. In d...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 21
White-Fly See Tomato. Cucurbita See Squash. Currant. Borer (Sesia Tipuliformis) A whitish larva, boring in the canes of currants, and sometimes of gooseberries. The larva remains in the cane ...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 22
Diospyros. White Fly See Citrus. White Peach Scale See Peach. Dracaena. Long-Tailed Mealy-Bug (Pseudococcus Longispinus) Similar to the common mealy-bug, but has two long white anal appendage...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 23
Treatment Spray with arsenate of lead while the beetles are feeding on the leaves. The beetles may be jarred down on sheets, as with the plum-curculio. Bag the clusters. Grape Root-Worm (Fidia Vit...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 24
Phylloxera (Phylloxera Rastatrix) A minute insect preying upon the roots, and in one form causing galls upon the leaves. Preventive As a rule, this insect is not destructive to American species o...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 25
Horse-Radish. Cabbage-Worm See Cabbage. Flea Beetles See Potato. Harlequin Cabbage-Bug See Cabbage. Ipomcea. Soft Brown Scale See Citrus. Iris. White-Fly See Citrus. Jasminum. Citr...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 26
Treatment Crop-rotation and tobacco dust placed in the soil about the plants. Liriodendron. Tulip Tree Scale (Toumeyella Liriodendri) Large, nearly hemispherical scales clustered in masses on the...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 27
Treatment Fumigate with tobacco preparations under cloth-covered frames placed over the plants. Cloth should be treated with linseed oil before using, to make gas-proof. In large fields, spray with ...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 28
Treatment Tobacco sprays. Spray with paris green one pound in one hundred gallons water sweetened with twenty pounds brown sugar when thrips first appear. Orange See Citrus. Orchids. Hemispher...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 29
Treatment Kerosene emulsion; tobacco decoction and extracts. Clover Mite (Bryobia Pratensis) Small reddish mites attacking the leaves, causing them to turn yellow. Treatment Lime-sulfur while...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 30
Round-Headed Apple Tree Borer See Apple. White Peach Scale (Diaspis Pentagona) Circular gray scales with the exuviae, at one side of the center. Remedy Same as for San Jose Scale. See Apple. ...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 31
Treatment Burn twigs before the beetle escapes. Pecan. Bud-Moth (Proteopteryx Deludana) A brownish caterpillar about 1/2 inch in length, feeding on the opening buds in early spring and on the und...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 32
Treatment Set only clean plants, or dip them in resin wash or kerosene emulsion. In the field apply tobacco dust freely in the bud before the bloom begins to appear, or spray with kerosene emulsion. ...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 33
Remedies Arsenicals, either dry or in spray, about a third stronger than for fruits. Hand-picking the beetle. Flea-Beetle (Halticini) Small, dark-colored jumping beetles that riddle the leaves wi...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 34
Treatment Spray with soap solution. Rhubarb. Rhubarb-Curculio (Lixus Concavus) A grub 3/4 inch long, boring into the crown and roots. It also attacks wild docks. Remedy Burn all infested plan...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 35
Spinach Aphis (Myzus Persicae) Same as green peach aphis. Treatment -Spray at first appearance of lice with Black Leaf 40 tobacco extract, three-fourths pint to one hundred gallons of water, a...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 36
Treatment Arsenicals to kill the beetles. Plant new beds at a distance from old ones. Root-Louse (Aphis Forbesii) From July to the close of the season the lice appear in great numbers on the crow...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 37
Fruit-Worm (Heliothis Obsoleta) Larva 1 inch in length, pale green or dark brown, faintly striped, feeding upon the fruit. Also on corn and cotton. Treatment Hand-picking. Avoid planting close to...
-Catalogue and Treatment of Insects. Part 38
Treatment On greenhouse violets there is nothing better than a stiff spray of clear water so applied as not to drench the beds. Repeat the spraying once or twice a week. Vitis See Grape. Walnu...
-Spraying To Protect Cultivated Plants From Insect Enemies And Vegetable Parasites
Spraying is the art of protecting cultivated plants from insect enemies and vegetable parasites by covering them with a material which shall have a toxic or physically injurious effect upon the animal...
-The Principles Of Spraying and Machinery
A spray may be effective (1) by hitting the enemy, (2) by placing poison before the depredator, and (3) by protecting the plant with a covering unfavorable to the growth of the pest. The cautious farm...
-Disporum
(Greek, double one-seeded). Syn. Pro-sdrtes. Liliaceae. Fairy Bells. Small perennial rhizo-matous herbs, sometimes planted in the wild garden. Allied to Smilacina and Streptopus, being leafy-stemmed,...
-Dissotis
(of two kinds, referring to the unlike anthers). Melastomaceae. Some 60 or more species of bristly-hairy or villous shrubs, sub-shrubs or herbs of tropical and S. Africa, some of which may occur spari...
-Distictis
(Greek dis, twice and stiktos, dotted; meaning obscure). Bignoniaceae. Five or 6 species in Cent, and S. Amer., very similar in flower to Pithecocten-ium, but caps, smooth, oblong, curved, and branchl...
-Distylium
(Greek, dis, twice, stylos, style; in reference to the two slender styles). Hamamelidaceae. Ornamental woody plants grown for their handsome evergreen foliage. Evergreen trees or shrubs: leaves alter...
-Diuris
(Greek, double-tailed, alluding to the sepals). Orchidaceae. Twenty or more glabrous terrestrial orchids of Austral., rarely seen in collections in cool or warm glasshouses. The leaves are at or near ...
-Dizygotheca
(Greek, in allusion to the anthers having double the usual number of cells). Araliaceae. Graceful hothouse plants, grown practically exclusively for foliage; usually known as Aralia. Usually shrubs, ...
-Dock
A name applied to various species of Rumex (Polygondceaae). The commonest species - growing in fields and yards - are the curled or narrow-leaved dock (R. crispus, Linn.) and the bitter or broad-leave...
-Docynia
(derivation unknown). Rosacex, subfamily Pomeae. Ornamental woody plants grown for their handsome foliage and white flowers appearing in spring. Evergreen or half-evergreen trees: leaves alternate, e...
-Dodecatheon
(Greek, twelve gods, old name of no application here). Primulaceae. Shooting-Star. American Cowslip. Small perennial herbs with cyclamen-shaped flowers on scapes, sometimes grown in wild or hardy gard...
-Dodonjea
(Rembert Dodoens, or Dodonaeus, about 1518-1585, royal physician and author). Sapin-dacese. Trees and shrubs, somewhat planted in S. Fla. and S. Calif, for ornament. Leaves alternate, without stipule...
-Dolichos
(old Greek name). Leguminbsx. Tropical twiners (a bush variety of D. Lablah is now being offered by seedsmen), of which a few forms are in cultivation, some for ornament and some for forage. Keel of ...
-Dombeya
(after Joseph Dombey (1742-1795) French botanist and companion of Ruiz and Pavon in Peru and Chile). Syn. Assonia, Astrapka. Sterculid-cese. Shrubs or small trees of continental Africa, Madagascar and...
-Doodia
(after Samuel Doody, London apothecary). Polypodiaceae. Greenhouse ferns. Sori curved, placed in one or more rows between the midribs and the margins of the pinnae: leaves rigid. A genus of diminutiv...
-Doronicum
(Latinized Arabic name). Compositae. Leopard's Bane. Hardy herbaceous plants, 1-2 feet high, with yellow many-flowered heads. Stems little branched or not at all: leaves alternate, radical ones long-...
-Dorstenia
(Theodor Dorsten, professor of medicine at Marburg, died 1539). Moraceae. About 50 tropical herbs or small shrubs, remarkable for the dilated receptacle in which the unisexual flowers are borne, being...
-Doryanthes
(Greek, spear-flower; the flowering stem 8 to 25 feet high, crowned by a spike of flowers 3 feet high). Amaryllidaceae. Great desert plants from Australia, with 100 or more leaves 6 feet long when ful...
