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A Dictionary Of Modern Gardening | by George William Johnson, David Landreth



Utility, more than either originality of contents or elegance of phraseology, has been the author's principal object in the following pages. He has endeavoured to gather together in one volume, attainable at a moderate price, an arranged, easily consulted, record of Gardening, as it is. To effect this object, he has obtained aid from the best living authorities, as well as from their published works; but he has not neglected those of other periods, where he has found in them directions upon which the moderns have suggested no improvements. Of all the authorities consulted, none has afforded such abundant information as the Gardeners' Chronicle, of which it is not too much to say that, as it is the best of modern journals devoted to promoting the cultivation of the soil, so, whoever is fortunate enough to possess a complete copy of its five published volumes, has a work of reference from which he will rarely turn away unsatisfied if seeking for information relative to its peculiar subjects.

TitleA Dictionary Of Modern Gardening
AuthorGeorge William Johnson, David Landreth
PublisherLea And Blanchard
Year1847
Copyright1847, Lea And Blanchard
AmazonThe Winter Harvest Handbook: Year Round Vegetable Production Using Deep Organic Techniques and Unheated Greenhouses

By George William Johnson, Esq, Fellow Of The Horticultural Society Of India; Corresponding Member Of The Royal Caledonian And Maryland Horticultural Societies; Author Of The Principles Of Practical Gardening, The Gardener's Almanach, Etc

With One Hundred And Eighty Wood Cuts.

Edited, With Numerous Additions, By David Landreth, Of Philadelphia.

To John Lindley, Ph.D., F.R.S., Vice Secretary Of The Horticultural Society Of London, And Professor Of Botany In University College, As One Of The Most Efficient Promoters Of Modern Horticulture, This Volume Is Dedicated By The Author.

-Abele Trek - Acanthus
Abele Trek (Populus alba). Ablactation Ablactation, the same as Inarching, and so called because it is a gradual withdrawing of the scion from its parent, the same as weaning, which in Latin ...
-Acarus
Acarus the Plant Mite. Class Arachnids. The following are the chief of those known to t\he gardener. Acarus tellarius, the Red Spider, is one of the gardener's most troublesome foes. Its colour varies...
-Acclimatization
Acclimatization is rendering a plant capable of the production desired in a climate differing from that in which it is native. In our climate it is usually required to induce a plant to endure lower t...
-Acer - Adenanthos
Acer Maple. Twenty-seven species, all hardy trees except Acer oblon-gum, which is half-hardy. The Sugar Maple, A. saccharinum of the American forests, is perhaps one of the finest species. It forms...
-Achimenes
Six species. Stove bulbs. After the plants have done flowering, and the tops die down, in November, allow the bulbs to remain undisturbed in the pots, laid on their sides beneath the green-house stag...
-Aconitum
Eighty species hardy deciduous tubers; and thirty-four species hardy herbaceous perennials. A. Napellus, from napus, a turnip, its gru-mous roots resembling little turnips, is a well known poisonous ...
-Adenocarpus - Agathophyllum
Adenocarpus Six species. A. foliolosus and frankenioides are evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Sandy loam. The others are hardy deciduous shrubs. Seeds. Common garden soil. Adenophora Sixteen speci...
-Agathosma - Alhagi
Agathosma Twenty-two species. Green-house evergreen 6hrubs. Cuttings. Peat and loam. Agathyrsus Seven species. Hardy herbaceous. Cuttings and divisions. Common soil. Agati Two species. ...
-Agave
Aloe. Nineteen species. Chiefly stove plants. Suckers. Rich loam. The name is altered from ayttvtc, admirable, which this genus may well be said to be, considering its appearance, its size, and the b...
-Agriculture
Agriculture, as compared to Horticulture, is the culture and management of certain plants and animals for the food and service of man: it is, as Marshall observes, a subject which, viewed in all its ...
-Alkali
Alkali, in chemistry; from the Arabian kali, the name of a plant from the ashes of which one species of alkali can be extracted. The true alkalies have been arranged by a modern chemist in three class...
-Allamanda - Amaryllis
Allamanda Allamanda cathartica. Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings. Rich loamy soil. Allantodia Five species. Green-house herbaceous plants. Division. Loamy peat. Alleys Alleys are of two ...
-Alstrcemeria
Twenty-five spe-cies. The seeds should be sown irnmediately, in sandy loam and rotten dung, and kept in a green-house, as they will not require heat. When the plants are about an inch high, they may b...
-Altitude
Altitude or elevation above the sea, has a great influence over a plant's vegetation. The greater that altitude the greater the reduction of temperature, so much so that every feet of altitude are bel...
-Ambury
Ambury is a disease peculiar to the Brassica tribe, and is known by the various names of Hanbury, Anbury, and Club Root. Fingers and Toes, a name applied to it in some parts, alludes to the swollen st...
-Amelanchier - Anagyris
Amelanchier Four species. Hardy deciduous shrubs. Layers. Common moist soil. Amellus Three species. A. Lychnitis, green-house evergreen; others hardy and deciduous. Cuttings. Loam. America...
-American Blight
American Blight, (Aphis la-nigera - Eriosoma lanigera.) The cottony matter in the cracks and excrescences of apple tree branches in the spring envelops an insect known by the above names, and which, w...
-American Cress
American Cress, (Barbarea precox). Soil And Situation For the winter standing crops, a light, dry soil, in an open but warm situation, should be allotted to it; and for the summer, a rather mois...
-American Plants
In England and the European continental gardens, apartments are allotted to collections of our native plants, and usually denominated the American department. It is somewhat amusing to read the direct...
-Ananassa - Anisopia
Ananassa Pine Apple. Four species and many varieties. See Pine-Apple. Anantherix Anantherix viridis. Hardy perennial. Seed or division. Light rich soil. Anarrhinum Three species. Hardy ...
-Anemone
Wind-flower. Forty-seven species; numerous varieties. Some hardy herbaceous, others hardy tuberous; A. vitifolia is half-hardy, and A. capensis green-house. A. thalic-troides flore pleno is a very bea...
-Anemone. Continued
Time For Planting The best time to plant the principal sorts for the general bloom is October, or early in November, and the plants will come into flower in April and beginning of May; but if some ...
-Angelica
Angelica [Angelica Archan-gelica.) Stalks cut in May, for candying. Formerly blanched and eaten like celery. Soil And Situation It may be grown in any soil and exposure, hut best in moist situat...
-Animal Maters
Animal Maters, without any exception, are beneficial as manures, for they all yield during putrefaction gases and soluble substances that are imbibed greedily by the roots of plants. That this is the ...
-Annuals
Annuals, are plants which live but one year, and, consequently, require to be raised from seed annually. By a particular mode of culture some of them may be made to live longer. Thus mignonette will c...
-Anodontia - Apios
Anodontia Four species. Hardy and half-hardy plants. Seeds, cuttings, or division. Common soil. Anoectochilus Anoectochilus setaceus. Stove terrestrial orchidaceous plant. Anomatheca Tw...
-Anthomyia
Anthomyia, a genus of fly, very injurious to the gardener. A. brassicae, cabbage fly, says Mr. Curtis, is found on the wing through the summer, and is the parent of a maggot which has been known t...
-Anthonomus
A.pomorum, Apple weevil. Mr. Curtis truly observes, that this insect commits great devastation in apple orchards, by destroying the stamens, pistil, and receptacle of the flower. As soon as the bloss...
-Aphis
Aphis, the Plant Louse, Puceron, or Nine fretter. This insect, so destructive from its multitude, attacks fruit trees, juicy kitchen vegetables, and other plants, weakening and rendering them incapabl...
-Apium - Arbour
Apium Six species. See Celery, Celeriac, and Parsley. Aponogeton Four species. Stove or green-house aquatics. Offsets or seeds. Loam and peat in water. Apple-Bark Beetle Bostri-chus. ...
-Apple
(Pyrus malus). Varieties There are 1,496 named varieties in the last edition of the London Horticultural Society's List of Fruits, of which they have 897 cultivated in their gardens. It may read...
-Apple. Part 2
Summer Queen Coxe. (Fig. 1.) This is quite a distinct variety from one long known around Philadelphia as the Early Queen. It is of full medium size, the outline in some specimens rather longer than...
-Apple. Part 3
Hagloe (Hagloe Crab of Coze: Downing.) (Fig. 6.) There is evidently some blunder as regards this apple, which was imported by Coxe, and described by him. It is unquestionably not the Hagloe Crab of...
-Apple. Part 4
Lady Apple Coace. (Pomme d' Api. Rouge. Petit and Gros Api. Rouge, of the French.) (Fig. 9.) The small size of this beautiful fruit may be carpium of unusual size, and if shaken can be distinctly h...
-Apple. Part 5
New England Russet Boston or Roxbury Russet or Russeting. (Fig. 13.) This is claimed as a native of Massachusetts, and is held throughout New England in high repute. It is usually considered the be...
-Apple. Part 6
Propagation By Seed When it is intended to raise stocks to be engrafted, the only matter to be observed in selecting the seed is, that it be from vigorous healthy trees. Keep the seed in sand, or e...
-Apple. Part 7
By Cuttings All the varieties may be raised in this mode, though some, as the Burr-knot, Codling, and June-eating, more readily than others. Trees so raised are said to be not so liable as their pa...
-Apple. Part 8
Standards, Or Orchard Trees The standards having been trained in the nursery with tolerably good heads, they should be planted with those heads entire; if any are intended for the kitchen garden, p...
-Apricot
Apricot, (Armeniaca vulgaris). Varieties The following list is from the catalogue of D. Landreth and Fulton, Philadelphia: - Name. Color. y. yellow. o. orange. r. red. ...
-Apricot. Continued
Aspect An eastern or western wall is best; for on a south aspect the fruit becomes mealy even before it is ripe. A northern exposure sometimes proves most successful, as the bloom is late, and esca...
-Aquarium
Aquarium is the place devoted to the cultivation of aquatic or water plants. The majority of those cultivated are exotic, and require the protection of glass. If there are only a few of these they may...
-Arbor Vitae - Artabotrys
Arbor Vitae Arbor Vitae, Thuja. Arbutus ArbutusStrawberry tree. Fourteen species, and a few varieties. Evergreen shrubs, chiefly hardy in Great Britain, but require shelter in the Middle Stat...
-Arboretum
Arboretum is a collection of trees and shrubs capable of enduring exposure to our climate. These are usually arranged in genera according to their precedence in the alphabet; or in groups conformably ...
-Artanema - Astroloma
Artanema Artanema fimbriatum. Hardy evergreen shrub. Seed. Loam and peat. Artemisia ArtemisiaWormwood. Forty-seven species. Seed. Division and cuttings. Mostly hardy and herbaceous. Arthro...
-Artichoke. Cynara Scolymm
Artichoke, (Cynara scolymm). Soil And Situation The finest heads are produced in a soil abounding in i moisture, but in such they will not sur-vive the winter. To enable them to survive the wint...
-Ashes
Ashes are the remains of a substance which has undergone combustion, and are as various in their components as are the bodies capable of being burnt. Whatever be the substance burnt, the process shoul...
-Asparagus
Twenty-eight species, of which the most important is the kitchen vegetable, asparagus officinalis. Of this there are only two varieties, the purple topped and the green-topped; the first is principall...
-Asparagus. Part 2
Time Of Final Planting The best time for the final removal is the end of March, if the soil is dry, and the season warm and forward; otherwise it is better to wait until the commencement of April. ...
-Asparagus. Part 3
Subsequent Cultivation Throughout the year care must be taken to keep the beds clear of weeds, and in the spring and summer apply liquid manure twice a week plentifully. In the latter end of Octobe...
-Asparagus. Part 4
Time Of Production In May the beds are in full production of young shoots, which, when from two to five inches high, are fit for cutting, and as long as the head continues compact and firm. Care mu...
-Asparagus. Part 5
Forcing. Plants To Be Employed Such plants must be inserted in hot-beds as are five or six years old, and appear of sufficient strength to produce vigorous shoots: when, however, any old natural gr...
-Astyria - Hot-House
Astyria Astyria rosea. Stove shrub. Cuttings. Sandy loam. Atalantia Atalantia monophylla. Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings. Rich loam. Atamasco-Lily Atamasco-Lily {Zephyranthes Atamasco)...
-Athalia
Athalia spinarum. Turnip Saw-fly, known popularly as the Black-caterpillar, Black-canker, Black-palmer, Negro, etc. Mr. Curtis observes, that As early as May, or sooner, the Saw-flies make their a...
-Auricula
(Primula Auricula.) This is a popular Florist's flower, and animated contests take place for the premiums annually offered by the English provincial Horticultural Societies. Varieties Mr. Slater...
-Author's Preface
Utility, more than either originality of contents or elegance of phraseology, has been the author's principal object in the following pages. He has endeavoured to gather together in one volume, attain...
-Avenue
Avenue, is a road bordered by trees on each side, and being, as observed by Whately, confined to one termination, and excluding every view on the sides, has a tedious sameness throughout; to be great ...
-Averuncator
Averuncator, or pole pruning shears. The Averuncator, attached to a pole, operates by means of a lever moved by a cord and pulley; its use is to prune from the ground trees whose branches are beyond r...
-Azalea
Sixty species, and many varieties. The North American are hardy and deciduous, and the Chinese or Indian are green-house evergreens. Cuttings. Sandy peat and loam. Mr. James Falconer, of Cheam, giv...
-Balm
Balm (Melissa officinalis). Soil And Situation The soil best suited to its growth, is any poor and friable, but rather inclining to clayey than silicious. Manure is never required. An eastern as...
-Balm Of Gilead
Several plants are popularly known under this name. The Balm of Gilead of commerce is the dried juice of a low tree or shrub [amyris gileadensis), which grows in several parts of Abyssinia and Syria....
-Bank's (Sloping)
Bank's (sloping), says Mr. Barnes, Are of great advantage in bringing forth vegetation of all kinds at an early season in a healthy state, and in the greatest abundance. Another great advantage is th...
-Baptisia - Barton
Baptisia Ten species. Hardy herbaceous plants. Divisions. Common loamy soil. Barbacenia Barbacenia squamatosa. Stove herbaceous. Cuttings. Sandy loam. Barbadoes Cedar Juniperus barbaden...
-Barberry. Berberis Vulgaris
Barberry (Berberis vulgaris). There are five varieties of this elegant shrub - the red, without and with stones; the black sweet, which is tender, and requires a sheltered border; the purple, and the ...
-Bark
- The refuse bark from the tanner's yard is employed by the gardener as a source of heat, and when thoroughly broken down by putrefaction, as a manure. As a source of heat, it is much less used tha...
-Barometer
Mr. P. Christensen, of Cowes, in the Isle of Wight, Lecturer upon Astronomy, etc, has arranged a table, which no one having a weatherglass should be without. This Companion to the Barometer is the r...
-Barometric Fluctuations
1. The barometer in calm serene weather generally ranges pretty high, rather above thirty inches; if the fluctuations daily are very small, but still rather getting higher, a fine series of days or we...
-Barren Plants
Themale flowers of the cucumber, melon, and other monoecious plants, are popularly known as barren flowers; and the plants of the asparagus, mercury, and other dioecious plants bearing only male plant...
-Bartonia - Bedding-Out
Bartonia Four species. Hardy annuals and biennials. Seed. Sandy loam. Baryosma Six species. Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Peat and sand. Basella Eight species. Stove biennial c...
-Bartram
BartramJohn, one of the most distinguished of American botanists, was born in Chester county, Pennsylvania, in 1701. His grandfather, of the same name, accompanied William Penn to this country, in 168...
-Basil
(Ocymuin.) There are two kinds, the Sweet-scented (O. basilicum), and the Dwarf-bush (O. minimum). Soil And Situation They thrive most in a rich light soil, entirely free from any overshadowing ...
-Baskets
Baskets employed by the London gardeners, being made of osier or deal shavings, vary triflingly in size more than measures made of less flexible materials. They are as follows: - See kale punnets -...
