Various schools of painting have had a profound influence upon landscape design, particularly in England. The influence seems to have been exerted chiefly in the decorative composition of mass and space relations, as the silhouetting of planting masses against the sky and the types of planting. A book by Sir Uvedale Price upon the "Picturesque and the Beautiful," which appeared at the end of the eighteenth century, advocated the imitation of the work of Claude Lor-rain by landscape-gardeners in their planting, even to the introduction of stumps and dead trees as a part of the scheme to lend a picturesque charm; he nevertheless admitted that formal gardening was best near the house. Here the romantic point of view seems to have been the precursor of the rustic monstrosities in cement and iron which unfortunately have a large sale even at the present day. In America the fad reached its greatest height about 1865. Cast-iron dogs, deer, and other sylvan creations must be laid at the door of painting rather than of sculpture, for the manufacturers of these objets d'art probably got their inspiration from the landscape-painters of the eighteenth century.

The landscape-designer may learn much from painting as regards the grouping of trees and their silhouette. He also uses painting as the most direct means of expressing his ideas to his client, for sketches of the general effect to be produced by his planting usually accompany the plans. Many ideas about color combinations and possibilities may also be gained from a study of paintings.

It will be seen, then, that architecture, sculpture, and painting are very essential factors in determining the solution of a problem for the landscape-architect, and are used by him in a practical way.

The second and final division of the problem of the landscape-gardener, which is composed of engineering, agriculture, horticulture, and forestry, may, for the purpose of this discussion, be termed the practical arts.