-Douglasia
(after David Douglas, the Scotch botanist, who explored California, Oregon and British Columbia in 1823 and 1829). Incl. Arelia. Primulaceae. Low tufted perennial herbs, one of which is used in alpine...
-Downingia
(after Andrew Jackson Downing, famous American pomologist and landscape gardener). Campanulaceae; or Lobeliaceae when this family is kept distinct. Low herbs, much branched, sometimes grown as garden ...
-Draba
(Greek name for a cress). Cruciferae. Whitlow-Grass. One of the important groups of spring-flowering plants for the alpine garden. A large and widely scattered genus of tufted hardy annual or perenni...
-Dracaena
(female dragon; the dried juice supposed to resemble dragon's blood). Liliceae Dracena. Ornamental hothouse or stove plants, frequently with variegated leaves. Often arborescent, with sword-shaped or...
-Dracocephalum
(Greek, dragon's head, from the shape of the corolla). Labidtae. Hardy herbaceous annual and perennial plants of easy culture and of minor importance. Allied to Nepeta, differing in having the calyx ...
-Dracunculus
(Latin, a little dragon). Aracese. Odd tuberous plants sometimes grown under glass. This plant has interesting dragon-fingered leaves and a terrifying odor when in flower. Its tubers are sold by bulb...
-Drainage
Underground or sub-drains serve to relieve the land of free water, which is harmful to most plants if left to stagnate in the surface soil or subsoil. They serve not only to dry the land in early spri...
-Drainage For Landscape Work
The value of a thorough knowledge of the possibilities of drainage in landscape work has been overlooked until recent years as a definite field entirely apart from general drainage for agricultural pu...
-Drainage For Landscape Work. Continued
Clock-Golf-Greens, Bowling-Greens, And Croquet-Lawns A thorough distribution of tile drains installed as outlined below, should meet all the requirements commonly imposed from the drainage standpoint...
-Drimia
(name refers to the acridity of the roots). Liliaceae. Bulbous S. African and tropical African plants of the Scilla tribe, with gamophyllous perianth and a campanulate tube, the segments linear-oblong...
-Drimys
(from a Greek word, used in allusion to the sharp or acrid taste of the bark). Magnoliaceae. About 10 evergreen trees or shrubs, allied to Illicium, distributed from Mex. to the Straits of Magellan, a...
-Drosera
(Greek droseros, dewy, from the dew-like excretions on the tips of the leaf-hairs). Droseraceae. A group of carnivorous plants popularly known as the Sundews or Dew-Plants. The stems usually short, s...
-Drosophyllum
(dew-leaved). One of the6 genera of the Droseraceae, comprising a single species in S. Spain, Portugal and Morocco, sometimes seen in collections of insectivorous plants, and for the interesting morph...
-Dryas
(Greek, wood-nymph). Rosaceae. Dwarf hardy tufted evergreen somewhat shrubby plants, sometimes transferred to gardens. Leaves alternate, petioled, simple, entire or crenate, tomentose: flowers large,...
-Drymonia
(from Greek for an oak wood: growing on trees). Gesneriaceae. Prostrate or climbing woody plants, sometimes grown under glass, but apparently not offered in this country. Flowers white or yellowish, m...
-Drymophlceus
(Greek words meaning oak and smooth inner bark). Palmaceae, tribe Areceae. Spineless pinnate palms, with slender medium caudices. Leaves terminal, equally pinnatisect, the segments cuneate-oblong or ...
-Dryopteris
(Greek, oak-fern). Polypodiaceae. Wood-Fern. A widely distributed genus of handsome ferns with dissected foliage, the native species sometimes grown in the hardy border and the tropical kinds under gl...
-Dudleya
(named for the late Wm. R. Dudley, professor of botany in Stanford University). Crassu-laceie. Shortly caulescent or acaulescent perennials, with flat, linear to ovate, acute basal leaves: flowers in ...
-Duguetia
(named in honor of J. J. Duguet, who in 1731 wrote a work on plants). Aberemoa, R. E. Fries, not Aubl. Annondceae. A genus of tropical American shrubs and trees, about two dozen species, differing fro...
-Duranta
(after Castor Durantes, physician in Rome and botanist, died about 1590). Verbendceae. Tropical American woody plants, some of which are cultivated outdoors in Florida and California, and in a few nor...
-Durio
(from a Malayan vernacular). Bombacaceae. Trees of the Indian archipelago and Malaysia, one of which yields the durian (D. zibethinus, Linn.), a much-prized fruit of the East. Fig. 1366. There are pro...
-Dwarfing
Dwarf plants are those that never attain the height or size of the usual or representative individuals of the species. Some dwarfs are natural, being represented by varieties of prevailingly small s...
-Dwarfing. Continued
Pine This is one of the most difficult plants to be treated as a dwarfed tree, although it will hardly result in failure, if taken direct from the mountain or seashore while new young needles are ste...
-Dyckia
(after Prince Salm-Dyck, German botanist, and author of a great work on succulent plants). Bromeliaceae. Succulents, grown under glass and in the open far South. Dyckias somewhat resemble century pla...
-Dypsis
(obscure name). Palmaceae, tribe Areceae. Madagascar palms that have been poorly described, are little known and of scarcely any horticultural significance. They are all small, unarmed palms, with ree...
-Ebenus
(Greek name for the ebony). Leguminbose. About 15 species of silky-hairy herbs or sub-shrubs, of the eastern Medit. region and eastward to Beluchistan, allied to Onobrychis, sometimes planted in borde...
-Ecballium
(Greek, to throw out). Cucurbitaceae. Squirting Cucumber. A perennial trailing vine, easily grown as an annual in any garden, cultivated for its explosive fruits. Fig. 1370. Ecballium Elaterium. (X...
-Eccremocarpus
(Greek, pendent fruit). Big-nonidcex. An attractive half-hardy tendril-climber. Shrubs, but grown as annuals in the N., tall climbing: leaves opposite, 2-parted or -pinnate: flowers yellow, scarlet or...
-Echeveria
(named for Ata-nasio Echeverria, an excellent Mexican botanical draughtsman). Crassulaceae. Stemless or somewhat caulescent succulents. Leaves fleshy, but usually broad and flat, commonly making dense...
-Echeveria. Continued
16. subsessilis, Rose. This is very similar to E. Peacockii, but has shortly pedicelled flowers It is a very beautiful species, well suited for flat bedding. Native of Cent. Mex. ff. Lower pedicels e...
-Echtdnopsis
(viper-like, alluding to the serpentlike stems). Asclepiadaceae. A few species of leafless succulents of tropical Africa and Arabia, not sufficiently distinguished from Caralluma; allied to Stapelia, ...
-Echinacea
(Greek, echinos, hedgehog; alluding to the sharp-pointed bracts of the receptacle). Compositae. Purple Cone-Flower. Perennial stout herbs, more or less grown in the border or wild garden. Closely rel...
-Echinocactus
(Greek, spine and cactus). Cac-tacese. A very large group of globular, strongly ribbed, and strongly spiny cacti, growing from the United States to South America, particularly abundant in Mexico. Som...
-Echinocactus. Part 2
The system known as wedge-grafting is perhaps best for the purpose, and the early spring months, or just as the growing season is about to begin, is the best time for grafting. - If plants of echino...
-Echinocactus. Part 3
9. Cornigerus, Dc Globose or depressed-globose, 10-16 in. diam.: ribs about 21, very acute and wavy (not tuberculately interrupted): radial spines 6-10, white and comparatively slender, or wanting;...
-Echinocactus. Part 4
22. Electracanthus, Lem Globose or thick cylindrical, becoming 2 ft. high and 1 ft. diam.: ribs about 15: radial spines about 8, equal, rigid, spreading, yellowish, about 1 in. long; the central one ...
-Echinocactus. Part 5
38. Intertextus, Engelm Ovate-globose, 1-4 in. high: ribs 13, acute, somewhat oblique, tuberculate-interrupted, the tubercles with a woolly groove: spines short and rigid, reddish from a whitish base...