-Bean
Vicia faba, of Linnaeus. Feve do marais, Fr. Bohn, Ger. Fava, Ital. Habas, Span. Of the above kind, commonly called in this country 'Horse Bean,' there is considerable variety; two of them have been ...
-Beans Pole
BeansPole. - The Scarlet Runners, and White Dutch Beans, are very delicately flavored, and are used either in the pod, or shelled when further advanced; but in Pennsylvania, and perhaps farther south...
-Bedeguar - Besom
Bedeguar See Cynips Rosa. Bee Bee, (Apis.) All the species of this insect are friendly to the gardener, for they all aid in impregnating his flowers, many of which without their aid would fal...
-Beet. Betterave
Betterave, Fr. Rothe Ruhr, Ger. Acelgas, Span. Barba Biettola, Ital. The Red Beet is a native of the sea-coast of the south of Europe. It was cultivated in England in 1656, and then called beet rave,...
-Bessera - Billardiera
Bessera Two species. Greenhouse bulbous perennials. Offsets. Peat and sand. Beta Beet. Seven species. Hardy biennials. B. trigyna is an herbaceous perennial. Seeds. Rich mould. Betel Nut ...
-Bignonia
Sixty-one species. Chiefly stove evergreen climbers. B. capreolata is hardy, and B. Carolina, B. picta, and B. jasminoides, are greenhouse climbers. B. grand/flora bears some resemblance to our native...
-Billbergia - Bobartia
Billbergia Ten species. Stove epiphytes. Suckers. Rich mould. Billotia Billotia acerosa. Green-house evergreen shrub. Cuttings. Sandy peat. Bindweed Convolvulus. Bindweed Smi/ax A...
-Birds
Birds are benefactors as well as injurers of the gardener. They destroy millions of grubs, caterpillars, and aphides, which would have ravaged his crops; but at the same time they commit sad havoc upo...
-Black Fly
Haltica nemorum. This is only one of the several popular names by which the turnip fly is known. The gardener is not so liable to suffer as is the farmer, from its ravages, yet he is sufficiently open...
-Blanching
Blanching, or etiolation, is effected by making plants grow in the dark, and the more completely the light is excluded the more entire is the absence of colour from the leaves and stems of the plants....
-Bloom Or Blossom
Bloom Or Blossom, is the popular name for the flowers of fruit-bearing plants. The organs of fructification are absolutely necessary, and are always producible by garden plants properly cultivated...
-Bocconia - Bouvardia
Bocconia Two species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Loam. Boebera Two species. B. chry-santhemoides is a hardy annual. B. in-cana, a green-house evergreen shrub. Seeds. Loamy peat or comm...
-Bog-Earth
Bog-Earth, or peat earth, is the soil requited for a class of plants that are generally designated American, though not all of them are natives of that quarter of the globe. Bog-earth of the best desc...
-Bombyx
Bombyx, a genus of moths, of which the following are injurious to the gardener. Bombyx aesculi, the horse-chestnut, or wood leopard moth, the last being the most appropriate name, as descriptive of...
-Bombyx. Part 2
Bombyx Dispar, Gipsy Moth Its little caterpillar is found in early spring on the leaves of fruit trees, as they burst from the bud. M. Kollar, to whose pages I am so much indebted for accurate info...
-Bombyx. Part 3
Bombyx Chrysorrhtea. Yellow-Tailed Moth Its caterpillar usually confines its attacks to the leaves of the white and black thorn, but sometimes spreads to our fruit trees. M. Kollar observes that - ...
-Bombyx. Part 4
Bombyx Phaeorrhaea Brown-tailed moth. M. Kollar states that - According to Curtis, the caterpillar of the brown-tailed moth is found on the hawthorn and oak most plentifully; elm very plentifully;...
-Bones
Bones are beneficial as a manure, because their chief constituent (phosphate of lime) is also a constituent of all plants; and the gelatine which is also in bones is of itself a source of food to them...
-Borage
Borage (Borago officinalis). Its young leaves are sometimes used in salads, or boiled as spinach. Being aromatic, its spikes of flowers are put into negus and cool tankards. Soil And Situation F...
-Border
Border, is a name applied to that narrow division of the garden which usually accompanies each side of a walk in the pleasure-grounds, and to the narrow bed which is close to the garden wall on one si...
-Borecole
BorecoleBrassica olerarea fim-briata. Varieties Of the following, 1, 2, 3. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 16, are the best. 1. Brussels Borecole, or Sprouts. 2. Green Borecole, Brassica olerac...
-Bottom Heat
Naturally the temperature of the soil always bears a due relative proportion to that of the air. When the temperature of the air decreases, that of the soil also decreases, but very slowly; and when t...
-Bower - Brodlaea
Bower See Arbor. Box Box {Buxus semperrirens), is noticed by the gardener chiefly as a plant suitable for edgings. For this purpose it is neat, and certainly the best article used. In some ga...
-Bridges
Bridges 'are inconsistent with the nature of a lake, but characteristic of a river; they are on that account used in landscape gardening to disguise a termination; but the deception has been so often ...
-Broadcast
Broadcast, is a mode of sowing now rapidly falling into disuse in the garden as well as in the field. It has no one advantage over sowing in drills except that the work of sowing is done more expediti...
-Broccoli
The same in Eng., Fr., and Ital. Italienische Kohl, Ger. Bro-culi, Span. This exquisite vegetable resembles the cauliflower in growth, appearance, and flavour, and is supposed to have originated from...
-Bromelia - Bunchosia
Bromelia Fifteen species. Chiefly stove herbaceous perennials. B. discolor is an evergreen shrub; B. exudans, an epiphyte. Suckers. Rich loamy soil. Bromheadia Bromheadia palustri\s. Stove ep...
-Bruchus
Bruchus, a genus of beetles. B. granarius and B. pisi are greatly destructive to our pea crops. They are small brownish beetles, usually found at the same time the plants are in flower, and they de...
-Brunsvigia
Thirteen species. Green-house bulbous perennials. Offsets. Rich mould. The bulbs, while dormant, which is during winter, are kept in a cool greenhouse, in as dry and airy a place as possible, until...
-Budding
Budding is the art of making a bud unite to the stem or branch (then called the stock) of another tree or shrub, independently from its parent. The object thus attained is a rapid multiplication of th...
-Bulbs
Bulbs, are really underground buds; their fibrous or real roots die annually, but the bulbs remain stored with elaborated sap, and retaining, though latent, the vital powers of the plant, ready for re...
-Bupleurum - Caelestlna
Bupleurum Forty species. Chiefly hardy annuals, biennials, perennials, and a few evergreen shrubs. Offsets or seeds. Common soil. Bupthalmum Nine species. Hardy annuals and perennials, or gre...
-Cabbage
(Brassica oleracea capi-tata.) The cabbage tribe is, of all the classes of cultivated vegetables, the most ancient, as well as the most extensive. The Brassica oleracea being extremely liable to spor...
-Cabbage. Continued
Landreth's Large York This is a variety that originated at Philadelphia. It is not what gardeners term a pure kind; that is, the heads differ somewhat in form; but it is one of the finest varieties...
-Cactus
Four species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Soil The soil for young plants, one-half peat, with equal quantities of strong yellow loam, pigeons' or sheep's dung, and river sand that has been at least...
-Cactus. Continued
Varieties And Species The following are cultivated around Philadelphia, and are among the more desirable. A superb collection, perhaps the most so in the Union, is in the possession of Caleb Cope, ...
-Caexopteris - Calliopea
Caexopteris Five species. Stove and green-house ferns. Division. Peat and loam. Caesalpina Twenty-one species. Stove evergreen shrubs or trees. C. scandens is a climber; C. gilliesii is decid...
-Calceolaria
Thirty-one species, and many varieties. Chiefly greenhouse herbaceous perennials, or evergreen shrubs. Cuttings or seeds. Any rich, open, sandy soil. Characteristics Of Excellence The plant sho...
-Calliopsis - Calyptrion
Calliopsis Four species. Hardy annuals and perennials. Seeds. Common loam. Calliprora Calliprora lutea. Hardy bulbous perennial. Offsets. Peat. Callisia Callisia repens. Stove tuberous-...
-Calystegia - Canna
Calystegia Seven species. Hardy deciduous twining or trailing plants. Division. Common loamy soil. Calythrix Five species. Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Sandy loam and peat. Camas...
-Camomile Or Chamomile
Camomile Or Chamomile; (An-themis nobilis). Varieties There are two varieties, the common single and the double flowering. Soil And Situation They require a poor dry soil, otherwise they g...
-Canker
This disease is accompanied by different symptoms, according to the species of the tree which it infects. In some of those whose true sap contains a considerable quantity of free acid, as in the genus...
-Canker. Part 2
The canker, as already observed, attends especially the old age of some fruit trees, and of these the apple is most remarkably a sufferer. I do not mean, says Mr. Knight, to assert that there ever ...
-Canker. Part 3
If the soil by its ungenial character induces the disease, the obvious and only remedy is its amelioration; and if the subsoil is the cause of the mischief, the roots must be prevented striking into i...
-Canterbury Bell - Caryophyllus
Canterbury Bell Campanula medium. Canthium Canthium dubium. Green-house evergreen shrub. Cuttings. Rich soil. Cape Jasmine Gardenia florida. Cape Phillyrea Cassine capen-sis. C...
-Capsicum
Twenty-four species and some varieties. Stove evergreen shrubs, or hardy and stove annuals. Seeds. Rich open soil. The following are the kitchen garden species and varieties. Capsicum Annuum ...
-Cardoon
{Cynara cardunculus). The stalks of the inner leaves, when rendered tender by blanching, are used in stews, soups, and salads. Soil And Situation A light rich soil is most suitable to this ve...
-Carnation
Dianthus caryophyl-lus. The Carnation is a prominent flower at the horticultural shows in England, and exciting contests for the premiums are annually exhibited. In the United States it succeeds but i...
-Carnation. Part 2
Rose Flakes Lovely Anne (Ely's); Rosea (Hulton's); Queen Victoria (Hy-ron's); Lady Gardiner (Ely's); Lady Ely (Ely's); Elizabeth (Easum's); Village Maid (Greasley's); Lady Flora (Hudson's); Sarah (...
-Carnation. Part 3
Soil Dr. Horner recommends - Two parts old pasture sods, two years old, and one part old frame manure, three years old, with a sufficient addition of coarse river sand, to prevent tenacity of the ...
-Carnation. Part 4
Propagation By Layers The proper parts for layers are those leafy shoots arising near the crown of the root, which, when about five inches long, are of a proper degree of growth. The general sea...
-Carnation. Part 5
Winter Culture In November, the varieties in pots should be moved to a sunny, sheltered situation for the winter; and if placed in a frame, etc, to have occasional protection from hard frost, it wi...
-Carrot
(Daucus carota.) The Carrot is a hardy biennial. The root of the plant in its wild state is small; dry, sticky, of a white colour, and strong flavoured. Varieties Those with a regular fusiform...
-Caryota - Ceaxothus
Caryota Three species. Stove palms. Seeds. Rich soil and a moist warm atmosphere. Cascaria Six species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Sandy loam. Casine Seven species. Greenhouse ev...
-Cascade
Cascade, or Waterfall, is an important adjunct in landscape gardening, but agreeable only when properly associated with the scenery around; that association is a bold broken ground, and a dense planta...
-Cauliflower
(Brassica oleracea cauliflora). The Cauliflower is one of the most delicate and curious of the whole bras-sica tribe; the flower-buds forming a close, firm, cluster or head, white and delicate, an...
-Cecidomyia - Cercis
Cecidomyia C. nigra. Black Gall Midge. This insect lays its eggs in the blossom of the pear early in the spring, and the larva; thence born consume the pulp of the embryo fruit. Sometimes they eat ...
-Celeriac, Or Turnip-Rooted Celery
Celeriac, Or Turnip-Rooted Celery {Apium rapaceum). Time And Mode Of Sowing It may be sown in March, April, and May, to afford successive plantations in June, July, and August. The seed must be ...
-Celery
(Apium graveolens). The Celery is a hardy biennial plant-, a native of Britain, and known in its wild state, by the name of smallage; the whole plant has a rank coarse taste, and the effects of culti...
-Cereus - Cheiranthus
Cereus One hundred and thirty-one species. Stove cactaceous plants. Cuttings, dried before planting. Sandy loam. Cerinthe Five species. Hardy annual or biennial plants. Seeds. Common soil. ...
-Cetonia
Cetonia aurata. Green rose chafer, is most severely felt by the gardener when it attacks his strawberries, which it does in May or June. It is described by Mr. Curtis as being one of our largest and ...
-Charcoal
Soot, a chief constituent of which is charcoal, lias long been known as a very effective fertilizer; and burning has still longer been known as a mode of reducing stubborn soils to prompt productivene...
-Cheimatobia
Cheimatobia brumata. Winter moth. This is the parent of that scourge of fruit trees, the greenlooper caterpillar. It appears in November. One female will lay 200 eggs, depositing them on the bends and...
-Cheirostemon - Chive Or Cive
Cheirostemon Cheirostemon platanoides. Stove evergreen tree. Leafy cuttings. Sandy loam. Chelidonium Two species. - Hardy herbaceous perennials. Division. Common soil. Chelone Seven spe...
-Cherry
(Cerasus). Varieties There are eighty in the London Horticultural Society's list, of which some are quite inferior and others scarcely differ except in name. The following we extract from the Ca...
-Cherry. Part 2
Belle De Choisey. Thomp.: Pom. Mag (Cereise Doucette, Cereise Pa-lembre.) (Fig. 23.) The Bon Jar-dinier speaks highly of this variety, which was produced at Choisey, near Paris, many years ago. It...
-Cherry. Part 3
Knight's Early Black. Pom. Mag.: Thorn (Fig. 28.) This is, as its name imports, one of Mr. Knight's seedlings, raised in England, about 1810. It is not, externally, unlike the Black Tartarian, of ...
-Cherry. Part 4
Diseases The leaves are liable to be honey-dewed, especially in ill-drained soils; but gumming is the most weakening disease. (See Honey-dew and Ex-travasated sap). The Aphis cerasi, a black spe...
-Chervil
ChervilParsley-leaved. Chaero-phyllum sativum. Fern-leaved chervil, or Sweet Cicely, C. aromaticum, for soups, salads, etc. They are still cultivated by the Dutch, but in this country are not often fo...
-Chlidanthus - Cissus
Chlidanthus Chlidanthus fragrans. Greenhouse bulbous perennial. Division. Two-thirds sandy loam, one-third sand and peat. Chloanthes Three species. Green-house evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Loa...
-Choice Camellias
+Alba-pleno, double white. +--Fimbriata, fringed do. *Americana, blush with rose spots. Albertii, white. Althaeiflora, crimson. +*Amabile, rose and red. t*Binneyii, light rose. Bealii, ...
-Chrysanthemum
C. sinense. Often designated the Chinese chrysan themum. Varieties of this flower are numerous, but the following is as good a selection as can be made. Those to which an asterisk is prefixed, are ...
-Chrysanthemum. Continued
Soil A warm sheltered well-drained border, manured with leaf mould abundantly, for the out-door plants. For those in pots, four parts light fresh turfy loam, four parts leaf mould, and one part rub...
-Ciboul, Or Welsh Onion
Allium fistulosum. This is a perennial, never forming any bulb, but is sown annually, to be drawn young for salads, etc. On account of its strong taste, it is greatly inferior to the common onion for ...
-Cineraria
Fifty-four species. Chiefly hardy and green-house herbaceous; but some green-house evergreen shrubs. It is a genus of florists' flowers, and the varieties which they have raised are very numerous. A g...
-Circumposition
Circumposition differs from layering, only that in this the shoot to be rooted is bent down to the soil, whilst in circumposition the soil is placed in a vessel and raised to the shoot. There are pots...
-Cisterns - Clintonia
Cisterns Cisterns for the accumulation of rain-water should be formed in connection with the gutters of the various buildings in the gardens, for no water is equal to it for the artificial supply o...
-Citrus
Fourteen species. Greenhouse evergreen fruit trees or shrubs, budding or grafting, and sometimes cuttings. Rich loamy soil mixed with dung. For the structure of a house suitable for their cultivati...
-Clay
Clay is a constituent of all fertile soils, though in these it rarely exceeds one-sixteenth part, and generally bears a much smaller relative proportion to the other constituents. In its pure state it...
-Climate
Climate controls the growth of plants most imperatively, and in the cultivation of his fruits, flowers, and culinary vegetables, it forms the first object of the gardener's inquiry. He must first know...
-Climbing Roses - Rue, Or Herb Grace
Climbing Roses These flower annually in immense clusters, grow rapidly, and are quite hardy. Banksia lutea, double yellow. alba, white. Boursault, rose colour. purpurea, purple. b...
-Clipping - Cocos
Clipping Clipping hedges should be confined to those of the commonest and hardiest varieties of shrubs, as those of hawthorn and privet. The shears may, however, be used with great advantage by exp...
-Clisiocampa
Clisiocampa neustria, the Lacky Moth, Hies only at night. It appears about July, and its eggs are laid round the twigs of trees in the form of a broad band of about three hundred eggs, closely glued t...
-Clumps
Clumps when close are sometimes called Thickets, and when open Groups of Trees. They differ only in extent from a wood, if they are close, or from a grove, if they are open; they are small woods, and ...
-Coccus
Scale Insect. The species of this family are most usually, but not exclusively, found upon the tenants of our green-houses and hot-houses. The males are active, but the females usually fixed to a part...
-Codarium - Conanth Era
Codarium Wild Tamarind. Two species. Stove evergreen tree and shrubs. Cuttings. Loam and peat. Codonophora Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Peat and loam. Ccelogyne Seventeen species. ...
-Commelina
Twenty-five species. Chiefly stove evergreen trailers, which are increased by divisions and seeds: sandy loam and peat. The hardy kinds, seeds or offsets; and the annuals, seeds and common garden soil...
-Compost
Compost is a mixture of manures, or of earths and manures, in such proportions, and of such qualities as are considered particularly applicable to the plant or crops to which the composition is to be ...
-Coniferae - Corycium
Coniferae Coniferae or cone-bearing trees and shrubs are numerous, embracing the Pines, Larches, Firs, Cedars, Junipers, and Thuyas. Connarus Three species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Ripened cu...
-Conservatory
This structure is a green-house communicating with the residence, having borders and beds in which to grow its tenant plants; or it may be an appendage to the dwelling, of moderate size, into which th...
-Corydalis - Cress
Corydalis Twenty-four species. Hardy annuals, biennials, or tuberous-rooted perennials. The latter increase by division. Peat and loam. The annuals by seeds. Common soil. Corylus Nut Tree. Se...
-Crataegus
Hawthorn. Fifty species and many varieties. Chiefly hardy deciduous low trees. Seeds, buds, or grafts. Dr. Lindley gives the following list of the most showy kinds. C. Aronia Most showy speci...
-Cress Rocket - Cultivators, Or Hoe-Har-Rows
Cress Rocket See Vella. Crinum Sixty-six species and some varieties. Stove or green-house bulbous perennials. Offsets. Rich loam, peat, and sand. C. capense, is thus recommended by the bes...
-Crocus
Many species and varieties. Hardy bulbous perennials. Offsets or seeds. Light sandy soil. Spring Crocuses C. vernus: of this there are about five varieties, varying in colour, chiefly yellow, wh...
-Cucullia
Cucullia verbasci. Mullien Shark. The caterpillars of this moth are very destructive to Verbascums in June and July. Mr. Curtis describes them as being about two and a half inches long, bluish white ...
-Cucumber
Cucumis sativus. This, like many other esculent vegetables, has been divided into a number of varieties and subvarieties, the greater portion of which could be easily dispensed with; for all useful pu...
-Cucumber. Continued
It may not be misplaced to remark, that chilly foggy days are even less propitious for admitting air than severe frosty ones; during such it is best to keep the frames close, and to lessen the opening...
-Cucumber. Part 2
Hot Water Beds If hot water be the source of heat, the following sketch of the bed and frame employed by Mr. Mitchell, at Worsley, is about the best that can be employed. The objects kept in view w...
-Cucumber. Part 3
Training There is no doubt that training near the glass of the frames upon a trellis, makes the cucumber vine more prolific, and more enduring. Indeed, if trained with proper care, the same vine ma...
-Cullumbine Or Columbine - Cymbidium
Cullumbine Or Columbine Aquilegia. Cumin See Cuminum. Cumin See Lagoecia. Cuminum Cyminum. Hardy annual. Seeds. Common soil. Cummingia Four species. Half-hardy bulbous peren...
-Curculio
This genus of Beetle, popularly known as Weevils, are destructive to fruit, as nuts, nectarines, and peaches, as well as to peas, etc. There are many species. C. betuleti. Vine Weevil. Colour, stee...
-Curculio. Continued
Curculio Cupreus Copper-coloured Weevil. Attacks the leaves and young shoots of the plum and apricot, as well as their fruit. June and July. Curculio Bacchus Purple or Apple Weevil. Pierces t...
-Curl
A disease of the potato. Any one can ensure the occurrence of this disease by keeping the sets in a situation favourable to their vegetation, as in a warm damp outhouse, and then rubbing off repeated...
-Currant
(Ribes). Black Currant. (R. Nigrum) 1. Black Grape. 2. Black Naples, largest and best. 3. Common Black. 4. Russian Green. Red Currant. (R. Rubrum) 1. Common Red. 2. Red Dutch, ...
-Currant. Continued
By Layers The young branches being laid in autumn, winter, or spring, will readily strike root, and next autumn be fit to transplant. In the general propagation of these shrubs we would observe,...
-Cutting
Cutting is a part of a plant capable of emitting roots, and of becoming an individual similar to its parent. The circumstances requisite to effect this are a suitable temperature and degree of moistur...
-Cyclamen
Ten species, and many varieties. Hardy or green-house tuberous-rooted perennials. Seeds. Sandy loam and vegetable mould. Species most worthy of culture are - Cyclamen Coum Round-leaved, spring-f...
-Cymbopogon - Damasonium
Cymbopogon Cymbopogon Schaenanthus. A stove species of grass. Seeds. Loam and peat. Cynoche Cynoche pentadactylum. Stove epiphyte. Offsets. Fibrous peat. Cynoglossum Twenty-two species....
-Cypripedium
Lady's slipper. Twelve species, and variety. Chiefly hardy terrestrial orchids. Division. Sandy peat. An anonymous writer gives the following correct directions for their cultivation: - The sor...
-Dahlia
Seven species. Tuberous perennials. Cuttings, division, and seed. Rich sandy loam. The two species giving birth to the numerous lovely varieties of our gardens are D. superflua and D. frustanea. Va...
-Dammara - Orchard
Dammara Dammar pine tree. Two species. Cuttings. Sandy loam. Dampiera Two species. Greenhouse herbaceous. Cuttings. Peat and loam. Damping Off Damping Off is a name applied by gardeners...
-Deformity
The leaves of plants frequently assume an unnatural form on account of their being wounded by insects. Keith, in his Physiology of Plants, thus enumerates some of the most customary: - The leaves ...
-Design
Consult the genius of the place before you determine upon your design, is sound advice; for in gardening,as in all the fine arts, nothing is pleasing that is inappropriate. Mr. Whateley, our best au...
-Desmanthus - Dietes
Desmanthus Five species. - Stove aquatics and evergreens. The former by seeds in water; the latter by cuttings in peat and loam. Desmochceta Eight species. - Stove and green-house evergreens,...
-Digging
Digging is an operation performed with the spade or fork, having for its object a loosening of the soil so as to render it more fit for the reception of seeds or plants. For its correct performance Ma...
-Digitalis - Disbudding
Digitalis Twenty-six species. Hardy herbaceous. Seed. Common soil. Dilatris Three species. Greenhouse herbaceous. Division or seed. Sandy peat. Dillenia Dillenia speciosa. Stove evergre...
-Dill
(Anethum graveolens). Use Its leaves and umbels are used in pickling, and the former in soups and sauces. Soil And Situation It may be cultivated in any open compartment; but if for seed, ...
-Dischidia - Dryas
Dischidia Two species. Stove evergreen trailers. Cuttings. Sandy loam. Disemma Two species. Stove evergreen climbers. Cuttings. Loam and peat. Disperis Three species. Greenhouse orchids...
-Diseases
Dr. Good, the distinguished medical writer, has remarked, that the morbid affections to which the vegetable part of the creation is liable, are almost as numerous as those which render decrepid and de...
-Double Flowers
Hybridizing, aided by cultivation, gives birth to these objects of the gardener's care generally designated double flowers, which are such beauteous ornaments of our borders and parterres. To the unin...
-Draining
There is scarcely a garden existing that would not be benefited by under-draining. Every gardener knows the absolute necessity for a good drainage under his wall-trees and vines, but few gardeners eve...
-Drill Barrows, Or Seed Sowers
Various have been the contrivances for sowing seeds, many having the mere merit of ingenuity, without practical utility; because when used with adhesive seeds, or those of rough form, they clog, and,...
-Drymonia - Earwig
Drymonia Two species. Stove evergreen climbers. Cuttings. Rich sandy loam. Drypetes Drypetes crocea. Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings. Loam and peat. Drypis Drypis spinosa. Hardy evergre...
-Dung
Under this title our attention must be confined to the faeces and urines of animals, and that one most common compound, stable dung. Night-soil is the richest of the manures to be arranged under th...
-Dung. Continued
The controversy, too, which once so keenly existed, as to the state of fermentation in which dung should be used on the land, has now pretty well subsided. There is no doubt but that it cannot be appl...
-Ebenus - Elisena
Ebenus Two species. Greenhouse evergreens. Seed. Peat and loam. Ec Astaphyllum Three species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Rich loam. Eccremocarpus Eccremocarpus longiflora. Green-...
-Edible Fruited
All the stove passion flowers thrive in a day temperature of 70, with a night temperature of 50. Mr. Jones, of the Kew Gardens, has given the following directions, especially, for the cultiv...
-Elm - Erodium
Elm Elm (Ulmus). Elm Beetle See Scolytus. Emblica Two species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Peat and sand. Embothrium Embothrium strobilinum. Greenhouse evergreen shrub. Cutt...
-Endive
Endive {Cichoriurm endivia). Varieties The green-curled, the only one cultivated for the main crops, as it best endures wet and cold; the white-curled, chiefly grown for summer and autumn; the b...
-Endive. Continued
Blanching About three months elapse between the time of sowing and the fitness of the plants for blanching. This operation, if conducted properly, will be completed in from ten to fourteen days in ...
-Engine
This name is applied to many contrivances for supplying water to plants. 1. The pump-syringe, or syringe-engine, (Fig. 37), can be supplied with water from a common bucket, from which it sucks the ...
-Entrances
Upon these parts of a residence, which should give a first and appropriate impression, Mr. Whate-ley has these just remarks: The road which leads up to the door of the mansion may go off from it i...
-Erpetion - Eutoca
Erpetion Two species. Halfhardy evergreen creepers. Division. Sandy peat. Eryngium Thirty-four species. Chiefly hardy herbaceous. Division or seed. Common soil. Erythraea Eleven species...
-Erythrina
Thirty-five species. Chiefly stove evergreen shrubs and trees. Cuttings. Loam, peat, and leaf-mould, in equal proportions. E. crista-galli. Coral Tree. Is one of the most beautiful of this genus, a...
-Eschallot Or Shallot
Allium ascalonicum. Of this there are the common, and the long-keeping, the last continuing good for two years. Both have a stronger taste than the onion, yet not leaving that odour on the palate whic...
-Espalier
Espalier, is a tree trained to a trellis instead of a wall, and though the fruit it bears is not quite equal to that borne by a tree of the same variety trained against the wall, yet it is far superio...
-Eumerus
A genus of predatory flies. E. aneus, Brassy Onion Fly, is thus described by Mr. Curtis: - The maggots are very rough, from a multitude of short spines or rigid bristles, which cover their skin...
-Euxenia - Fennel-Flower
Euxenia Euxenia grata. Green-house evergreen shrub. Cuttings. Peat and loam. Evening Flower Hesperus. Evening Primrose (Enothera. Evergreens Evergreens are such plants as do not s...
-Excrescence
Independent of Galls, which are caused by the punctures of insects, and the swellings which always accompany Canker, the excrescences which injure the gardener's crops are very few. That which appear...
-Extravasated Sap
Under this general name, I purpose to include the consideration of gumming, bleeding, and other injurious affections under which plants occasionally labour, on account of their sap escaping from the ...
-Fall Of The Leaf
Dr. Lindley thus explains this phenomenon. In the course of time a leaf becomes incapable of performing its functions; its passages are choked up by the deposit of sedimentary matter; there is no ...
-Fallowing
Fallowing, beyond all doubt, is needless where there is a due supply of manure, and a sufficient application of the spade, fork, and hoe to the soil. Fallowing can have no other beneficial influence t...
-Fancy, Or Variegated Dahlias
Alba-purpurea Superba, Bates, purple tipped with white. Beauty of England, Girting, purple tipped with white. Charles XII., Miller, purple tipped with white. Cinderella, Dubras, cherry tipped...
-Fancy, Or Variegated Dahlias. Part 2
Propagation By Division A good criterion for planting this root, says a writer in the Gard. Mag., is about the time of planting early potatoes for a first crop, but no sooner. They grow well in ...
-Fancy, Or Variegated Dahlias. Part 3
By Cuttings The shoots are allowed to grow until they have three pair of leaves, and they are cut off just under the second pair and above the lowest pair. Where one cutting is taken off plenty of...
-Fancy, Or Variegated Dahlias. Part 4
After-Culture This comprises chiefly staking, hoeing, protection, and slight pruning. Dahlias should never be pruned until the bloom buds show, and then but few branches should be cut out, and ...
-Fancy, Or Variegated Dahlias. Part 5
Forcing The Dahlia may be advantageously forced by potting the roots in February, and letting them remain in frames till June; when they will begin to flower, and may be turned out into the open b...
-February. Kitchen Garden
Except in the remote south, the outdoor operations of the gardener are almost suspended. Nearly all that he can do is to provide manure, prepare rods and poles for peas and beans, labels for his plant...
-Fences
Fences are employed to mark the boundary of property, to exclude trespassers, either human or quadrupedal, and to afford shelter. They are either live fences, and are then known as hedges, or dead, an...
-Fennel
Fennel (Anethum Faniculum) will flourish in almost any soil or situation: in a dry soil it is longest-lived. It is propagated both by offsets, partings of the root, and by seed; all of which modes may...
-Fenugrek - Foxglove
Fenugrek Trigonella. Fernelia Two species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Turfy loam and peat. Ferraria Eight species. Greenhouse and hardy bulbs. Offsets and seeds. Sandy loam and p...
-Ferns
Ferns from the tropics present to us some of the most beautiful forms to be found in the vegetable world, and now very generally are a portion of collections of exotic plants. Mr. J Henderson, the flo...
-Fig
Ficus carica. Varieties For Open Walls, And Time Of Ripening Brown Ischia, Large White Genoa, and Green Ischia, (August.) Brown Naples, Brunswick, White Marseilles, (September.) Black Provence, ...
-Fig. Part 2
Wall-Trees And Espaliers Mr. Mark-ham says that of these, The requisite pruning is merely to thin the branches where they are too thick, and to admit plenty of light and air. The points of any bra...
-Filbert
Corylus avellana. Varieties Frizzled, great bearer. Red (C. tubulosa), pellicle of kernel pink, flavour excellent. White, pellicle white, flavour good. Cosford, great bearer, good; shell very th...
-Finochio Or Azorean Fennel
Finochio Or Azorean Fennel (Anethum azoricum), does not usually succeed in this country. Neither is it in much esteem here, being agreeable to few palates. It is served with a dressing like salads. ...