-Echinocereus
(spiny Cereus). Cactaceae. Condensed globular, cylindrical or prostrate cacti of the United States and Mexico. Stems single or cespitose, sometimes forming large clusters of 200-300 stems, distinctly...
-Echinocereus. Part 2
7. Triglochidiatus, K. Sch (E. triglochidiatus, Engelm. Cereus triglochidiatus, Engelm.). Radial spines usually 3, sometimes as many as 6, strong, angled, base bulbose, straight or curved, about 1 in...
-Echinocereus. Part 3
15. ctenoides, Lem. (Cereus ctenmdes, Engelm.). stems solitary or rarely branching, cylindrical to elongated ovoid, reaching a height of 6 in. and a diam. of 2 1/2 in.: ribs 15-16, usually straight: r...
-Echinochloa
(Greek, echinos, a hedgehog, chloa, grass). Gramineae. Annual grasses with narrow inflorescence of several thick spikes. Sometimes grown for grain and forage, but scarcely horticultural subjects. Spi...
-Echinocystis
(Greek, hedgehog and bladder; from the prickly fruit). Syn. Micrampelis. Curcurbitaceae. Wild Cucumber. Wild Balsam-Apple. A profuse native annual vine which is a favorite for home arbors; the other s...
-Echinopanax
(Greek, hedgehog and panax, referring to the prickly nature of the plant). Aralidceae. Ornamental shrub, but rarely grown; very handsome on account of the large foliage and scarlet fruits. Deciduous,...
-Echinops
(Greek, like a hedgehog; alluding to the spiny involucral scales). Composite. Globe Thistle. Coarse thistle-like plants, with blue or whitish flowers in globose masses, sometimes used in the wild gard...
-Echinopsis
(Greek, hedgehog-like). Cactaceae. Sea-Urchin Cactus. South American small condensed cacti. Stems spherical to ellipsoidal or rarely columnar: ribs prominent and usually sharp-angled: flowers usually...
-Echinostachys
(Greek, spiny head). Brome-liacese. About a half-dozen species allied to AEchmea (with which some writers unite it), from S. Amer. Outer flower parts bristly; petals broadly clawed, with 2 fringed sca...
-Echites
(Greek, viper; possibly from its poisonous milky juice or from its twining habit). Apocynaceas. Tropical American twining shrubs related to Dipla-denia, and of similar culture. The genus differs tech...
-Echium
(from the Greek for a viper). Boraginaceae. Viper's Bugloss. Coarse, mostly rough herbs and shrubs, with spikes of blue, violet, red or white flowers, some of them grown in the open and others under g...
-Edgeworthia
(after M. P. Edgeworth, English botanist in East Indies, and his sister Maria). Thymel-sedcese. Ornamental woody subjects grown chiefly for their early yellow and fragrant flowers and for the handsome...
-Horticultural Education
In the United States and Canada, instruction in horticulture is part of the publicly maintained colleges of agriculture. In Canada, these colleges are provincial rather than national or established by...
-Horticultural Education. Part 2
Elements Of Horticulture Fruit-growing, vegetable-gardening and ornamental planting, with special reference to the farm home. Gardening A personal and informal course for lovers of plants and garde...
-Horticultural Education. Part 3
Investigation In Floriculture The investigation of problems in the growing of cut-flowers, exotics, and garden flowers; hybridizing; study of varieties. Designed primarily for upper classmen and grad...
-Eggplant
(Solanum Melongena, Linn.). Solan-dcese. Guinea Squash. Aubergine of the French. Strong perennial herb or sub-shrub, grown as a vegetable-garden annual for its large fruits, which are eaten cooked; re...
-Eggplant. Continued
Propagating The Seedlings The time required to bring plants into bearing from seeds varies with the condition of the soil and the temperature. During cool weather the plants grow very slowly, but dur...
-Ehretia
(G. D. Ehret, botanical painter, born in Germany, 1708 or 1710, died in England 1770). Bor-aginacese. Tender trees and shrubs, found in the warmer regions of the world. Plants with or without rough, ...
-Eichhornia
(after J. A. F. Eichhorn, a Prussian Minister, born 1779). Pontederiaceae. Tropical aquatic herbs, grown for showy flowers and interesting habit. Perennial, floating, rooting at the nodes: immersed l...
-Elaeagnus
(ancient Greek name, meaning a kind of willow; from elaios, olive). Elaeagnacex. Shrubs and small trees, grown chiefly for their handsome foliage and for their ornamental fruits, edible in a few speci...
-Elaeis
(Greek, olive). Palmaceae, tribe Cocoineae. Tropical spineless palms with pinnate foliage, of which the best known is the oil palm of western Africa, whose red fruits, borne in large clusters, yield t...
-Elaeocarpus
(Greek, olive-fruit). Elaeocarpaceae; formerly included in Tiliaceae. Tropical trees, with showy flowers, in their juvenile stages also sometimes cultivated under glass. Leaves simple, usually altern...
-Elaeodendron
(Greek for olive tree, from the resemblance of the fruit). Celastraceae. Tropical shrubs or small trees, some kinds of which are grown in the juvenile state under glass for the interesting foliage. L...
-Elaphoglossum
(Greek, serpent tongue). Poly-podidceas. A large group of tropical ferns, with creeping rootstocks and simple leaves. The sporangia cover the entire under surface of the fertile leaves which are usua...
-Elatine
(Greek name of doubtful application). Elatinaceae. Small mostly glabrous creeping herbs, probably annuals, of temperate and warm regions (perhaps 10 species), sometimes used in bog- and water-gardenin...
-Elecampane
: Inula Helenium. Electro-Horticulture Electro-Horticulture is a term used by Siemens to designate the application of the electric light to the growing of plants. The term is an unfortunate one, sin...
-Eleocharis
(Greek-made word, meaning delighting in marshes). Sometimes written Heleocharis. Cyperaceae. Rush-like native plants, mostly of low, wiry growth, and commonest in marshes and on muddy shores, mostly p...
-Elettaria
(East Indian name). Zingiberaceae. Cardamon. Hothouse perennial herbs, sometimes seen in collections of economic plants. Differs from Amomum in technical characters, as in the slender tube of the per...
-Eleusine
(Greek, Eleusin, the town where Ceres, the goddess of harvests, was worshipped). Gramineae. Crab-Grass. Yard-Grass. Coarse tufted annual grasses, more or less grown as ornamentals; also for the grain ...
-Elliottia
(after Stephen Elliott, South Carolina's early and excellent botanist. For a fine portrait and sketch of him, see G.F. 7:204-6). Ericaceae. Deciduous shrub cultivated for its handsome racemes of delic...
-Elodea
(Greek, marshy). Hydrocharitaceae. Aquatic herbs, one of which is grown in aquaria. The genus is known in horticulture as including the ditch-moss, an interesting hardy perennial plant found in slow ...
-Elsholtzia
(John Sigismund Elsholtz, author of unpublished Flora Marchica, the MS. of which is in the Royal Library, Berlin). Labiatae. Herbs or undershrubs grown chiefly for their blue or lilac flowers appearin...
-Elymus
(Greek name for a kind of millet). Gra-minex. Lyme-Grass. Wild-Rye. Erect perennial grasses with terminal usually bristly spikes somewhat resembling rye, sometimes grown as ornamentals and having othe...
-Embothrium
(name refers to the structure of the anthers) . Proteacese. A few trees and shrubs of S. Amer., one of which is offered abroad as a greenhouse subject, grown from seeds, and apparently prized for the ...
-Emilia
(perhaps a personal name). Compositie. Flower-garden herbs, perennial or annual, with orange or scarlet bloom. Related to Senecio (to which some authors refer it), but always without rays: heads rath...
-Emmenanthe
(Greek, enduring flower; the persistent corollas retain their shape when dry). Hydro-phyllacese. A half-dozen low annual herbs from western North America, of which the most interesting species was int...