-Florists' Flowers
Florists' Flowers are those which, by their beauty or fragrance, power to produce permanent varieties, and facility of cultivation, are so largely in demand as to render them especially worthy of cult...
-Flower Garden
Annuals (Tender), prick out those sown in February and March into a hotbed; water often; sow in hotbed; (Hardy), may be sown in borders, etc, to remain; thin those advancing. - Auriculas in bloom, she...
-Flower Garden (2)
Flower Garden, is that portion of the ground in the vicinity of the residence, disposed in parterres and borders, tenanted by flowers and flowering shrubs, and among walks and lawns, so that the occup...
-Flower Garden (3)
Anemones, take up as leaves wither; dry and store. - Annuals (hardy and some tender), plant out to remain, in showery weather best; some (hardy) may be sowed, b. - Auriculas, continue shading; plant o...
-Flower Garden (4)
Anemones, Plant, If Not Done In October Auriculas, shelter. - Bulbous roots, finish planting in dry weather, b.; cover beds with mats, etc, in bad weather; pot for forcing. - Carnation layers, pott...
-Flower Pots
Flower Pots are of various sizes and names: - In. diam. at top. In. deep. Lindley Thumb pots are, inside . 2½ 2½ ...
-Flower Stages
Flower Stages are made for the exhibition of flowers at shows, in the green-house, and elsewhere. The following are some very judicious observations on the subject: - The first object in the construc...
-Flues
Flues are pipes formed of brick or slate, for conducting heated air through stoves or other buildings where a high artificial temperature is desired. It is a mode of heating nearly banished by the muc...
-Fork
This instrument is preferable to the spade, even for digging over open compartments, for the soil can be reversed with it as easily as with the spade; the labour is diminished, and the pulverization o...
-Fountains
Fountains surprise by their novelty, and the surprise is proportioned to the height to which they throw the water; but these perpendicular columns of water have no pretence to beauty. The Emperor foun...
-Fractures
If an immaterial branch is broken, it is best to remove it entirely, but it sometimes happens that a stem or branch which cannot be replaced, is thus injured, in which case it is advisable to attempt ...
-Fragaria - Gardener
Fragaria Fourteen species. Hardy herbaceous. Seeds and runners. Common soil. See Strawberry. Franciscea Franciscea uniflora. Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings. Peat and loam. Francoa Thre...
-Frames
Frames are structures employed either in forcing, or in protecting plants, and are of various sizes. According to the good practical rules of Abercrombie: - The one-light frame may be about four f...
-Frames. Part 2
Raising The Frames It is a well-known difficulty that the gardener has, in raising the frames so as to keep the foliage of the plants within them at a determined and constant distance from the glas...
-Frames. Part 3
Shelter For The Glass In proportion to the number of lights, matting for shading and sheltering must be at hand. The usual mode of covering at night is by laying on mats, and over these litter, in ...
-Fritillaria
Fritillary. Twenty-three species, besides varieties. Hardy bulbs. Offsets. Sandy soil. The season for planting or transplanting all these bulbs is when their flower-stalks are decayed, in July or ...
-Frost
If a plant be frozen, and though some defy the attacks of frost, others are very liable to its fatal influence, death is brought upon them as it is in the animal frame, by a complete breaking down of ...
-Fruit Room
Fruit for storing should be gathered before it is quite mature, for the ripening process, the formation of sugar, with its attendant exhalation of carbonic acid and water, goes on as well in the frui...
-Fuchsia
Twenty species, besides many varieties. Green-house evergreen shrubs. Seed and cuttings. Light rich loam and peat. Varieties For Open Borders F. Ric-cartonia; globosa; gracilis; Thomsonii; Clint...
-Fuel
Fuel is no small item in the annual expenditure of the stove, green-house, and conservatory departments, and therefore deserves consideration. The specific heat of water being 1, and that of atmosp...
-Fumigating
Fumigating is employed for the destruction of certain insects; the inhaled vapour or smoke arising from some substances being fatal to them. Tobacco (see Tobacco) is the usual substance employed; and ...
-Gardenia - Genista
Gardenia Twenty-seven species and two varieties. Stove or green-house evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Loam and peat. Garden Rocambole Allium ophioscordon. Garden Swift See Hepialus. Gard...
-Gardening
Herder, in his Kal-ligone, calls gardening the second liberal art, architecture the first. ' A district,' says he, ' of which every part bears what is best for it, in which no waste spot accuses the ...
-Garlick
Allium sativum. Is capable of growing in almost any soil. Mode And Time Of Planting It is generally propagated by parting the root, but may be raised from the bulbs produced on the stems. The pl...
-Gentiana - Gipsy Moth
Gentiana Fifty-eight species and some varieties. Hardy plants. The herbaceous kinds for the most part grow well in a rich peaty soil, and may be increased by division. The annuals and biennials by ...
-Germination
Germination is the sprouting, or first step in vegetation of a seed. To enable it to germinate, it must have a perfectly-developed embryo, and be ripe, or nearly ripe. It must not be too old. The f...
-Girdling - Gonolobys
Girdling Girdling is a mode of killing trees adopted in clearing the forests of America, by cutting, early in the spring, a girdle or ring round the stem of each tree, taking away not only the bark...
-Gladiolus
Forty species; many varieties. Chiefly green-house, and a few hardy bulbous perennials. G. cardinalis. On the culture of this we have the following information from Mr. A. Mackenzie and Mr. Gordon:...
-Glass
Glass is the best agent employed by the gardener to exclude the cold, whilst the light is admitted to his plants which are natives of hotter climates than that in which he cultivates them. Now that th...
-Glass-Cases
Glass-Cases are of various kinds. One is formed of glazed wooden frames, fitting together, to protect espaliers, wall-trees, or shrubs too large to be covered with a hand-glass. Another glass-case ...
-Gloriosa
Four species. Chiefly stove bulbous perennials. Division; also seeds sown as soon as gathered. Turfy loam, white sand, and peat. G. Superba Mr. W. Scott, of Bury Hill, gives these particulars as...
-Gloxinia
Five species. Stove herbaceous perennials. All are propagated by seed, but G. maculata is also increased by division; and the others by leaves taken off close to the stem. Loam, peat, and sand, with l...
-Glyphyteryx
A genus of moths. G. Roesella, Spinach Moth, appears in the spring and throughout the summer. It is blackish-brown coloured. Caterpillar yellowish green. Feeds on spinach, strawberry blite, etc, a...
-Gonostemon - Gratiola
Gonostemon Three species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Sandy loam. Goodenia Seven species. Greenhouse evergreen shrubs, and herbaceous perennials. Seeds or cuttings. Peat and loam. Go...
-Gooseberry
Ribes grossularia The European succeed but indifferently in this country, unless it be in the dry atmosphere of a city. Mildew, the especial enemy of this fruit, seizes on it, and speedily arrests the...
-Gooseberry. Continued
Culture At the end of the first year, the shoots must be cut down to a few eyes, and the plants kept clear from any summer shoots that may be on the stem or that spring from the root; they must hav...
-Gourd
Gourd, Sagenaria vulgaris, and PUMPKIN, Cucurbita pepo, are chiefly employed in the making of pies, etc. There are numerous varieties, varying in the shape and colour of their fruit: as the globular, ...
-Grafting
Grafting is uniting a scion or 17 part of a branch of one plant upon the root, branch, or stem of another. Grafting is a difficult mode of multiplying an individual, because it is requisite so to f...
-Grape-Vine
Grape-Vine (Vitis vinifera). Of this fruit ninety-nine varieties are cultivated in the Chiswick Garden. Open-Wall Culture Varieties best suited for this, according to the experience of Mr. Hoare...
-Grape-Vine. Part 2
Seed To raise new varieties seed from the largest, earliest, and best ripened berries must be separated from their pulp, and kept until the February following; then to be sown in pots filled with ...
-Grape-Vine. Part 3
Grafting The best method, says Dr. Lindley, of grafting vines is to shorten the branch, or shoot, at the winter pruning to the most eligible place for inserting the graft. The graft should be ke...
-Gravel Walks
Gravel Walks, like all other Walks, (vide,) require a good substratum of drainage, and the facing of about five inches deep of gravel. It must have no stones mixed with it larger than goodsized marble...
-Great Burnet - Habranthus
Great Burnet Sanguisorba. Great Centaurea Centaurea centaurium. Grevillea Forty-two species. Green-house evergreen shrubs. Ripe cuttings, and some species, seeds. Sand, loam and peat. ...
-Green Manure
Green Manure is a mass of recently growing plants dug whilst green, and fresh into the soil, for the purpose of enriching it; and it is a rule without any exception, that all fresh vegetable matters s...
-Green-House
This is a winter-residence for plants that cannot endure the cold of our winter, yet do not require either the high temperature or moist atmosphere of a stove [i. e. hothouse] . The first thing to...
-Green-House - Baobab-Tree
Green-House Aloes, propagate by slips, suckers, etc, b. - Budding, finish, b. - Dress every plant as occasion offers. - Earth, give to Oranges, etc.; stir the surface frequently.- Oranges, Lemons, ...
-Green-House - Hot-House
Green-House Air, admit at every favourable time, when the temperature outside is above 32. - Earth in the pots and borders, stir frequently. - Fires to exclude frost and damp should be lighted...
-Green-House - Kelp
Green-House Air, admit freely to all plants detained in the house. - Bud, oranges, lemons, etc. - Camellias, syringe and water frequently; shade in hot days. -Cuttings, slips, etc, water. - Dress a...
-Green-House Bulbs
Oxalis Bowei and versicolor. Lachenalia tricolor. Sparaxis tricolor and grandiflora. Tritonia palida, crispa, and squalida. Ixia patens, viridiflora, aristata, and crocata. Watsonia fulgida. Hypoxis e...
-Green-House Plants
Dwarfs Suitable For Bedding In The House Acacia armata. Chorozema varium. Sollya heterophylla. Templetonia glauca. Pultenea daphnoides. Statice arborea. Pimelea decussata. Oxylobium retusum. Loddig...
-Grove
Grove, is a moderately extensive association of trees without underwood. The character of a grove is beauty; for fine trees are lovely objects, and a grove is an assemblage of them, in which every...
-Guano
This now celebrated manure has been known as the chief fertilizer employed by the Peruvians, almost as long as that part of the New World has been recognized by geographers. Its name, in the language ...
-Gypsum
Gypsum, or Plaster of Paris, is a sulphate of lime, composed of- - Sulphuric acid.....43 Lime ........33 Water........24 It has been employed advantageously as a manure to the turnip and p...
-Haemadictyon - Hardy Plants
Haemadictyon Haemadictyon venosum. Stove evergreen twiner. Cuttings. Loam and peat. Haemanthus Twenty-one species. Green-house bulbs. Offsets. Sandy loam and peat. Haemilis See Tinea. ...
-Half-Hardy Annuals
Are sown in a gentle hot-bed early in April, or late in March, then to be transplanted into the borders, and attended like other annuals. These specifications as to time, apply to the middle states, a...
-Half-Hardy Plants
Half-Hardy Plants are those which require partial shelter, as in a cold pit or frame, during the winter. Here some attention is required to exclude from them dampness and frost, but especially the fir...
-Hardenbergia
Hardenbergia monophylla is a green-house climber, the cultivation of which is thus narrated by Mr. G. Watson: - Train with five leading shoots, one from the centre of the pot, to which a long, sma...
-Hardy Annuals
Bartonia aurea. Calandrinia discolor. ----------------(Talinum) speciosa. Callichroa platyglossa. Campanula Lorei. Chrysanthemum carinatum. Clarkia pulchella. Clintonia pulchella. Collinsia b...
-Hardy Garden Roses
Miaulis, rosy purple. Coronation, purple crimson. Reine des Roses, bright crimson. Duc d'Orleans, dark rose. Painted damask, white. Brennes, dark pink. Rivers' Geo. IV., superb crimson. Hybride blanch...
-Hardy Garden Roses. Part 2. Budding. Preparing Stocks
The Boursault and De Lisle roses have been suggested as the best stocks for pot-culture, and if grown in a rich sheltered soil, and cut down for stooling, some of the shoots of the second year may be ...
-Hardy Garden Roses. Part 3. Grafting
The exact time, says the best treatise on the'Tree Rose,' for removing the scions from the parent tree, must depend upon the season; some time during the first three weeks in February is the usual ...
-Hardy Garden Roses. Part 4
By Suckers Roses send up many suckers annually, which may be taken up in autumn, winter, or early spring, With some rootlets attached; and the strongest may be planted out finally, and the weakest ...
-Hardy Garden Roses. Part 5
Planting On removing trees, says the author of the Tree Rose, the fresh shoots they have made, and the appearance of those which were left, will require attention in the application of the knif...
-Hardy Garden Roses. Part 6
Transplanting And Potting Early in autumn, immediately after rain, remove both worked plants and others from the ground. Such as have grown moderately, with well ripened wood, should be chosen. The...
-Hardy Garden Roses. Part 7
Removal Of Tender Varieties By the end of March, if room cannot he granted them in pits or a green-house, the tender varieties may be brought from their winter residence and plunged in an airy situ...
-Harebell - Hedeoma
Harebell Campanula rotundi-folia. Hares And Rabbits Hares And Rabbits are deterred from injuring trees and shrubs by mixing night-soil and clay in water, and daubing it over the stems with a ...
-Heaped Measures
English market-gardeners, and retailers of fruit, potatoes, etc, generally vend their commodities as if the Act of Parliament, 5 and 6 Will. IV. c. 63, did not exist. By this statute selling by heaped...
-Heat
Heat is the prime agent employed by the Almighty Creator to call vegetable life into existence, to develop vegetable form, to effect all vegetable changes, and to ripen all vegetable produce. All thes...
-Hedera - Hibiscus
Hedera Ivy. Two species and several varieties. Hardy evergreen climbers. Slips. Common soil. Hedwigia Hedwigia balsamifera. Stove evergreen tree. Cuttings. Sandy loam and peat. Hedychium ...
-Hedge
Hedge, properly includes every kind of fence, but the present details apply for the most part to growing fences. Abercrombie says, that all outward hedges designed as fences should have a ditch on th...
-Hedge. Continued
Deciduous Hinds Hawthorn; Blackthorn; Crab; Elder; Hornbeam; Beech; Elm; Lime-tree, and Alder are all proper, either for middling or tall hedges, as they may be trained up from about six or eight t...
-Heliotropium
Seventeen species. Hardy annuals, and green-house evergreen shrubs. Seed or cuttings. Common soil. The following are good directions for the culture of the Heliotrope: - Prepare in August as ma...
-Hide-Bound - Hoya
Hide-Bound See Bark-bound. Hieracium One hundred and nineteen species. Chiefly hardy herbaceous. H. glutinosum is an annual. Seed in the open soil. The others by division in light soil. Hi...
-Hoe
This is the implement which should be most frequently in the gardener's hand, for the surface of the soil can never be too frequently stirred. I entirely agree with Mr. Barnes in thinking the hoe one ...
-Holly
Holly (Ilex aquifolium.) Of this hardy evergreen shrub there are eight varieties: - 1, silver-edged; 2, golden-edged; 3, thick-leaved; 4, prickly; 5, yellow-leaved; 6, variegated; 7, spotted; 8, recur...
-Honeysuckle
(Lonicera peri-clymenum.) This hardy, beautiful, and fragrant flowering shrub will grow in almost any soil, and will thrive where few others will, under the shade of trees. There are the following sub...
-Horse-Chestnut
Aesculus There are the following species and varieties: - Ae. Hippocastanum Common horse-chestnut. Asia. Seeds sown in March. Flowers in May. Height forty feet. Ae. H. Folia Aurea Gold-...
-Horse-Radish
Cochlearia Armo-racia. Delights in a deep, mouldy, rich soil, kept as much as possible in a moderate but regular degree of moistness. Hence the banks of a ditch, or other place which has a constant su...
-Horticulture
Horticulture (from hortus, garden, and colo, I till) includes in its most extensive signification, the cultivation of esculent vegetables, fruits and ornamental plants, and the formation and managemen...
-Hot-Bed
When a temperature of 45, moisture, and atmospheric air occur to deaden vegetable matters, these absorb large quantities of oxygen, evolving also an equal volume of carbonic acid. As in all other...
-Hot-Bed. Part 2
The depth of earth, as well as the time and manner of applying, vary considerably; it should never be put on until four or five days after the bed is formed : before it is applied, the edges of the be...
-Hot-Bed. Part 3
When the crops are removed, and the heat declines, if well stirred, and a load or two of fresh bark mixed with it, the bed will acquire and continue in heat for an equal further lapse of time: this ma...
-Hot-House
Air, admit freely during the day. - Bark Beds, renew if not done in March. - Figs, first crop ripening, require abundant light; syringe to destroy red spider; give little water, and air freely. - Flow...
-Hot-House - Dentaria
Hot-House Air, admit freely as the season will admit. - Bark-beds, keep in operation. - Bulbs, in pots, introduce. - Cucumbers, sow in pots, and plunge in bark-bed. - Flowering Plants, as Pinks, et...
-Hot-House - Land Measure
Hot-House Air, admit as freely as possible. - Bark-Beds may be renewed, if not done in April. - Figs, keep well watered; pick off laterals. - Fruit Trees, in forcing, for treatment see April. - Gra...
-Hot-Wall
Hot-Wall is a hollow wall, the interior air being so heated by flues or hot water, as to keep the bricks of which its faces are composed so warm as to promote the ripening of the wood and fruit traine...
-Hot-Water
Hot-Water as a source of heat for gardening purposes is preferable to any other. It is less expensive, more manageable, and less troublesome than any other. See Tank System and Stove. The following ar...
-Hot-Water. Part 2
Hot-House A hot-water system of heating this structure has been thus detailed by an anonymous writer. Fig. 89. It will be seen that there is a partition across the house, dividing off ab...
-Hot-Water. Part 3. Open Gutters
Mr. Griffin, gardener to Mrs. Wells, of Cowley, near Exeter, has published the following remarks upon this mode of circulating hot-water. The open trough, or gutter, may be applied to a boiler of ...
-Hudsonia - Hyoscyamus
Hudsonia Three species. Half-hardy evergreen shrubs, Ripe cuttings and layers. Shaded peat soil. Huernia Eleven species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings, dried for a few days. Sandy loam and...
-Humus
When the putrefactive process of plants is completed, there remains a soft black mass, known as vegetable mould, or humus. One hundred parts of the humus of wheat straw have of extractive or apotheme,...
-Hyacinthus
Hyacinth. Five species and as many varieties. Hardy bulbs. Offsets. Sandy loam. The species most commonly known is H. orien-talis, the varieties of which are so conspicuous in our borders and water va...
-Hyacinthus. Part 2
Taking Up And Storing In July, the bulbs are taken up, and the leaves being pulled off, they are laid down regularly, each bulb on the side, so as to prevent the roots growing again; after this th...
-Hyacinthus. Part 3
In Water-Glasses In the last week of August, or the first week of September, hyacinths, after being kept for a few days in slightly damped sand, should be placed in their water-glasses. At first th...
-Hybridizing, Or Cross-Breeding
Hybridizing, Or Cross-Breeding, though not quite identical, have with the gardener similar objects, viz., either improving the beauty of his flowers, or the flavour and prolificacy of his fruits and c...
-Hydraulic Ram
This is a useful machine, the principle of which is but partially understood and valued. To bring the hydraulic ram into operation, it is necessary that there should be a head or body of water, as a p...
-Hygrometer
Hygrometer is an instrument deserving of employment in the stove, green house, and conservatory nearly as much as the thermometer; for the correct degree of dampness of the air is of very great import...
-Hypecoum - Ipomopsis
Hypecoum Three species. Hardy annuals. Seed. Common soil. Hypericum Seventy-three species. Hardy, half-hardy, and greenhouse. Mr. Paxton says the two latter thrive in loam and peat, propagate...
-Hyssop
Hyssopus officinalis. Varieties There are three varieties, the white, red, and blue; the last of which is most commonly cultivated. Soil And Situation A dry soil is the one most appropriat...
-Ice-House
Any vacant out-house which can be thoroughly drained will be an efficient ice-house. Moisture is a much more rapid solvent of ice than mere heat. If in an out-house, with drains leading from its floor...
-Impregnation
No seed ever attains the power of germinating, unless the pollen from the stamens in the same, or some nearly allied flower, has reached and impregnated its pistils. In favourable seasons, when g...
-Inarching
Inarching, or Grafting by ap-proach, differs from grafting only in' having the scion still attached to its parent stem whilst the process of union with the stock is proceeding. It is the most certain ...
-Iresine - Flower Garden
Iresine Four species. Half-hardy herbaceous. Seeds, in a gentle hotbed. Rich loam and peat. Irish Heath Menziesia polifolia. Iron-Wort Sideritis. Isertia Isertia coccinea. Stove e...
-Iris
Eighty-nine species. Chiefly hardy bulbs. I. clandestina; I. crassi-folia; and I. deflexa, require the shelter of a greenhouse. The soil cannot well be too sandy for them. Seed or division of the root...
-Irrigation
Irrigation, as employed by the farmer, is chiefly beneficial in proportion to the amount of saline and decomposing matter contained in solution by the water employed. But this is not the exclusive cau...
-Jerusalem Artichoke
He-lianthus tuberosus. Soil And Situation It flourishes most in a rich light soil with an open exposure. Trees are particularly inimical to its growth. Time and Mode of Planting. As it never ...
-Kennedya - Lachenalia
Kennedya Fifteen species. Green-house evergreen twiners. Cuttings. Sandy loam and peat. Kerria Kerria japonica. Hardy deciduous shrub. Young cuttings. Common soil. More commonly called Cor-ch...
-Kidney Beans
Beans, Kidney. Haricot, Fr. Sckminkbokne, Ger. Jadias, Span. Fa-guiolo, Ital. - Of the Snap-Short Bean, the Haricot of the French, the varieties and sub-varieties are numerous. The Early Mohawk or Br...
-Kidney-Bean
Phaseolus vulgaris. Haricot, Fr. Schminkbohne, Ger. Judias, Span. Faguiolo, Ital. Of the Snap-Short Bean, the Haricot of the French, the varieties and sub-varieties are numerous. Those enumerated ...
-Kidney-Bean. Continued
Said To Be Perennial It has been stated, that kidney beans appear of a perennial nature, and that they have been observed to vegetate for several years - the plants being in the vicinity of a steam...
-Kitchen Garden
Alexanders, sow. - Angelica, sow. - Artichokes, plant, b. or dress. - Asparagus, sow, plant, force, and dress beds. - Balm, plant. - Basil, sow. - Beans, sow, hoe. - Beets, sow, b. - Borecole, sow, pr...
-Kitchen Garden (2)
Situation Of The Kitchen Garden In selecting the site, and in erecting the inclosures, as well as in the after preparation of the soil, the ingenuity and 6cience of the horticulturist are essential...
-Kitchen Garden (3)
Alexanders, sow; earth up. - Angelica, sow or plant. - Artichokes, dress; plant. - Asparagus, sow; plant; force; and dress beds. - Balm, plant. - Basil, sow. - Beans, plant; earth up. - Beet, (red, wh...
-Laburnum
Cytisus Laburnum. Varieties Common Broad-leafed Laburnum; Narrow-leafed long-spiked Laburnum; Short-spiked Laburnum; Variegated-leafed Laburnum, and Middle-sized Laburnum (C. L. intermedium). Th...
-Lachnanthes - Lasiospermum
Lachnanthes Lachnanthes tinctoria. Greenhouse herbaceous. Seed and division. Sandy peat. Lackey Moth See Clisiocampa. Lactuca Lettuce. Seven species, and many varieties. Hardy annuals. ...
-Lagerstrcemia
Four species. Stove evergreen shrubs, and one variety, L. indica rosea, for the green-house. Cuttings. Peat and loam. For the culture of L. indica, Mr. R. Reid gives the following directions:- It ...
-Lamb's Lettuce, Or Corn Salad
Lamb's Lettuce, Or Corn Salad, {Valerianella olitoria,) is grown for winter and spring salads. The first dish formerly brought to table, was a red herring set in a corn salad. Soil And Situation ...
-Landreth
Landreth, David, was a native of England, the son of a farmer of Berwick upon Tweed. Early in life his attention was attracted by plants and flowers, and yielding to his fondness for them, and impulse...
-Landscape Gardening
Landscape Gardening, as its name intimates, is the composition of beautiful scenery, so that all artifice is concealed by the blending of trees, shrubs, ground, and water: thus forming vistas gratifyi...
-Larkspur
Delphinium. Propagation And Culture The annual sorts and varieties are sown annually in September or October, or early in spring, in patches where the plants are to flower - for they do not succ...
-Lasthenia - Lepechinia
Lasthenia Two species. Hardy annuals. Seeds sown in autumn. Common soil. Latania Three species. Stove palms. Seed. Rich loam, abundantly-watered. Laterals Laterals, or side shoots, are ...
-Lavandula
Lavender. Ten species. Hardy and half-hardy evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Light gravelly loam. L. Spica. Common Lavender. Soil And Situation A poor and light soil is best suited to this plant, bei...
-Law Relating To Gardens
The following exposition of existing laws in Great Britain may as a matter of curiosity interest the American reader. Here where each state has its own peculiar enactments, even a synopsis of them wou...
-Law Relating To Gardens. Part 2
Spring Guns And Man Traps These were formerly permitted by law to be set in woods, gardens, etc, without any restriction. Injuries the most severe, and even death, were inflicted by them, and the l...
-Law Relating To Gardens. Part 3
Manures Exempt From Toll The statute 52 Geo. III. c. 145, works a general exemption, in favour of agriculture, (and horticulture too, for the words of the statute are not restrictive to manures use...
-Lawn
Lawn is a surface of turf in the vicinity of the house, requiring to be kept smooth by the regular application of the roller and scythe. When first constructed, after the ground has been dug over as l...
-Layer
The following excellent combination of practice and science is from Dr. Lindley's Theory of Horticulture: - A layer is a branch bent into the earth, and half cut through at the bend, the free port...
-Leaves
Leaves are highly vascular organs, in which are performed some of the most important functions of a plant. They are very general, but not absolutely necessary organs, since the branches sometimes perf...
-Leek
Allium porrum. The Leek is a hardy biennial, for although it attains perfection in size and for culinary purposes the first year, it does not run to seed until the second, the perfecting of which it a...
-Lema
Lema asparagi. The Asparagus Beetle, by some naturalists called Crioceris asparagi is thus described by Mr. Curtis: - The larvae which abound from June to September, not only eat off all the leave...
-Leonotis
Four species. L. intermedia is a stove evergreen shrub; and two are stove annuals, requiring the usual treatment of tender annuals. Cuttings or seed. Loam and peat. L. leonurus is a green-house evergr...
-Lepidagathis - Ligatures
Lepidagathis Lepidagathis cristata. Stove herbaceous. Cuttings. Sandy rich loam. Lepidium Lepidium sativum. See Cress. Leptandra Two species. Har-dy herbaceous. Division. Common soil. ...
-Lettuce
Lactuca sativa. The Lettuce is a hardy annual, introduced or cultivated in England since 1562, but from what country is unknown. The use of Lettuce, as a cooling and agreeable salad, is well known...
-Light
Light has a powerful influence over the health and life of a plant, from the moment its leaves pierce through the surface of the soil. If absent, they become yellow, or even white, unless uncombined h...
-Lightfootia - Liparis
Lightfootia Three species. Green-house evergreen shrubs. Young cuttings. Loam and peat. Ligustrum Privet. Three species, and more varieties of L. vulgare. Hardy evergreen and deciduous shrubs...
-Lilium
Lily. Thirty-five species, including the common white lily (L. can-didum), martagon (L. martagon), tiger (L. tigrinum), orange (L. aurantium), bulb-bearing (L. bulbiferum), and their varieties. Beside...
-Lily-Of-The-Valley
Conval-laria majalis. Soil And 'situation Clayey loam, near water, and where the noonday sun is intercepted by shade, suits it best. Propagation Mr. D. Watts communicated a paper to the Re...
-Lime
Lime is valuable as a manure, for some one or more of its salts enter into the composition of every vegetable. But it is not the lime of every district that is suitable for the purpose. Some specimens...
-Lipostoma - Lobster-Shells
Lipostoma Lipostoma campanuliflora. Stove evergreen tree. Cuttings. Loam and peat. Lippia Two species. Stove. L. dulcis, herbaceous; L. purpurea, evergreen shrub. Cuttings. Rich light soil. ...
-Liquid-Manure
Liquid-Manure is the most advantageous form in which fertilizers can be applied by the gardener to his crops. It is the most economical, most prompt, and most efficient mode. The manure is presented t...
-Liquorice
Glycyrrhiza glabra, is only admitted into the garden for its pharmaceutical properties. Soil And Situation It thrives best in a rich light soil, two or three feet deep, which should be trenched ...
-Lisianthus
Eight species. Stove plants, evergreen, herbaceous, and annual. Seed or cuttings. Sandy loam and peat. L. Russellianus is a half-hardy biennial. Mr. Cuthill, of Denmark Hill, near London, is its mo...
-Loam
Loam is a very indefinite term: almost every cultivator of the soil associates with it a different explanation. In some parts of England clay is so called, and in others it is employed to designate br...
-Locust-Tree - Luxemburgia
Locust-Tree Hymenoea. Loddigesia Loddigesia oxalidifolia. Greenhouse evergreen shrub. Cuttings. Sandy loam and peat. Lomatia Five species. Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Sand an...
-Long Measure - Melon, Water
Long Measure 12 Inches 1 Foot. 3 Feet 1 Yard. 6 Feet 1 Fathom. 5 1/2 Yards 1 Pole. ...
-Loquat
Eriobotrya japonica. The following are the best directions we have for its cultivation: - Light sandy loam, which is naturally rich, suits the loquat well. Young plants may be purchased of the Lon...
-Luculia
Luculia gratissima. Green-house evergreen shrub. Propagation By Cuttings In propagating this take a piece of light peat and break it quite fine, add about one-third of fine silver sand, mix thi...
-Lupinus
Lupine. Fifty-seven species. Chiefly hardy annual and herbaceous plants. Of these the propagation is effected by seed in the open ground in March, April, and May, observing that as too copious moistur...
-Lycaste - Magnolia
Lycaste Four species. Stove epiphyte. Offsets. Peat and potsherds. Lychnis Twenty species. Hardy herbaceous, except L. coelirosa and L. githago, which are annuals. Seed or divisions, the latt...
-Lyon
Lyon, John. Mr. Lyon was born in Scotland, and emigrated to this country about the commencement of the present century. He shortly thereafter entered into the employ of the late Wm. Hamilton, and, for...
-M'Mahon
M'Mahon, Bernard, was a native of Ireland. Implicated in the disastrous rebellion of'98, he fled to this country, and was for some years connected with a political newspaper of Philadelphia. Our purpo...
-Magpie Moth - Mangifera
Magpie Moth See Abraxas. Mahernia Thirteen species. Green-house evergreen shrubs. Young cuttings taken off at a joint. Loam and sandy peat. Mahonia Four species. Hardy or half-hardy eve...
-Mango Ginger - Ma Rica
Mango Ginger Curcuma amada. Mango Tree See Mangifera. Manicaria Manicaria saccifera. A fine palm tree. Seeds. Rich loam. Manna Alhagi. Manna Ash Ornus rotundijolia. Manul...
-Manures
Manures are animal, vegetable and mineral; they directly assist the growth of plants, first, by entering into their composition; secondly, by absorbing and retaining moisture from the atmosphere ; thi...
-Marigold
Calendula officinalis. Varieties Single; Common double; Largest very double; Double lemon-coloured; Great Childing; Small Child-ing. The single-flowered and those which have the darkest orange c...