-Emmenopterys
(Greek, persistent, and wing; referring to the wing-like calyx-lobe, persistent on the fruit). Rubiaceae. Ornamental tree grown for its large leaves and the handsome flowers. Deciduous: leaves opposi...
-Empetrum
(Greek, en, in, petros, rock; growing often on rocks). Empetracese. Crowberry. Ornamental low shrubs sometimes grown for the evergreen foliage and attractive fruits. Leaves linear-oblong, obtuse, thi...
-Encelia
(Christopher Encel in 1577 wrote a book on oak galls). Composite. Herbs or sub-shrubs, one or two of which have been sparingly introduced for planting in the southern parts of the United States. Rath...
-Encephalartos
(Greek combination, alluding to the bread-like interior of the trunk). Cycadaceae. Excellent cycads from tropical and southern Africa, grown chiefly for their evergreen foliage. The species are proba...
-Endive
(Cichorium Endivia). Composite. A leaf-salad plant. See Cichorium. Until recently endive has been almost unknown in American home gardens, but it is gradually receiving favor with salad-lovers. Altho...
-Enkianthus
(Greek pregnant and flower, referring to the colored involucre which subtends the flowers of E. quinqueflorus, giving the appearance of small flowers springing from a larger flower). Also written Enky...
-Entada
(a Malabar name). Syn. Pusaetha. Legu-minbsse. Tropical woody spineless climbers. Leaves bipinnate, often cirrhiferous: flowers not papilionaceous, white or yellow, in slender spike-like racemes whic...
-Enterolobium
(name refers to the intestine-form pods). Leguminosae. Tropical trees. Unarmed: leaves bipinnate, the pinnae and lfts, many: flowers not papilionaceous, greenish, in large heads or clusters; calyx ca...
-Epacris
(Greek-made name, upon the summit; referring to their habitat). Epacridaceae. Heath-like shrubs of Australia and New Zealand, of which half a dozen or less are grown as cool greenhouse pot-plants. Le...
-Ephedra
(ancient Greek name, used by Pliny for the horse-tail). Gnetdceae. Woody subjects, rarely cultivated; usually found only in botanical collections, although the scarlet fruits of some species are very ...
-Epidendrum
(upon trees, alluding to their epiphytal habit). Orchidaceae. Epiphytic orchids, some requiring hothouse and some coolhouse conditions; although a large genus, of minor importance horti-culturally. I...
-Epidendrum. Part 2
Section V Psilanthemum contains but one species, E. Stamfordianum, which requires the same general treatment as those in Section II. Robert M. Grey. E. O. Orpet. a. Infloresence radical. (Psilanthe...
-Epidendrum. Part 3
22. ciliare, Linn. Fig. 1398. Pseudobulbs clavate, 4-6 in.: leaves 4-6 in., springing from sheathing bract: peduncles 5-7-flowered; flowers yellowish green; lip white. tropical Amer., between 5th and ...
-Epigaea
(Greek, epi, upon, gala, earth; in reference to the trailing growth). Ericaceae,. Evergreen spring-blooming plants, herbaceous in appearance but with woody creeping stems, sometimes planted. Leaves a...
-Epilobium
(Greek, upon the pod, referring to the structure of the flower). Including Chamaenerion. Onagraceae. Border plants, with willow-like foliage, and large showy spikes of deep pink, rosy crimson or white...
-Epimedium
(Greek, like Median, a plant said to grow in Media; a name from Dioscorides, retained by Linnaeus). Berberiddceae. Herbs suitable for rock-gardens and shady places. This genus contains some of the da...
-Epiphronitis
Epimediums thrive best in partial shade, and are particularly well suited for rockeries and the margins of shrubberies. Almost any soil will answer for them. The peculiar bronzy tints of the young fol...
-Epipactis
(Greek, epipegnuo; it 'coagulates milk). Orchidaceae. Hardy terrestrial orchids of minor value. Leafy orchids with creeping rootstocks and un-branched stems: leaves ovate or lanceolate, with plaited ...
-Epiphyllum
(on a leaf; refers to the leaf-like branches on which the flower grows). Cactaceae. Spineless upright branched flat-stemmed cacti with very large and showy flowers, some of them popular as house-plant...
-Epiphytes
Literally air plants: those plants that do not grow in earth or water, but are supported in air on trees or other objects and usually drawing no organic nourishment from such object or support. Tru...
-Episcia
(Greek, shady; they grow wild in shady places). Gesneriaceae. Choice and interesting warm-house plants, E. cupreata being much prized for baskets. Herbs, with long, short or no hairs: stem from a cre...
-Eragrostis
(Greek, er, spring, and agrostis, a grass). Gramineae. Love-Grass. Annual or perennial grasses with more or less diffuse panicles of small several-flowered compressed spikelets. Some species grown in ...
-Eranthemum
(Greek, lovely flower). Acantha-cex. Tropical shrubs and sub-shrubs, some of which are cultivated chiefly for their foliage and others for their flowers. Leaves entire or rarely coarsely toothed: flo...
-Eranthis
(Greek, er, spring, and anthos, a flower; from the early opening of the flowers). Ranunculaceae. Winter Aconite. Low perennial herbs, grown in open flower-beds because of the very early show Of bright...
-Eremocitrus
(Greek,desert and Citrus). Rutacex, tribe Citreae. Australian Desert Kumquat. Spiny shrub or small tree: leaves small, simple or emarginate, thick and leathery, alike on both sides; spines single, lon...
-Eremostachys
(deserted or solitary spikes). Labiatae. Outdoor perennial, apparently only 1 species of the 50 or so in the genus being in commercial cultivation The genus is allied to Leonotis and Phlomis, and the ...
-Eremurus
(Greek name, probably referring to their tall and striking aspect in solitary and desert places). Liliaceae. These hardy desert plants, when in flower with their great flower-stalks taller than a man ...
-Erianthus
(Greek, erion, wool, and anthos, a flower). Gramineae. Plume-Grass. Tall reed-like ornamental perennials with large woolly plume-like inflorescence. Spikelets in pairs, one sessile, the other pedicel...
-Erica
(practically meaningless; probably not from ereiko, to break, as commonly stated). Erichceae. Heath. This is the genus that the gardener usually means by heath. The heath or heather of English liter...
-Erica. Part 2. Key To The Species
A. Heaths hardy, European, or hardy with protection from New York southward. b. Leaves and calyx-seams, ciliate: stamens included. c. Flowers in spike-like clusters....... 1. ciliaris cc. Flowers in ...
-Erica. Part 3
11. ventricosa, Thunb. Leaves in 4's, incurved to spreading, with pilose margins: infloresence terminal; sepals keeled; anthers with 2 very short ears, or awned, included; ovary glabrous. B.M. 350. L....
-Erigeron
(Greek, old man in spring; some of the early kinds are somewhat hoary). Compositae. Flea-bane. Hardy border plants, suggesting native asters, but blooming much earlier, growing in tufts like the Engli...
-Erinacea
(Latin, erinoceus, hedgehog, alluding to the spiny nature of the plant). Leguminosae. A low almost leafless shrub forming dense spiny tufts covered in spring with numerous blue flowers. Deciduous, ve...
-Erinus
(a name used by Dioscorides). Scroph-ulariacea. A hardy tufted plant 3 or 4 inches high, suited for steep sides of alpine gardens, where it produces in spring its racemes of small purple, rosy or whit...
-Eriobotrya
(Greek, woolly cluster). Rosacea, subfamily Pomeae. Small tree, grown for its handsome large foliage and also for its edible acid fruits. Evergreen trees or shrubs: leaves alternate, short-petioled o...
-Eriocephalus
(from erion wool, and kephale, head, in allusion to the woolliness of mature heads). Compositae. A scarce little-known group of greenhouse shrubs, grown for their violet-white flowers and pleasantly s...
-Eriocereus
(woolly and Cereus; referring to the wool in the axils of the bracts on the ovary). Cactaceae. Usually slender plants, at first erect, but usually afterward clambering and creeping, often forming grea...
-Eriogonum
(Greek, woolly joints). Polygonaceae. About 140 species, W. N. American (with extension into Mex.), herbs tufted sub-shrubs or slender annuals, mostly densely woolly: leaves crowded at the base of the...
-Eriopsis
(Greek, like Eria, an orchid of the Epi-dendrum tribe, which it resembles when not in flower). Orchidaceae. Five or six South American orchids of the Vanda tribe allied to Acacallis and Warrea, requir...
-Eriostemon
(Greek, woolly stamens). Rutaceae. Coolhouse evergreen shrubs from Australia, with starry, five-petaled flowers an inch wide, of white or blush-pink. Very little known in America, but abroad considere...
-Erlangea
(bears the name of the University of Erlangen). Compositae. One species of this genus, blooming in midwinter and spring, is offered in England. The genus was long considered to be monotypic, but Moor...
-Erodium
(Greek, a heron; alluding to the beaked fruit). Geraniaceae. Heron's-Bill or Stork's-Bill. Annual and perennial, some of the perennials grown in flower-gardens and with alpines for their finely cut fo...
-Eryngium
(a Greek name for some sort of thistle). Umbelliferae. Eryngo. Sea-Holly. Annual and perennial herbs, chiefly valued for the steel-blue or pur-Elish cast of their rigid stems, prickly foliage and teas...
-Eryngium. Continued
9. alpinum, Linn. Height 12 ft., bluish above, from a thick root: radical leaves deeply cordate-triangular, acuminate, coarsely double-crenate; stem - leaves round-cordate, often 3-lobed at the apex o...
-Erysimum
(probably means blister - dra wing). Cruciferae. Of this genus two brilliant yellow and orange, spring- and summer-blooming hardy annuals, are cultivated, scarcely, if at all, inferior to the true w...
-Erythea
(one of the Hesperides, Daughter of Evening). Palmaceae, tribe Corypheae. Palms with solitary, often robust, spineless caudices, ringed at the base, clothed above with dead leaf-sheaths. Leaves termi...
-Erythraea
(Greek, red; alluding to the flowers of some species). Gentianaceae. Two outdoor species are in cultivation, with bright deep rose flowers, one of which is a rockery plant from the Azores, the other a...
-Erythrina
(from Greek for red). Leguminosae. Coral-Tree. Herbs, shrubs or trees, with large and showy papilionaceous flowers, for planting out and for greenhouse bloom; and open-ground subjects in Florida and C...
-Erythronium
(from the Greek word for red, applied to the purple-rose European species). Liliaceae. Dog's-Tooth Violet (although in no sense a violet). Adder's-Tongtje. Small spring-flowering hardy scapose bulbous...
-Erythroxylon
(Greek, red wood; true of some species). Written also Erythroxylum. Erythroxylaceas. Coca. A genus famous for the coca plant, the leaves of which are of vast importance in medicine, yielding cocaine, ...
-Escallonia
(named for Escallon, a Spanish traveler in South America). Saxifragaceae. Mainly evergreen shrubs or small trees, widely dispersed in South America, especially in the mountains. Leaves alternate, gla...
-Eschscholtzia
(J. F. Eschscholtz, of Kotzebue's scientific expedition). Papaveraceae. Brilliant and popular garden flowers. Low, pale or glaucous herbs, annual or perennial, with ternately dissected alternate leav...
-Escontria
(named for Senor Don Blas Escontria, of Mexico). Cactaceae. Large, much-branched cacti. Ribs few: areoles narrow, bearing pectinate clusters of spines: flowers small, yellow, diurnal: fruit and ovary ...
-Etherization Of Plants
Etherization, as applied to plants, means strictly the forcing of a dormant plant into growth by subjecting the plant to ether vapors at certain concentrations in a closed chamber for a definite perio...
-Etherization Of Plants. Continued
The Results The effect of etherization is to shorten the rest-period of the plant. Etherized plants come into bloom earlier and may be forced at lower temperature than unetherized plants. Howard foun...
-Eucalyptus
(Greek, eu, well; kalypto, to cover as with a lid: the petals and usually also the calyx-limb fused and covering the flower before anthesis, then falling off in the form of a lid, or cover). Myrtaceae...
-Eucalyptus. Part 2. Culture Of Eucalyptus In California
The following directions for the propagation of Eucalyptus are adapted very largely from Bulletin No. 196 of the California Experiment Station, entitled Eucalyptus in California, by Norman D. Ingham...
-Eucalyptus. Part 3
In order to provide a mulch, thus checking evaporation and also to kill the weeds, cultivation should be conducted in the new plantation as long as possible without danger of injuring the young trees ...
-Eucalyptus. Part 4. Key To The Species
A. Flowers mostly in panicles or corymbs, not simple umbels (occasionally the infloresence appears to be paniculate in section aaa also, owing to dropping of leaves, so that it is well to look for lea...
-Eucalyptus. Part 5
1. Calophylla, R. Br Medium-sized umbrageous tree, with dense foliage: bark dark, corky, deeply furrowed: leaves ovate-lanceolate, firm and thick; veins nearly parallel and very spreading: flowers la...
-Eucalyptus. Part 6
8. Melanophloia, F. V. M Silver-leaved Iron-bark. Small tree: bark persistent, dark, furrowed: leaves sessile, orbicular to ovate-lanceolate, glaucous or white-mealy: flowers small, in terminal or ax...
-Eucalyptus. Part 7
18. Globulus, Labill Blue Gum. Figs. 1425-1427. Tree, 300 ft. or less high: bark deciduous in long thin strips or sheets, leaving the trunk smooth and grayish or bluish white except at base: leaves l...
-Eucalyptus. Part 8
25. Lehmannii, Preiss (E. cornuta variety symphio-carpa, Auct. E. macrocera, Turcz.). Perhaps only a form of E. cornuta: leaves more often short and obtuse: fruit half immersed in the receptacle, for...
-Eucalyptus. Part 9
36. Redunca, Schau Shrub or small tree, to 120 ft.: bark smooth, white: leaves oblong-lanceolate, rather obtuse, 3 in. or less long, not paler beneath: lid conical, acuminate, about twice as long as ...
-Eucalyptus. Part 10
46. Incrassata, Labill Shrub or small tree, to 25 ft.: leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, rather obtuse, mostly 2-4 in. long; veins inconspicuous: calyx-tube ribbed in the common forms; lid thick...
-Eucalyptus. Part 11
55. Amygdalina, Labill Peppermint Gum. Tree, the tallest of the genus (var regnans): bark persistent on trunk and lower branches, fibrous: leaves lanceolate, not noticeably oblique at base, 2-4 in. l...
-Eucalyptus. Part 12
64. Rostrata, Schlecht Red Gum, Fig. 1430. Tree, to 200 ft.: bark of mature trunks dark gray, either smooth and deciduous or somewhat persistent near the base and then checking into thick scales or e...
-Eucalyptus. Part 13
71. Marginata, Smith (E. Floribunda, Hueg.) Jarrah. Tall tree under favorable conditions, often low: bark persistent and somewhat fibrous or flaking off in strips: leaves lanceolate, 3-6 in. long; ve...
-Eucharidium
(from the Greek for charming). Onagraceae. Pretty small annuals, one of which (E. con-cinnum) is well known in gardens. Three Californian herbs allied to Clarkia (and often referred to it), but diffe...
-Eucharis
(very graceful, from the Greek). Ama-ryllidacese. Amazon Lily. Hothouse bulbous plants of great beauty and delightful fragrance, blooming in late winter and spring and at other times if the requisite ...
-Euchlaena
(Greek eu, well, chlaina, covering). Gramineae. Annual or perennial grasses, with stout stems, broad blades and monoecious inflorescence, occasionally grown in the South for forage and sometimes for o...