-Marjoram
(Origanum.) O. mar-jorana. Sweet or Summer Marjoram. O. heracleoticum. Winter Marjoram. O. onites. Common or Pot Marjoram. Soil And Situation A light, dry and moderately fertile soil is required...
-Marl - Orchard
Marl Marl is a compound of chalk (carbonate of lime) with either siliceous sand or alumina. In the first instance, it is a siliceous marl, best applied to heavy soils; and in the latter a clayey ma...
-Measures, English. Grain Measure
4 Gills . make .... 1 Pint . containing . 34 2/3 Cubic Inches. 2 Pints ....... 1 Quart 69 1/3 ...
-Medlar
Mespilus germanica. Varieties Blake's Large; Dutch, largest fruit; Nottingham, small, but best flavoured ; Stoneless, inferior, but keeps longer than others. Propagation By Seed This is a ...
-Melolontha
Melolontha, the Cockchafer. M. vulgaris. Common Cockchafer. M. horticolo. May-Bug, or Bracken-clock. Feeds upon the leaves of the Raspberry and Rose. Mr. Curtis justly observes, that - When the...
-Melon
Cucumis melo. Varieties There are many varieties of the Melon of which the Nutmeg may be considered as the type; it and the Citron are, however, the most desirable, which have come under our obs...
-Melon. Part 2
Time And Mode Of Sowing Seed may be sown about the middle of January; but the usual time is about the same period of the succeeding month, or not even until its close, if severe weather; to be repe...
-Melon. Part 3. Temperature
The temperature requires particular attention at the time of setting and ripening; though neglect at all the stages of growth is fatal. It must never fall below 70, or rise above 80. The see...
-Melon. Part 4
To Obtain Seed For the production of seed, some fruit of the earliest raised crops must be left: of these the finest and firmest should be selected, the choice being guided by the circumstances, as...
-Melon Pumpkin - Micranthemum
Melon Pumpkin Cucurbita me-lopepo. Melon Thistle Melocartus. Melon Turk's Cap Melocactus communis. Memecylon Two species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Young cuttings. Sandy peat and lo...
-Mentha
Mint. Twenty-five species. Hardy herbaceous perennials. Division. Common soil. Spear or Green Mint. M. viridis. Is employed in sauces and salads, as well as dried for soups in winter. There are two...
-Merodon
Merodon narcissi. Narcissus Fly. Of this insect we have the following particulars by Mr. Curtis .- - In the month of November, one or two large roundish holes are sometimes found on the outsides o...
-Microcala - Moldavian Balm
Microcala Two species. Hardy annuals. Seeds. Common soil. Microloma Two species. Greenhouse evergreen climbers. Cuttings. Loam and peat. Micromeria Eight species, and a few varieties. C...
-Mignonette
Reseda odorata. Soil Light loam, well drained, and manured with leaf-mould. Sowing in the open ground from the end of April to the beginning of July will produce a sure succession of blooms t...
-Mildew
Mildew, whether on the stems of the wheat, or on the leaves of the chrysanthemum, pea, rose, or peach, appears in the form of minute fungi, the roots of which penetrate the pores of the epidermis, rob...
-Mixture Of Soils
Mixture Of Soils is one of the most ready and cheapest modes of improving their staple, and thus rendering them more fertile; and upon the subject I have nothing to add to the following excellent rema...
-Mole Cricket
Gryllus gryllotalpa is known also in England as the churr-worm, jarr-worm, eve churr, and earth crab. It is, occasionally, very destructive to culinary vegetables ; creeping under ground through holes...
-Molineria - Mountain Ash
Molineria Molineria plicata. Stove herbaceous perennial. Division. Peat and loam. Molucca Balm Moluccella. Moluccella Three species. Hardy annuals. M. tuberosa,a. tuberous-rooted perenn...
-Moss
Moss is useful to the gardener for packing round the roots of plants; and even some bulbous roots have been cultivated in it; but when it infests the trunks of trees, or our lawns, it is one of the ga...
-Mouse Tail - Mussaenda
Mouse Tail Dendrobium Myo-surns. Mouse Thorn Centaurea Mya-cantka. Moving Plant Besmodium gy-rans. Mowing Mowing is, next to digging, the most laborious of the gardener's employme...
-Mulberry
Morus nigra. The Black, or Garden Mulberry. Soil And Site The soil most suitable for the mulberry is a rich, deep, and rather light loam, not cold nor wet, but well drained. It succeeds best as ...
-Musa
The Banana and Plantain belong to this genus, of which there are ten species. Stove herbaceous perennials. Suckers. Rich soil. The most valuable of the species is M. cavendishii; and upon its culture,...
-Mushroom
Agaricus campestris. To produce mushrooms artificially,beds variously constructed are employed. Times Of Forming The Beds Beds may be constructed from January until the beginning of May, for spr...
-Mushroom. Part 2
Watering In autumn, the bed will not require water until the first crop is gathered, but it is then to be repeated after every gathering; a sprinkling only is necessary. In spring and summer, durin...
-Mushroom. Part 3
Heating By Hot-Water Instead of flues, as used by Mr. Oldacker, the following plan, by Mr. Sellers, gardener to L. V. Watkins, Esq., of Pennoyre, may be substituted: - Fig. 103. This cut...
-Mushroom. Part 4
May Be Raised Spawn is capable of being raised artificially. The following is the manner: - Two barrow-loads of cow-dung, not grass-fed, one load of sheep's-dung, and one of horses', well-dried ...
-Mustard
Slnapis alba. Soil And Situation It succeeds best in a fine rich mouldy loam, in which the supply of moisture is regular; it may rather incline to lightness than tenacity. If grown for salading ...
-Mutisia - Nepeta
Mutisia Three species. Stove or green-house evergreen climbers. Cuttings. Peat and loam. Myagrum Myagrum perfoliatum. Hardy annuals. Seeds. Common soil. Myanthus Fly-wort. Four species....
-Myrtus
The Myrtle. Eleven species, and many varieties. Greenhouse or stove evergreen shrubs. Half-ripened cuttings. Sandy loam and peat. Water freely whilst they are growing in spring and summer. The common ...
-Nails
Nails for training wall trees are best made of cast iron, being the cheapest, stoutest, and most enduring. Before using they should be heated almost to redness, and then be thrown into cold linseed oi...
-Narcissus
Eighty-five species; all hardy bulbs, including the Daffodil (N. Pseudo-Narcissus); Two-coloured {N.bicolor); White, or Poet's Narcissus (N. poeticus); Hoop-petticoat Narcissus (N. bulbocodium); Small...
-Narcissus. Continued
Soil And Culture They succeed very well in any good, light, rich earth, in a sheltered situation and eastern aspect, with the beds a little elevated above the common level; and in winter and early ...
-Nasturtium
By this name are commonly known two species of Tro-paeolum. T. mnjus is a hardy annual twiner, and there are several varieties, distinguished by their double or crimson flowers. T. minus is a hardy an...
-Natural Appearances
1. In winter, a red sky at sunrise indicates the speedy approach of rain. 2. In summer, the same appearance denotes refreshing showers. 3. Squalls of wind generally follow these appearances: - ...
-Nectarine
Persica lavis. Varieties. - The following are cultivated in the Philadelphia Nurseries, and are among the better kinds: Explanation Of Abbreviations Color - y yellow; r red; o orange; g green; w...
-Nelumbium
Five species. Stove aquatics. Seed and division. Rich loam in water. Mr. A. Scott, gardener to Sir G. Staunton, Bart., gives the following directions for cultivating N. specio-sum: - Let it be kep...
-Nerine - Green-House
Nerine Twelve species. Greenhouse bulbs. Seed and offsets. Rich light loam. Nerium Oleander. Four species and more varieties. Green-house and stove evergreens. Cuttings. Rich light loam. N...
-Netting
Netting is employed to prevent the radiation of heat from walls, and the rude access of wind to trees grown upon them, as well as to prevent the ravages of birds upon currants, cherries, etc. Netti...
-New Zealand Spinach
New Zealand Spinach, Tetra-gonia expansa, is much admired as a substitute for summer spinach, being of more delicate flavor, and not so liable to run to seed. Mr. J. Anderson, gardener to the Earl of ...
-Night Temperature
Night Temperature in hothouses and frames should always ave- I rage from 10 to 20 degrees lower than the temperature in which the plants are grown during the day. It is in the night that the individua...
-Noctua
Noctua, a genus of moths. The following are injurious to our gardens: - N. Gamma The Y,or Gamma Moth. The caterpillars of this are very destructive to peas and other kitchen vegetables during th...
-Nuphar - Ocymum
Nuphar Five species. Hardy aquatics. Division and seed; ponds, cisterns, etc. Nutmeg Myristica. Nuttalia Five species. Hardy herbaceous. Seed and division. Sandy peat. Nut-Tree Co...
-Nursery
Nursery is a garden or portion of a garden devoted to the rearing of trees and shrubs during their early stages of growth, before they are of a size desired for the fruit or pleasure grounds. As every...
-Odontarrhena - Oniscus
Odontarrhena Odontarrhena microphylla. Hardy evergreen trailer. Cuttings. Loam and peat. Odontoglossum Eight species. Stove epiphytes. Division. Wood and moss. Eceoclades Two species. S...
-One-Shift System
One-Shift System in potting, is thus described by Mr. Ayres: - The distinguishing difference of this system is, that instead of taking a plant through all the different-sized pots, from a thumb to a ...
-Onion
The Onion is a biennial plant, supposed to be a native of Spain. The varieties are numerous. Those esteemed the best, are the Silver Skin, and Large Yellow Strasburgh; the latter is the best keeper, ...
-Onobroma - Osteospermum
Onobroma Five species. 0. glaucum is a hardy annual, and O. ar-borescens, a green-house shrub, the others hardy herbaceous. Seed, cuttings-, or divisions. Common soil. Onobrychis Sainffoin. T...
-Orach
Orach, Atriplex hortensis, is cooked and eaten in the same manner as spinach, to which it is much preferred by many persons, although it belongs to a tribe whose wholesomeness is very suspicious. S...
-Orangery
Orangery is a green-house or conservatory devoted to the cultivation of the genus Citrus. The best plan for the construction of such a building is that erected at Knowsley Park, and thus described by ...
-Orchard
Apples may be planted. - Blossoms of wall fruit, protect. - Budded (Trees), last summer, remove insects from buds, and shoots from stocks below. - Cherries may be planted. - Disbud wall trees of super...
-Orchard. Continued
Orchard is an inclosure devoted to the cultivation of hardy fruit trees. In it may be, as standards, apple-trees, most sorts of pears and plums, and all sorts of cherries, which four are the chief ...
-Orchard - Sethia
Orchard Composts, prepare. - Dress borders by forking, so soon as fruit is gathered. - Gathering of Apples and Pears to store commence, e. - Grapes, bag, to protect from wasps, etc. - Layers and cu...
-Orchideous Plants
Orchideous Plants are chiefly herbaceous, a very few are even semi-frutescent; but all are characterized either by singular beauty or fragrance; and, as many of them are extremely impatient of cultiva...
-Orchideous Plants. Part 2
Hardy Orchideous Plants M. F.Otto has written as follows upon these:- The best time for transplanting Orchises is early in autumn, when the plants are in a state of rest, and the cultivator mus...
-Orchideous Plants. Part 3
Compost The best we have noticed is this recommended by Mr. T. Apple-by:- Procure a quantity of sphagnum or common bog moss, have it dried and then chopped small. To this add half-rotten willow...
-Ornix
Ornix rhodophagella. Rose Moth. Mr. Collar says that - In early spring, as soon as the rose tree begins to bud, if the new leaf-shoots are closely examined, a little brownish seed is found here and t...
-Ostrya - Panning
Ostrya Hop-hornbeam. Two species. Hardy deciduous tree. Seed and layers. Common soil. Otanthus Otanthus Maritimus. Hardy herbaceous. Cuttings. Sandy loam. Othouna Twenty-six species. Gr...
-Otiorhyncus
Otiorhyncus sulcatus. The succulent Weevil. Mr. Curtis remarks that: - Sedums, and other succulents, in green-houses, will frequently be observed to get sickly, and perhaps die, without any appare...
-Oxalis
Wood-sorrel. One hundred and twenty-four species. Chiefly green-house half-hardy and hardy bulbs, though some are shrubs, others herbaceous, and a few annuals. The bulbs are increased by offsets, the ...
-Paeonia
Paeony. Twenty-two species, and many varieties. The following are most worthy of cultivation: - P. albiflora, white. - Candida, pinky. - fragrans, red. - Humeii, red. - Potsii, crimson. ...
-Pansey Fly - Paronychia
Pansey Fly Agromyza. Pantiles See Bricks. Papaver Poppy. Twenty-six species and many varieties. Hardy herbaceous and annuals. The former are increased by division, the latter by seed; l...
-Pansy Or Heart's Ease. Viola Tricolor
Viola tricolor. This is one of the English florist's flowers, and spirited contests for prizes are yearly witnessed - in this country but little attention has been paid it; though its increasing b...
-Pansy Or Heart's Ease. Viola Tricolor. Continued
Bed This should have a southeast aspect, unshaded by trees, but very sheltered from wind, be three feet wide, with a path all round, and then, having dug out the soil, be made eight inches deep of ...
-Park
Park, in the modern acceptation of the word, is an extensive adorned in-closure surrounding the house and gardens, and affording pasturage either to deer or cattle. In Great Britain, a park, strictly ...
-Parrya - Paxtonia
Parrya Parrya arctica, a hardy annual. P. integerrima, a hardy perennial trailer. The first increased by seed, the latter by cuttings. Loam and peat. Parsley-Piert Erica aphanes. Parsonia ...
-Parsley
Petroselinum sativum. Varieties There are two varieties, the common plain leaved and the curly leaved. Time And Mode Of Sowing It is sown annually, but if it is never permitted to run to s...
-Parsnip
Pastinaca sativa. Soil And Situation The soil in which the parsnip succeeds best, is a rich dry sandy loam, and the deeper the better. The most inimical to it is gravel or clay. It is always ben...
-Paulounia
Paulounia imperialis, is a hardy tree, though, until its habits are better tested, it is advisable to plant it in a sheltered situation. Mr. G. Bishop, gardener at the Chiswick Gardens, states that - ...
-Pcecilocampa
Pcecilocampa populi. December Moth, is found in this month in orchards sticking against the trunks of trees. The wings are about an inch and a quarter broad, and of a chestnut brown in colour: on the ...
-Pea
Pisum sativum. The Pea is a hardy annual, a native of the south of Europe, and cultivated from time immemorial. There is an immense variety, from which the following have been selected as amon...
-Peach
Persica vulgaris. Varieties D. Landreth and Fulton offer the following among others as desirable varieties. The vicinity of Philadelphia is famous for the extent of its Peach orchards, and the a...
-Peach. Continued
I need not enumerate all the different varieties used and planted out to keep up this succession - some of the principal are in the order of enumeration, Troth's Early, Early York, Early Ann, Yellow R...
-Peach. Part 2
Wall-Culture. English Method Borders should never be deeper than eighteen or twenty inches for the peach, and six feet wide. Soil chopped turfy loam from a rich pasture, rather more clayey than lig...
-Peach. Part 3
Thinning Let there be a space of nine inches between every brace of fruit upon the weaker shoots, and six inches on the stronger. See Thinning. Blistering Of The Leaf This disease, which is c...
-Pear
Pyrus communis. Of this fruit four hundred and forty-two varieties are at present cultivated in the Chiswick Gardens, and these with many more are described in the Horticultural Society's Fruit Catalo...
-Pear. Part 2
Haddington (Smith's.) (Fig. 110.) We have by the merest chance this excellent addition to our stock of winter pears. Mr. J. B. Smith, when on his farm near Haddington, Philadelphia County, in 1828,...