-Eucnide
(Greek-made word, referring to the sharp nettle-like hairs). Loasacese. Several N. American annual or biennial herbs, by some authors referred to Mentzelia. Plants with stinging hairs: leaves alternat...
-Eucomis
(Greek, beautiful hair or topknot). Lilia-cese. Cape bulbs, half-hardy, producing radical rosettes of long leaves and a strong peduncle or scape bearing a raceme of greenish or whitish flowers more or...
-Eucommia
(Greek, eu, well, and kommi, gum; alluding to the fact that the plant contains rubber). Eucommiaceae. Deciduous tree grown for its handsome foliage and also for its possibility as a hardy rubber-produ...
-Eucryphia
(Greek for well covered). Eucryphia-cese; formerly referred to Rosaceae. A very few southern hemisphere resinous trees or shrubs, with opposite evergreen simple or pinnate leaves and showy white flowe...
-Eugenia
(named in honor of Prince Eugene of Savoy). Myrtaceae. A large group of trees and shrubs, grown chiefly for their ornamental foliage and berries. Many tropical species yield edible fruits which are bo...
-Eulophia
(Greek, handsome crest). Orchidaceae. Terrestrial orchids, requiring warmhouse conditions. Rather small plants with membranaceous leaves and conspicuous pseudobulbs: scape basal, several-flowered; se...
-Eupatorium
(named for an ancient king of Pontus said by Pliny to have employed one of this group of plants in medicine). Compositae. Joe-Pye Weed. Thoroughwort. Boneset. Hemp Agrimony. Mist-Flower. Chiefly peren...
-Eupatorium. Part 2
3. Purpusii, Brandegee (E. peliolare, Hort., not Moc. & Sesse). Smoothish or (variety monticolum, Brandegee) sticky-hairy, loosely branched: leaves round-ovate, commonly heart-shaped, shortly taper-p...
-Eupatorium. Part 3
15. Pazcuarense, Hbk Puberulent but not glandular: leaves opposite, stalked, round-ovate, light green, 2-4 in. long, taper-pointed, sharply or bluntly toothed: heads very numerous in a wide (3-10 in....
-Euphorbia
(classical name; said by Pliny to be in honor of King Juba's physician; possibly from the Greek for fat). Euphorbiaceae. Milkweed (improperly) Wolfs-milk. Spurge. The last name, most often applied to ...
-Euphorbia. Part 2
E. pulcherrima and E. fulgens are good winter-flowering greenhouse plants, and require special treatment. E. fulgens succeeds well in the warmest parts of the house, in pots, or best planted out like ...
-Euphorbia. Part 3
5. Fulgens, Karw (E. jacquiniaeflora, Hook.). Scarlet Plume. Fig. 1439. Small shrub with slender drooping branches: leaves long-petioled, lanceolate, bright green: cyathia in small axillary cymes, wi...
-Euphorbia. Part 4
15. Splendens, Bojer Crown of Thorns. Fig. 1442. stems 3-4 ft. long, 1/2-1 in. thick, somewhat climbing, covered with stout spines about an inch long: leaves few, on the young growth, obovate to oblo...
-Euphorbia. Part 5
27. Echinus, Hook. & Coss Branching shrub, with 6-angled stem, branches ascending, about 2 in. thick, 5- or more-angled: spine pairs less than 1/2in. apart; spines 1/2in. long, red to gray. Morocco...
-Euphorbia. Part 6
44. Meloformis, Ait Melon Spurge. Fig. 1446. Globose or pyriform, 3-5 in. thick, deeply 8-10-ribbed; ribs obscurely tuberculate on the almost acute angles; sides transversely dark and light green-str...
-Euphorbia. Part 7
57. Epithymoides, Jacq (E. polychroma. Kern.). Fig. 1448. Many stems 1 ft. or more long, forming a hemispherical clump: rays of umbel 5: rvs. oblong, dark green, those of the infloresence various s...
-Euphoria
(name refers to the fact that the plant carries well its edible fruits). Sapindaceae. A half-dozen trees in tropical and Subtrop. Asia, allied to Litchi but differing in having petals and a deeply 5-p...
-Euptelea
(Greek eu, well, handsome, and ptelea, elm). Trochodendraceae. Ornamental woody subjects grown for their handsome foliage; also the red anthers of the precocious flowers are conspicuous in early sprin...
-Eurya
(Greek for large, but of no application). Ternslrcemiaceae (or Theaceae). Shrubs of S. Asia and Malaya (30 or more species), with small dioecious flowers, berry-like fruits, and simple, glabrous everg...
-Euryale
(mythological name). Nymphaeaceae. One species, the Indo-Chinese representative of Victoria regia, from which it differs in having all the stamens fertile (in Victoria the inner ones are sterile) and ...
-Euscaphis
(Greek, eu, handsome, and scaphis, vessel; alluding to the shape and the handsome color of the dehiscent capsule). Staphyleacese. Ornamental woody plant grown for its handsome foliage and the attracti...
-Euterpe
(mythological name). Palmaceae, tribe Areceae. Slender erect spineless palms, with solitary or fasciculate ringed caudices, and grown chiefly for their graceful habit and feathery pinnate foliage. Le...
-Evaporating Fruit
The domestic operation of drying fruit has been practised ever since men looked beyond their immediate wants and stored food for time of greater need. Dried fruit has long been an article of commerce,...
-Evergreens
In horticulture, evergreens are plants that retain green foliage the year around; they do not shed all their foliage at any one time; in some cases, the individual leaves may remain attached and green...
-Evergreens. Part 2
To get the ball free from the subsoil, dig under all around and tip the tree slightly. Level off the bottom with a fork. If there are tap-roots, tunnel under and cut them with a saw. Put a platform as...
-Woody Evergreens For New England And New York
B=Broad-leaved evergreens. S=Semi-evergreen. p=Protected at Arnold Arboretum, Boston. T=Tender above New York City. bbt Abelia chinensis. sbp Abelia grandiflora. BT Abelia uniflora. t Abies amabi...
-Woody Evergreens For New England And New York. Part 2
Phyllodoce cffirulea=Bryanthus taxifolius. b Phyllostachys flexuosa. b Phyllostachys Marliacea. b Phyllostachys violascens. Picea Abies=P. excelsa. Picea ajanensis. Picea Alcockiana. Picea alba=P. can...
-Broad-Leaved Evergreens For Washington And the South
Broad-leaved evergreens hardy at Washington, D.C. The evergreens and half evergreens of foregoing list are also good. Abelia floribunda. Aucuba himalaica. Aucuba japonica. Aucuba japonica variety ...
-Broad-Leaved Evergreens Hardy At Norfolk And South
Berberis congestiflora. Berberis Darwinii. Elaeagnus pungens variety maculata. Elaeagnus pungens variety Simonii. Gardenia jasminoides. Gardenia jasminoides variety Fortunei. Ilex cornuta. Laurus nob...
-Plants That Are Evergreen On The Middle Great Plains
It must be remembered that on the Great Plains the conditions vary enormously, and that few plants naturally range over the whole area, or are capable of being successfully grown in artificial plantat...
-Everlastings
A term applied to flowers or plants that retain their shape and other characteristics after being dried; equivalent to the French word immortelle. With everlastings are also included various artific...
-Everlastings. Continued
A number of our native composites - of the genera Gnaphalium, Antennaria and Anaphalis - are called everlastings, and are often used in home decorations, particularly in the country; but they have no ...
-Evodia
(Greek, pleasant odor). Rutaceae. Ornamental woody plants grown chiefly for their handsome foliage. Deciduous or evergreen trees or shrubs: trunk with smooth bark: winter-buds naked: leaves opposite,...
-Evonymus
(ancient Greek name). Often spelled Euonymus. Celastraceae. Spindle-Tree. Woody plants, erect or climbing, grown chiefly for their handsome foliage and the attractive fruits. Deciduous or evergreen s...
-Evonymus. Part 2
6. Europaea, Linn (E. vulgaris, Mill.). Fig. 1465. Erect shrub or sometimes small tree, to 20 ft.: leaves ovate or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, crenately serrate, 1 1/2-2 1/2 in. long: flowers yello...
-Evonymus. Part 3
16. Radicans, Sieb (E. japonica variety radicans, Regel. E. repens, Hort.). Figs. 1466, 1467. Low, procumbent shrub, with often trailing and rooting or climbing branches, climbing sometimes to 20 ft....
-Exacum
(classical name, of no significance to these plants). Gentianaceae. Herbs treated either as annuals or biennials or perennials, with flowers of white, lilac, blue or dark purplish blue, cultivated in ...
-Horticultural Exhibitions
Exhibitions of horticultural products have been both a concomitant and a stimulant of progress in American horticulture. The great international expositions ushered in by the Centennial Celebration of...
-Exhibitions Of Plants And Flowers
Floral exhibitions undoubtedly had their origin, in part, in the desire to display publicly the products of one's skill and to attain renown and a position of preeminence among one's fellows by succes...
-Exhibitions Of Plants And Flowers. Part 2
The number of specimens usually shown in cut-flower classes depends upon the kind of flowers, the ingenuity of the schedule-makers, and the demands of the occasion. The more extensive and pretentious ...
-Exhibitions Of Plants And Flowers. Part 3
The actual selection of the specimens to be exhibited is the most difficult and perplexing problem connected with this work. Fundamental to a successful solution of this problem is a thorough knowledg...
-Exhibition Of Vegetables
The exhibition of vegetables is usually an important feature at county, district and state fairs, and often at farmers' institutes, horticultural society meetings and conventions of vegetable-growers....
-Exochorda
(from exo, external, and chorde, a cord, referring to the chord belonging to the external part of the placenta on the ventral side of the carpels). Rosaceae. Pearl- Bush. Ornamental shrubs grown chief...
-Exorrhiza
(exo, out, outside, rhiza, root; alluding to the large aerial roots above the ground). Palmaceae, tribe Cocoineae. High-growing pinnate-leaved palm. Stem or trunk straight, smooth, supported at the b...
-Experiment Stations
Every state of the Union, every island dependency of the United States, and every province of the Dominion of Canada has one experiment station for agriculture supported by public funds. A very few of...
-Experiment Stations. Part 2
Arkansas. Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, Fay-etteville. California. Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of California, Berkeley. Colorado. Agricultural Experiment Station...
-Research In Horticulture
For the purposes of this discussion we need not concern ourselves with formal definitions of horticulture nor discuss its several divisions. (For definitions, see Horticulture.) It is more to the poin...
-Research In Horticulture. Part 2
The Training Of Research Workers The diverse character of experimentation in horticulture as set forth indicates somewhat the training that investigators in this field should have. It follows from th...
-Research In Horticulture. Part 3
Organization For Research Horticulture is composed of so many industries and involves so many sciences that its problems are too diverse and too complex to permit of many definite statements in regar...
-Research In Horticulture. Part 4
The Immediate Field In conclusion it may be well to state, as a record of the times, and for possible suggestive value, some of the present problems of horticulture. Experimentation is needed in the...
-Research In Horticulture. Part 5
Private Correspondence Every fruit-grower, gardener, florist or other horticultural worker may encounter special problems upon which he needs individual advice. The horticultural department in any of...
-Research In Horticulture. Part 6
Extension Schools In many states, extension schools of horticulture are held for the purpose of carrying special horticultural instruction to a neighborhood. Such schools often consist of lectures an...
-Research In Horticulture. Part 7
General Considerations Incidentally there are other ways by which extension work may be accomplished. Enough already has been accomplished to show that organized extension work has a large and increa...
-Moschata
Duchesne (C. melonse-formis, Carr.). Cushaw. China, Canada Crookneck and Winter Crookneck Squashes. Figs. 1135-37. Annual: long-running, less prickly and sometimes soft-hairy: leaves more rounded than...
-Ficifolia
Bouche (C. melanosperma, A. Br.). stem very long, stout, becoming somewhat woody: leaves pale green, often marbled, in outline ovate or suborbicular, cordate at base, roundly 5-lobed and the sinus rou...
-Culinary Herbs
Culinary Herbs are those herbs used for flavoring in cookery, but the term has a wide application, including species used for garnishing and sometimes as potherbs. The culinary herbs are of very minor...
-Books on Horticulture and Books on Gardening
The following pages contain advertisements of books by the same author or on kindred subjects. Cyclopedia of American Agriculture Edited by L. H. Bailey Late Director of the College of Agriculture ...
-Cacalia - Calamagrostis
Cacalia (Ancient Greek Name) Compositae. Perennial herbs of wide distribution, some of which are planted in the open for ornament. Flowers paniculate or corymbose, the florets all hermaphrodite, wi...
-Calamovilfa - Callipteris
Calamovilfa (Greek, Calamos, A Reed, And Vilfa, A Kind Of Grass) Gramineae. Purple Bent-Grass. A group differing from Calamagrostis in having awnless spikelets and no prolongation of the rachilla. S...
-Callista - Camarotis
Callista : Dendrobium. Callopsis (Calla-Like) Araceae. A single species from German E. Africa: C. Volkensii, Engler. Spathe like that of a little calla, snow-white, 1 1/4 in. long by 1 in. broad, ...
-Camphora - Caralluma
Camphora : Cinnamomum. Campion : Silene. Camptosorus (Greek, bent sori, alluding to the irregular arrangement). Polypodiaceae. Two species of hardy ferns, with simple pointed leaves, which take r...
-Carambola - Cassine
Carambola : Averrhoa. Caraway (Carum Carvi, Linn.). Umbelliferae. A biennial or annual herb grown for its seeds, which are used in flavoring bread, cakes and cheese; also occasionally for the young...
-Cassipourea - Catananche
Cassipourea (a native name in Guiana). Rhizo-phoraceae. Perhaps a dozen or less species (if the African Dactylopetalum is included in the American Cassi-pourea) in tropical Amer. and in Afr, one of w...
-Catchfly - Catopsis
Catchfly : Silene. Catechu : Acacia Catechu; Areca Catechu. Caterpillars The worm-like pods of Scorpiurus vermiculata, Linn., S. subvillosa, Linn., and others (Leguminosae), are sometimes used as...
-Cat-Tail - Cenia
Cat-Tail : Typha. Cautlea (Sir P. Cautley, 1802-1871, British naturalist). Zingiberaceae. About a half-dozen Himalayan species closely allied to Roscoea, differing in the spherical rather than narr...
-Centauridium - Ceratiola
Centauridium : Xanthisma Centaury : Sabatia. Century Plant : Agave. Cephalandra : Coccinia. Cephalanthera (Greek for head and anther). Orchiddcese. About 10 species of small temperate-region ...
-Ceratopetalum - Chaerophyllum
Ceratopetalum (Greek, horned petal). Cunonir aceae; by some, Cunoniaceae is included in Saxifragaceae. Greenhouse trees or shrubs. Glabrous and resinous trees and shrubs: leaves opposite, compound, ...
-Chamaemelum - Chelidonium
Chamaemelum (small apple, suggested by the odor of the flowers). Compositae. Under this name one plant is offered. The genus is by many included in Anthemis, however, the sub-group being distinguishe...
-Cherleria - Chirita
Cherleria : Armaria. Chess, Or Cheat : Bromus. Chick-Pea : Cicer. Chickweed : Cerastium and Stellaria. Childsia Wercklei : Hidalgoa. Chilianthus (a thousand flowers). Loganiacese. Four or 5...
-Chironia - Choisya
Chironia (classical mythological name). Gen-tianaceae. A dozen or so soft perennial herbs or shrubs of Africa, rarely seen in collections of greenhouse material. Flowers in shades of red and purple, ...