-Pear. Part 3
Columbia (Bloodgood. Downing.) (Fig. 113.) An American, as its name implies, produced in West Chester County, New York, where the original tree still exists. This is truly a valuable variety, in se...
-Pear. Part 4
Bartlett Pear, Of The Americans WilliamS Bonchretien, of the English. (Fig. 118.) This truly admirable variety is of British origin, first brought into notice by one Williams, whose name it bears...
-Pear. Part 5
Beurre D'Aremberg, Of French And English Works. (Fig. 122) This Pear, though comparatively little known in the United States, has reached us with a high European reputation, and as both the English...
-Pear. Part 6
Grafting And Budding Mr. Loudon has collected together the following good directions upon these subjects: - The most common stocks for grafting the pear, are the common pear and the wilding; bu...
-Pear. Part 7
Culture Of Wall Trees The following are the best directions that have been given on this subject: - Plant the trees against the wall, fifteen feet from each other. If they have three shoots proper...
-Peat-Earth - Petalidium
Peat-Earth See Bog Earth. Peat-Earth Plants See American Plants. Pec Tin Aria Pec Tin Aria articulata. Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings in spring. Sandy loam and lime rubbish. Pedicul...
-Pelargonium
Two hundred and fifty species. Chiefly green-house evergreens; but a few are herbaceous, and a still smaller number tuberous-rooted. The shrubby evergreens are increased by cuttings: new varieties fro...
-Pelargonium. Part 2
Varieties For Forcing Admiral Napier; Alba multiflora; and Washington, for earliest; Bella; Gauntlet; Grand Duke; Commodore; Lord Mayor; King Rufus; and Madeline, for succession. Liaising Variet...
-Pelargonium. Part 3
Grafting Mr. J. Alexander, of Heath Farm, Atley, has grafted the Pelargonium very successfully, and his method is as follows: - Graft in August or September, using pretty well ripened wood of t...
-Pelargonium. Part 4
2d. Treatment In The Green-House The plants for exhibition are placed on the stage at least four feet apart; air liberally supplied where the situation will allow it; the front sashes should be lef...
-Pentstemon
Of this hardy herbaceous flower there are forty-one species, but the following is a good selection: - P. argutus, purple. P. atropurpÚreus, brownish purple. P. campanulatus, rosy red. P. crassifoli...
-Peristeria
Dove Flower. Six species. Stove orchids. Division of the bulbs. Turfy loam and sandy peat, with a little leaf-mould. P. Barkeri is one of the most beautiful of this genus, and for its cultivation Mr. ...
-Petiveria - Phaseolus
Petiveria Two species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Loam and peat. Petrea Four species. Stove evergreens. P. stapelice as a climber, and P. volubilis as a twiner, are among our handsomes...
-Petunia
Five species. Tender or half-hardy herbaceous. Seed and cuttings. Sandy loam and leaf-mould. From P. nyctaginiflora, which is white, and P. vio/acea, purple, are raised the numerous varieties adorning...
-Pheasant,S-Eye - Pick-Axe
Pheasant,S-Eye Adonis au-tumnalis. Phebalium Six species. Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Peat, sand, and loam. Philadelphus Fourteen species. Hardy deciduous shrubs. Layers and ...
-Phlox
Forty-eight species. Hardy herbaceous. Division and cuttings. Rich loam. P. Drummondi is one of the prettiest of the genus, and its culture is thus detailed by Dr. Lindley: - The seeds should be s...
-Phyllopertha
Phyllopertha horticola. The garden beetle. It is thus described by Mr. Curtis: - It is about four lines and a half long, and three broad. Its elytra, or wing cases, are reddish-brown, shining, and do...
-Picotee - Piscinary
Picotee See Carnation. Picridium Four species. Hardy herbaceous and annuals. Division or seed. Common soil. Pictetia Two species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Young cuttings. Loam and peat. ...
-Pine-Apple
Ananassa. The pine-apple is but little cultivated in the United States, though it is probable the increase of wealth and luxury among us, may ere long induce its culture under glass, in common with th...
-Pink. Dianthus
Varieties These are added to annually; but the following are first-rate flowers, sufficient for any amateur: - Acme (Brown's). Alpha (Garrat's). Achates (Neville's). Alfred (Wallace's)....
-Pink. Dianthus. Continued
By Pipings In selecting the grass (stems) lor pipings, strong and short jointed shoots should be chosen. The piping should be cut off with a sharp knife immediately below the second or third joint ...
-Pipes
Pipes for heating horticultural structures are preferably made of cast iron, painted black. Earthenware has been recommended for the purpose, but they are so much more liable to breakage and leakage, ...
-Pistachia - Pleasure-Ground
Pistachia Four species and more varieties. Hardy and half-hardy evergreen and deciduous trees. Layers and ripe cuttings; light rich loam. Even the hardy species of this genus do best against a wall...
-Pit
Pit, in the Conservatory, is the body of soil in which the shrubs, etc, are planted; in the Stove, it is the excavation in which is the tan, or other material for plunging the pots; and for Forcing, i...
-Plantation
The ornamental distribution of trees is considered under the titles Clump, Wood, etc. ; and here will be considered only a few practical details relative to the planting and management of trees. Se...
-Plantation. Continued
Trenching In preparing the land for plantations, the same chemical examination of the composition well illustrates the advantages derived by the plant, from merely previously stirring the soil; sin...
-Plants For A Conservative Wall
Abutilon striatum; Acacia angustifolia, armata, cultiformis, dealbata, decur-rens, juniperina, lancelota, longissi-ma, lunata, and mucronata. Bignonia capreolata, grandiflora, and tweediana; Billar...
-Plectranthus - Poisonous Plants
Plectranthus Six species. The annual and biennial species by seed; the shrubs and herbaceous by cuttings. All in rich light loam. They are all tenants of either the green-house or stove. Plectri...
-Plum
Prunus domestica. Varieties One hundred and twenty-seven are cultivated in the Gardens of 30 the London Horticultural Society at Chiswick. The following limited, though select number, we extract...
-Plum. Part 2
Coe's Golden Drop, Of Hooker, Lind-Lay, And Others Coe's Imperial, Coe's Seedling, etc. (Fig. 132.) Mr. Coe, a market gardener of Norfolk, England, who raised this plum, has perpetuated his name b...
-Plum. Part 3
Propagation By Seed This mode is adopted for raising stocks and new varieties. For the latter purpose cross-impregnation has been successively pursued, attention being paid to the suggestions offer...
-Poinsettia
Two species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings of previous year's shoots, slightly dried. Rich sandy loam. Of these plants the most beautiful is P. pulcherrina. On the cultivation of this we have the f...
-Poisons
Soils containing obnoxious ingredients are certain introducers of disease and premature death. An excess of oxide of iron, as when the roots of the apple and pear get into an irony red gravelly subsoi...
-Poivrea - Porana
Poivrea Six species. Stove evergreen climbers. Young cuttings. Sandy loam and peat. Polanisia Five species. Hardy annuals. Seed. Sheltered, light rich loam. Polemonium Twelve species. H...
-Ponds
Ponds, are reservoirs of water dug out of the soil, and made retentive by puddling with clay their bottoms and sides. Puddling is necessary in almost all instances and the mode of proceeding is thu...
-Pontia
A genus of butterflies of which the following one is most obnoxious to the gardener: - P. brassica, the large white cabbage butterfly is thus described by Mr. Kol-lar: - The wings are white; the u...
-Poranthf - Prince, William
Poranthf RA ericifolin. Greenhouse evergreen shrub. Young cuttings. Sandy loam and peat. Porliera Porliera hygrometricd. Stove evergreen shrub. Ripe cuttings. Loam and pent. Porthesia S...
-Pot-Herbs
See Herbary. To Dry Pot-Herbs Though growing plants can bear an elevated temperature without injury, a very different effect is produced upon them by even a lower heat after they have been separ...
-Potato
Solanum tuberosum Varieties, for forcing or first crop, in the open ground: - Walnut-leaved Kidney, earliest; Broughton Dwarf; Early Warwick; Ash-leaved Kidney, white, best; Soden'9 Early Oxford; Fox'...
-Potato. Part 2
Planting In garden culture the most preferable mode of inserting them is with the dibble, in rows; for the early crops twelve inches apart each way, and for the main ones eighteen inches. The sets ...
-Potato. Part 3
To Raise Varieties A variety of the potato is generally considered to continue about fourteen years in perfection, after which period it gradually loses its good qualities, becoming of inferior fla...
-Potato. Part 4
Preparation Of Sets For Forcing They should be of the early varieties. To assist their forward vegetation, plant a single potato in each of the pots intended for forcing, during January. Then place...
-Potato Or Under-Ground Onion
Allium aggregatum. This species of Allium has received the above appellations, on account of its producing a cluster of bulbs or offsets, in number from two to twelve, and even more, uniformly beneath...
-Poterium
Burnet. Six species. Chiefly hardy herbaceous and shrubby. The latter are increased by young cuttings, and the others by seed. Light rich loam. Poterium Sanguisorba. Small, or Upland Burnet. Used i...
-Potting
Pots are the first consideration, and these are considered under the title Flower Pot. Materials Required These must not be sifted, but the pebbles and rough vegetable fibres be allowed to remai...
-Potting. Continued
Bin 5. (Cow Manure) This is cow droppings placed in a ridge, and roofed, similarly to the horse-dung, but allowed to remain to a much greater age; in fact, when placed in Bin No. 5, it has the appe...
-Preface To The American Edition
The ordinary form in cases of reprint, with additions and explanatory notes, has been departed from in the present instance with a desire to preserve the book from the awkward aspect which it would ne...
-Prince's Feather - Psychotria
Prince's Feather Amaran-thus hypochondriacus. PR1N0S. Eleven species. Hardy deciduous shrubs, except the stove evergreen P. montanus and P. lucidus, which is evergreen and hardy. Cuttings and la...
-Pruning
Pruning, as practised in the garden, has for its object the regulation of the branches to secure the due production of blossom and maturity of fruit. If carried to too great an extent, that object is ...
-Psylla
The chermes, nearly allied to the aphis. P. pyri, Pear chermes, appears in May, not unlike a large aphis, crimson coloured, shaded with black. Mr. Kollar thus details its habits: - As soon as the ...
-Ptelea - Pyralis
Ptelea Ptelea trifolhita. Hardy deciduous shrub. Layers. Light rich loam. Ptelidium Ptelidium ovatum. Stove evergreen shrub. Ripe cuttings. Sandy loam and peat. Pteris Forty-six species...
-Purslane
Portulaca. P. oleracea. Green, or Garden Purslane. P. sativa. Golden Purslane. Soil And Situation A light rich soil is the one in which they thrive most, and they must have a warm situatio...
-Putty
Putty is a compound of boiled linseed oil and whiting, but as it may be bought in London at half-a-guinea per cwt., it is scarcely worth the gardener's while to make it. One hundred weight is enough f...
-Pyraster - Rake
Pyraster Pyrus communis py-raster. Pyrethrum Fifty species. Hardy herbaceous, and green-house evergreen shrubs, except a few hardy annuals, and P. simplicifolium, which is a stove evergreen t...
-Quince
Cydonia vulgaris. Varieties: - Common; Apple-shaped; Pear-shaped; and Portugal. The last is the best, and very distinct from the others. C. sinensis, the Chinese Quince, has been fruited in this co...
-Radish
- The Radish is originally from the East Indies, but cultivated in Europe since the sixteenth century. Formerly the leaves were often boiled and stewed; but now the roots are chiefly employed. The yo...
-Ramondia - Rhemaneia
Ramondia Ramondia pyrenaica. Hardy herbaceous perennial. Division. Light soil. Rampion Phyteuma and Cyphia Phyteuma. Randia Ten species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Partly ripe cuttings. Lo...
-Rampion
Campanula rapunculus. Soil And Situation The soil ought to be moderately moist, hut it must be light. A shady rich border is most favourable. If it is cloddy or subject to bind and crack in hot ...
-Ranunculus
One hundred and two species, and many varieties. R. asiaticus, the Garden Ranunculus, is a truly beautiful flower, unfortunately not adapted to the climate of the United States. Varieties: - Mr. Ja...
-Ranunculus. Part 2
Character Sportive There is in the ranunculus what is by florists called a sportive character - that is, they run from their original colour. Some that have yellow ground, delicately spotted, will...
-Ranunculus. Part 3
By Offsets Unlike the offsets of the hyacinth and tulip, those of the ranunculus generally attain perfection in the season of their formation on the parent plant, and are, therefore, fit to be pla...
-Ranunculus. Part 4
Choice Of Roots Mr. Glenny recommends the middle sized, with firm tubers and plump buds, as preferable for planting; and care should be taken to place a little sand under and over each, to guard t...
-Rape (Edible-Rooted)
This name may be applied to a variety of the rape mentioned by Mr. Dickson, one of the vice-presidents of the Horticultural Society. Its root is white and carrot-shaped, about the size of the middle-f...
-Raspberry. Rubus Idaeus
Best Varieties. Red Fastolff, or Bee-hive, Franconia, Antwerp, red; Barnet; Cornish; Double-bearing, and Gennessee. Yellow Antwerp, yellow; Cox's Honey; Old white. The Fastolff (Fig. 142) ...
-Raspberry. Rubus Idaeus. Continued
After-Culture Keep them clean from weeds all summer by broad hoeing, giving an annual dressing in autumn, cutting down the decayed stems that bore the preceding summer. Thin the young succession be...
-Rejected Camellias
Alba simplex. Aitonia. Anemonitlora. -Rosea. - Alba. Atrorubens. Bruceana. Corallina. Conchaflora. Celestina. Carnea. Decora. Dorsetia. Elphinstonia. Francofurtensis. ...
-Rejected Camellias. Part 2
Grafting Dr. Lindley says, For grafting, well-ripened young shoots should be taken when they are just beginning to grow, and before the buds are far advanced. They should be worked under handg...
-Rejected Camellias. Part 3
Period Of Feeding The Bud The fires may now be dispensed with entirely, merely observing, in the case of sunny afternoons, to make free use of sun heat, by shutting up the house early in the aftern...
-Remontant, Or Hybrid Perpetual Roses
Note In Europe these roses are highly esteemed; here their reputation as per-petuals has been seriously injured, in consequence of their having been in many instances, worked on stocks un-suited ...
-Retarding
Retarding requires as much skill as forcing, for as the latter requires the application of all that is suitable to the promotion of a plant's rapid healthy growth, so retarding requires the withholdin...
-Rexdle's Tank System
First suggested, I believe, by Mr. Rendle, nurseryman, of Plymouth. I have given, in the customary monthly calendars, the necessary intimations when the bark-beds will probably require stirring, but t...
-Rheum - Rocambole
Rheum Rhubarb. Fifteen species. Hardy fusiform-rooted perennials. Division or seed. Rich loamy soil. See Rhubarb. Rhexia Four species. Hardy herbaceous perennials. Division. Peat soil. Rhi...
-Rhodanthe
Rhodanthe minglesii. Greenhouse annual. Dr. Lindley recommends that its seeds should be sown at two seasons: the first about the beginning of September; the second about the end of February. The soil...
-Rhododendron
Twenty-six species, and many varieties. Hardy and half-hardy evergreen shrubs, except R. rhodora, which is deciduous and hardy. R. ponticum, Common Rhododendron. R. maximum; R. Caucasicum; R. cam-panu...
-Rhododendron. Continued
Grafting Mr. Glenny gives these directions: - Young plants of the R. Ponticum must be potted and well established before you want to use them. Cut them down within three inches of the pot, and ado...
-Rhubarb
Rheum rhaponticum, R. hybridum, R. undulatum, and R. palma-tu;n. This last is the medicinal, or Turkey Rhubarb of the shops - the esculent one or pie-plant, as it is familiarly termed, has become quit...
-Ridging
Ridging is digging the soil into a a a parallel ridges in this form - so as to expose it thoroughly to the action either of the atmosphere or of frost. M. Schluber says, that freezing re- duces th...