-Choke-Cherry - Chrysosplenium
Choke-Cherry : Prunus demissa (West) and P. virginiana (East). Chondrobollea (compounded from Chondrorhyncha and Bollea). A genus established to contain hybrids between these genera. See also Bolle...
-Chrysurus Cynosuroldes: - Cladanthus
Chrysurus Cynosuroldes: Lamarckia. Chufa The edible subterranean tubers of Cyperus escu-lentus, Linn., (which see) much prized in the South. Fig. 959. Chufas are eaten raw or baked, or used for the...
-Clary - Coco-Grass
Clary The dried leaves of Salvia Sclarea, which are used for seasoning. Other species of Salvia have been used for the same purpose. See Salvia. Cleistanthus Collinus : Lebidieropsis. Clidemia (o...
-Codlin - Coldframe
Codlin Used in England to mean a small, green, half-wild, inferior apple. It is used in distinction to grafted or dessert fruit. It is about equivalent to the American popular use of the word crab....
-Cole - Collinsonia
Cole A generic name, little known in North America, for plants of the cabbage tribe; cole-oil is secured from species of Brassica. Colea (Sir G. Lowry Cole, Governor of Mauritius). Jiignoniacese. G...
-Collomia - Conandron
Collomia (Greek for glue, alluding to the mucilaginous character of the wetted seeds). Polemoniaceae. In Asa Gray's late treatment, Collomia is included with Gilia, although at first kept distinct by...
-Cone-Flower - Coral-Plant
Cone-Flower : Rudbeckia. Purple Cone-Flower: Echinacea. Conifers : Arboriculture. Coniogramme (Greek, dust-line). Formerly Dictyogramma. Polypodidceae. A few Japanese and Pacific island ferns, wi...
-Coral-Root - Corynostylis
Coral-Root : Corallorhiza Coral-Tree : Erythrina. Corema (Greek, a broom, in allusion to its bushy habit). Empetraceae. Broom Crowberry. Two species of low heath-like shrubs from E. N. Amer. and ...
-Corysanthes - Cotula
Corysanthes (helmet-flower, Greek). Orchid-acese. Not to be confounded with Coryanthes. Fifteen or more terrestrial orchids of Austral., New Zeal, and Malaysia, little cultivated Dwarf, delicate, tub...
-Couch Grass - Cranesbill
Couch Grass : Agropyron repens. Courantia (personal name). Crassulaceae. Caulescent: leaves alternate, closely set, broad: flowers in a dense bracteate spike; calyx-lobes nearly equal, linear, brig...
-Cratae-Mespilus - Cryptolepis
Cratae-Mespilus : Crataegus grandiflora. Crithmum (Greek for barley, from some resemblance in the seed). Umbelliferae. Samphire. A single species, C. maritimum, Linn., on shores in Great Britain, W...
-Cryptopyrum - Cunila
Cryptopyrum : Triticum. Cryptostylis (hidden style, Greek). Syn. Zos-terostylis. Orchidaceae. Eight or 10 terrestrial orchids of the E. Indies, Malaya and Austral., allied to Pogonia. Leaves solita...
-Cunonia - Cyanella
Cunonia (named for John Christian Cuno, who catalogued his garden in Amsterdam at the middle of the 18th century). Cunonidceae; formerly included in the Saxifragdceae. A half dozen trees or shrubs of...
-Cyaniding, Cyanidizing - Cyrtopera
Cyaniding, Cyanidizing : Diseases and Insects, p. 1044, discussion of fumigating by hydrocyanic acid gas. Cyanophyllum : Tam-onea. Cyclobothra : Catochwtus. Cycloloma (Greek for circle and bord...
-Cystacanthus - Danaea
Cystacanthus (Greek for bladder Acanthus, because the flowers are inflated). Acanthaceae. Evergreen herbs of Burma and Cochin China, with showy, sessile flowers in the axils of bracts, the entire inf...
-Dangleberry - Dendrochtlum
Dangleberry : Gaylussacia frondosa. Daphnidium : Benzoin. Darbya : Nestronia. Darnel : Lolium perenne. Dasheen Edible crown-tubers of Colocasia, lately cult, in the U. S. to some extent. See ...
-Dendropanax - Diacrium
Dendropanax (Greek, tree Panax). Araliaceae. Unarmed trees and shrubs from tropical Amer. and Asia, also China and Japan. Flowers hermaphrodite, rarely polygamous. Species about 20. D. japonicum, See...
-Dialaelia - Dicyrta
Dialaelia (Compounded of the genera Diacrium and Laelia). Orchidaceae. D. Veitchii, Hort., is a hybrid between Diacrium bicornutum and Laelia cinnabarina. Pseudobulbs fleshy: flowers 9 or 10, the seg...
-Didiscus - Diostea
Didiscus : Trachymene. Didymoplexis (double or twin plaits). Orchidaceae. One saprophytic orchid with leafless stems D. pollens, Griff., has been cult, abroad but is probably not in the trade: root...
-Diotis - Diploglottis
Diotis (two-eared, denoting the structure). Cotn-pdsitse. One cottony perennial on sea sands of Eu., sometimes planted in rock-gardens and for edgings. D. candidissima, Desf. (D. maritima, Smith). Co...
-Diplolaena - Distichlis
Diplolaena (double cloak, in allusion to the double involucre). Rutaceae. W. Australian tomentose shrubs, sometimes cultivated, but apparently not in American trade. Leaves simple and entire, stalked...
-Dodartia - Dracontium
Dodartia (Denis Dodart, physician and botanist, born in Paris in 1634). Scrophulariaceae. One ereet perennial herb related to Mimulus. D. orientalis, Linn., grows in S. Russia and W. Asia, and may be...
-Dragon Plants - Duchesnea
Dragon Plants The dragon arum, dragon root or green dragon, is the native Arisaema Dracontiian. The dragon plant of Europe is Dracunculus vulgaris. The dragon's head is not an aroid, but a Dracocepha...
-Duckweed - Dyschoriste
Duckweed : Lemna Duckwheat : Fagopyrum Dud Aim Melon : Cucumis. Dulichium (old Latin name). Cyperaceae. One perennial species, D. arundindceum, Brit. (D. spatha-ceum, Pers.), in E. N. Amer., wh...
-Earth-Nut, Earth-Pea - Enchylaiena
Earth-Nut, Earth-Pea Little-used names for the peanut, goober or pinder, Arachis hypogaea. The words earth-nut and ground-nut are used for many subterranean tubers, without much discrimination, and t...
-Enckea - Eomecon
Enckea : Piper. Engelmannia (Dr. Geo. Engelmann, eminent botanist of stem Louis, died 1884). Composite. One yellow-flowered herb, E. pinnatifida, Torr. & Gray, allied to Parthenium and Silphium, Ka...
-Eopepon - Epipremnum
Eopepon : Trihcosanthes. Epicattleya (compounded of Epidendrum and Cattleya). Orchiddceae. A genus established to contain hybrids between Epidendrum and Cattleya. The following are some of these: ...
-Equisetum - Erigenia
Equisetum (from the Latin equus, horse, and seta, bristle). Equisetaceae. Contains the weeds known as horse-tails, or scouring-rushes which are suitable for naturalizing in waste and wettish places a...
-Eriochilus - Eruca
Eriochilus (woolly lip). Orchidaceae. A half-dozen species of terrestrial orchids from Austral., with 6mall subterranean tubers and a solitary If. at the base of the stem or higher up: flowers pink o...
-Erythrocaete, Or Erythrochaeton - Eurycles
Erythrocaete, Or Erythrochaeton : Ligularia japonica. Esula : Euphorbia. The E. cristata of the trade is probably the cristate form of Euphorbia lactea or similar species. Etrog This name is appl...
-Euryops - Evolvulus
Euryops (large eyes, because of the prominent flowers). Compdsitae, Small shrubs of 25-30 species of Africa (mostly S. Africa), Arabia and Socotra, very little known in horticulture. The flowers are ...









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