-Rochea - Noisette Or Cluster Flowering Roses
Rochea Three species. Greenhouse evergreen shrubs. Partly dried cuttings. Sandy loam, peat, and brick rubbish. Rocket Hesperis. Rock Rose Cistus and Convolvulus Dorycnium. Rodriguezi...
-Rock-Work
Mere rocks, unless they are peculiarly adapted to certain impressions, may surprise, but can hardly please; they are too far removed from common life, too barren and inhospitable, rather desolate tha...
-Roots
Roots are either annual, biennial, or perennial, but in all roots, and under any mode of management, the fibrous parts (radiculae) are strictly annual; they decay as winter approaches, and are produce...
-Root-Pruning
Root-Pruning has been thus considered by Dr. Lindley, in his excellent Theory of Horticulture: - In the nurseries, it is a universal practice to prune the roots of transplanted trees: in gardens, ...
-Rosa B0urboniana
Bourbon Roses. Augustine Lelieur, bright rose. Acidalie, white, large and fine. Comte de Rambuteau, violet purple. Ceres, dark rose. Cytherea, rosy pink, very fragrant. Comte d'Eu, b...
-Rosa Indica Odorata
Tea scented Roses. Archduchess Theresa, white. Aurora, blush. Alba, pure white. Arkinto, flush colour. Adelaide, blush. Antherose, blush white. Adam, rosy blush. Belle Margueri...
-Rose
Rosa. Seventy-eight species, and an almost innumerable number of varieties, principally hardy deciduous or evergreen shrubs. To attempt an enumeration, much less a description of all the varieties whi...
-Rosemary
Rosmarinus officinalis. Varieties There are three varieties - the green, golden-striped, and silver-striped. The first is in general cultivation. Soil And Situation It thrives best on a po...
-Rotation In Crops
There are three circumstances to be regarded in regulating the order in which crops should follow each other: - 1. Each crop should be as dissimilar as possible from its predecessor. 2. The exuviae of...
-Ruins
Ruins, are a class of buildings beautiful as objects, expressive as characters, and peculiarly calculated to connect with their appendages into elegant groups: they may be accommodated with ease to ir...
-Ruizia - Sabal
Ruizia Two species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Loam, peat and sand. Run A plant advancing to seed is said by gardeners to have run. Also, when the dark colouring of a carnation, or o...
-Sabbatia - Samphire
Sabbatia Five species. Hardy biennials, except S. paniculata, an herbaceous perennial. Seeds. Common soil. Saccolabium Ten species. Stove orchids. Peat, potsherds, and wood. Sacred Bean ...
-Sage
Salvia officinalis. Varieties The Common Green; Wormwood; Green, with variegated leaves; Red, with variegated leaves; Painted or Parti-coloured: Spanish or Lavender leaved; and Red. Soil And ...
-Salisburia
Salisburia adiantifolia. Maiden Hair Tree. Hardy deciduous tree. Layers. Common soil. The Salis-buria is a native of Japan and China, and forms a large tree in its native country. Bunge, who accompan...
-Salsafy
Tragopogon porrifolius. Soil This should be light and moderately fertile. At the time of sowing trench it, turning in a little manure with the bottom spit only. Sow in March and April, in an ...
-Salts
The day has long passed when it was disputed whether any saline bodies are promotive of the growth of plants. It is now determined that some plants will not even live without the means of procuring ce...
-Salts. Part 2
Common Salt Chloride of sodium, applied in the spring at the rate of twenty bushels per acre, has been found very beneficial to asparagus, broad beans, lettuces, onions, carrots, pars-neps, potatoe...
-Samyda - Saw-Dust
Samyda Seven species. Stove evergreen shrubs. Cuttings. Loam and peat. Sand Sand is one of the agents most frequently employed by the gardener in the culture of potted plants. The kind most s...
-Savory
Satureia. S. montana, winter or perennial savory. S. hortensis, summer or annual savory. They may be sown in the open ground in spring. In the latter end of March or in April, sow the seed in a ...
-Saw-Fly - Scilla
Saw-Fly See Athalia. Saw's Saw's for garden pruning must have a double row of teeth, to obviate the tendency to nip, that the dampness of green wood and the leverage of the branch occasions. ...
-Sciara
A genus of Midges. S. pyri, Small Pear Midge. S. Schmid-bergeri, Large Pear Midge. When a fallen pear is cut open, it is often found core-eaten, and with a brown powder marking the progress of the ass...
-Sciodaphyllum - Scythe
Sciodaphyllum Seven species. Stove or green-house evergreen trees, shrubs, and climbers. Cuttings. Loam, peat, and sand. Scissors Scissors of various sizes are required by the gardener. A pai...
-Scion
Scion is the portion of the branch selected for insertion in the stock, and destined to become the future plant. The following directions, given by Mr. Loudon, embrace all the information generally ap...
-Scopula
Scopula forficalis, Garden Pebble Moth, is thus accurately described by Mr. Curtis: - The perfect insect measures rather more than an inch across, when its wings are expanded. The upper pair are haze...
-Scorzonera
Seventeen species. Hardy herbaceous perennials. S. tillosa is a biennial. Seeds. Common soil. S. hispaniea. Common Scorzonera. Though a perennial, yet, for general use, it should be treated as an a...
-Screen
All cooling is occasioned either by the heat being conducted from a body by a colder, which is in contact with, it, or by radiating from the body cooled, though circumstances accelerate or retard the ...
-Sea-Buckthorn - September
Sea-Buckthorn Sea-Buckthorn Hippophoe. Seaforthia Seaforthia elegans. Stove palm. Seed. Turfy loam and sand. Sea-Heath Frankenia. Sea-Holly Eryngium. Sea-Lavender Statice. ...
-Sea-Kale
Crambe Maritima. Soil And Situation A light moderately rich soil, on a dry substratum, suits it best, though in any dry soil it will succeed. A bed may be composed for it of one-half drift sand,...
-Sea-Kale. Continued
To Obtain Seed A stool, which has not been cut from, or even covered at all for blanching, must be allowed to run in spring. It flowers about June, and produces abundance of seed on every stem, whi...
-Polyanthus. Primula Vulgaris, Var. Polyantha
Primula vulgaris, var. polyantha. A florist's flower much esteemed in England; in the United States but little attention has been paid to it. Varieties Mr. Slater, florist, of Manchester, gives ...
-Polyanthus. Primula Vulgaris, Var. Polyantha. Continued
Planting The proper time is at the end of July, not later. Shorten the main or tap-root, as it is called, to within about half an inch of the leaves, that a few of the vigorous young fibrous roots ...
-Common Hardy Species
Juniperus virginiana. Cupressus thuyoides. --------------sempervirens. Pinus balsamea. --------larix. --------canadensis. --------sylvestiris. --------picea. - abies. ------...
-Common Hardy Species. Part 2
Propagation By Cuttings Mr. Gordon gives these directions: - In August or September, select a young shoot of moderate strength, and cut it off with a piece of the last year's wood attached, for...
-Common Hardy Species. Part 3
Grafting, Etc The pine or fir tribe are sometimes increased by grafting or inarching. It is at present little practised, and when it is so, only as a means of propagating some of the curious varie...
-Seed Room
All that has been said relative to the Fruit Room, is applicable to this: everything promotive of decay or germination is to be avoided; and if one relative direction more than another requires to be ...
-Select Showy Species
Perennials. CE. Speciosa, white. OE. Macrocarpa, yellow. CE. Taraxacifolia, white. CE. Glauca, yellow. CE. Serotina, yellow. Annuals. CE. Rubicunda, pink. CE. Lindleyana, purplish-rose. CE. Tenuifo...
-Sensitive Plant
Mimosa. There are several plants, however, besides the mimosa which give evidence of being sensitive. The Venus Fly Trap (Dionoea muscipula) has jointed leaves, which are furnished on their edges with...
-Service
Pyrus Sorbus. There are three varieties. P. S. maliformis, apple-shaped; P. S. pyriformis, pear-shaped; P. S. bacciformis, berry-shaped. Propagation By Grafting on the apple, medlar, and hawthor...
-Sets - Shrivelling
Sets Sets are the tubers, or portions of tubers, employed for propagating tuberous-rooted plants. It may be accepted as a rule universally applicable to them, that a moderately-sized whole tuber is...
-Shading
Shading deserves more attention than it usually obtains, for there is not a plant when in blossom that is not prolonged in beauty and vigour by being shaded from the midday sun. Nor should shading be ...
-Shanking
Shanking is the technical term for a gangrene which attacks the footstalks of grapes and the stems of cabbages which have vegetated through the winter. The shanking of the grape appears to be occasion...
-Shrubbery - Sirex
Shrubbery Shrubbery is a garden, or portion of a garden, devoted to the cultivation of shrubs. It is not necessary, as Mr. Glenny observes, That there should be any flowers or borders to constitut...
-Sir Joseph Banks' Pine - Sold Anella
Sir Joseph Banks' Pine Araucaria imbricata. Sisymbrium Sisymbrium millefolium. Greenhouse evergreen shrub. Cuttings. Light soil. Sisyrinchium Twenty-seven species. Hardy, half-hardy, gr...
-Slips
Slips are employed for increasing the number of an established variety or species. In the woody kinds, the young shoots are slipped off from the sides of the branches, etc, with the thumb and finger, ...
-Slugs
Slugs are of many species, and the smaller are much more injurious to the gardener than those of a larger size, because they are much less discernible, and their ravages being more gradual, are not at...
-Snails
See Slugs. These marauders are said to be very fond of bran, and that they are readily trapped if this be put in heaps under flower pots, with one side propped up to admit them. The common garden s...
-Soil
However varying in the proportions, yet every soil is composed of silica, alumina, lime, magnesia, oxide of iron, salts, and animal and vegetable remains. The most important consideration is, what pro...
-Solandra
Five species. Stove evergreen climbers. Cuttings. Turfy loam and peat. S. grandiflora. Mr. J. Brown, gardener at Whittlebury Lodge, near Towcester, says that - After it attains to the height of fr...
-Soldevilla - Sphaeralcea
Soldevilla Soldevilla setosa. Hardy herbaceous perennial. Seed. Common soil. Soldier-Wood Inga purpurea. Solidago Golden Rod. Sixty-seven species. Hardy herbaceous perennials, except S....
-Soot
Soot is the volatilized unconsumed portion of common coal. It is thus constituted: - Charcoal .... 371 Salts of ammonia .......... 427 ...
-Sorrels
These are Oxalis Aceto-sella, Wood Sorrel; Rumex acetosa, Garden Sorrel; R. scutatus, French or Roman Sorrel. Soil And Situation They thrive best in any garden soil that tends to lightness rathe...
-Sowing
See Germination. In addition a few practical directions may be given. Let all sowing be done in drills. For small seeds, such as lettuce, cabbage, etc, the drills may be sunk by pressing the handle of...
-Spade
This most important of the gardener's tools, varies in its form and size. The Common Digging Spade is of the largest size, being generally from fourteen to sixteen inches long in the plate, and nin...
-Sphaerolobium - Stalagmitis
Sphaerolobium Two species. Green-house evergreen shrubs. Young cuttings. Loam and peat. Sphaerophysa Sphaerophysa caspica. Hardy herbaceous perennial. Seeds, common soil; it should be watered...
-Sphinx
S. tipuliformis. Currant Sphinx is thus mentioned by Mr. Curtis: Towards the end of May, and in June, we see the beautiful little currant sphinx sporting in the morning and noonday sun, about the ...
-Spinach
Spinacea oleracea. The Spinage or Spinach has been long cultivated, and is supposed to have come originally from Western Asia. Its use is well known. The principal varieties are the round seed...
-Spot
Spot, a disease occurring on the leaves of the pelargonium, is a dry gangrene, occasioned by an irregularity in the supply of moisture and vicissitudes of temperature, but especially if one of the ext...
-Square Measure
Inches. Feet. Yards. Poles, Rods, or Perches. Roods. Acre. 144 1 1,296 9 ...
-Stan Hopea - Stiftia
Stan Hopea Eleven species. Stove orchids. Division. Peat and potsherds. Stanleya Stanleya pinnatifida. Hardy herbaceous perennial. Division or seeds. Vegetable mould. Stapelia Thirty-th...
-Standard
A tree unsupported by a wall or trellis. Full Standards are such trees as are trained with tall straight stems six or seven feet high, clear of branches, and arc then suffered to branch out. All tr...
-Steeping
See Germination. It is a very unfounded idea, that by steeping seeds in certain solutions the vigour and fecundity of the plants to which they give birth might be promoted. A certain degree of heat, o...
-Steptocarpus
Steptocarpus rexii. Mr. MIn-tyre, of Hillsborough, gives the following; directions for the culture of this green-house evergreen: - The seed should be sown in the month of April, in pans, in a mix...
-Stigmaphyllon - Suffocation
Stigmaphyllon Four species. Stove evergreen twiners. Cuttings. Peat and sandy loam. S Til Ago Two species. Stove evergreen trees. Cuttings. Sandy loam and peat. Stitchwort Stellaria. ...
-Stock
Mathiola This genus was, until lately, united with the wall-flower, under the generic name Cheiranthus. Some of the following are species, but others only very distinct varieties. M. Acaulis ...
-Stocks (Tree)
Stocks are young trees or shrubs raised from seed, suckers, layers, and cuttings, for the reception of buds or grafts from other trees or shrubs of a kindred species. Although the sap increases in ...
-Stocks (Tree). Continued
When great difficulty occurs in making a tree, whether fructiferous or ornamental, of any species or variety, produce blossoms, or in making its blossoms set when produced, success probably will be o...
-Stoves
Stoves, as they are usually called in England, or hot-houses, as distinctive from green-houses, are variously constructed in accordance with the habits of the plants for which they are intended. Those...
-Stoves. Part 2
Roof The framework of this may be of iron or of wood, and the comparative merits of the two materials are thus fairly stated by Dr. Lindley: - The advantages of iron roofs for hot-houses are, that...
-Stoves. Part 3
Ventilation The accumulation of gaseous matters, such as sulphurous acid and ammonia, and the consumption of carbonic acid, render ventilation essential to the health of plants in forcing-pits and ...
-Stoves. Part 4
Bark Or Moist Stove Mr. Loudon gives the following design and description of a moist stove, warmed on the old plan of deriving heat by the combined agency of bark and flues. Instead of a stage in t...
-Stoves. Part 5
Dry Stove Formerly this was heated by flues only, a stage for plants occupying the place of the bark-pit in the moist stove. But modern science has suggested the far better mode of heating by eithe...
-Strawberry
Fragaria. Species And Varieties F. Virgin-iana: Scarlet or Virginia Strawberry. American Scarlet; Bishop's Wick; Black Roseberry; Coul's Late Scarlet; Garnstone Scarlet; Grove End Scarlet; Melon...
-Strawberry. Part 2
Propagation This is chiefly by runners; but the Alpines are best propagated by seed. All other kinds can only be obtained true by planting the runners. The first of these should be pegged down as e...
-Strawberry. Part 3
Beds Never have more than three rows in a bed. Let them be eighteen inches apart, and the plants twelve inches apart in the rows; or two feet by eighteen inches, according to the richness of the s...
-Strawberry. Part 4
After-Culture Remove all runners not required for planting as often as they appear, for their growth at first is at the expense of the parent, and the more beds are matted with plants, the more th...
-Strawberry. Part 5. Hudson Or Scarlet
Varieties. Hudson Or Scarlet This variety is grown almost exclusively for the supply of the Philadelphia market; it appears to be distinct from what is known as the old Hudson, in New York, which D...
-Strawberry. Part 6
Ross's Phoenix This variety has been much praised in New York. It was produced by Mr. Alexander Ross, of Hudson, in that state, and from its character for hardiness and product (if true), would spe...
-Succory, Chicory, Or Wild Endive
Cichorium intybus. Although this hardy perennial plant is much used on the Continent in salads, yet it has never been employed to any extent for that purpose in Britain. Sowing And Situation Lik...
-Succulent Plants
Succulent Plants are so characterized on account of their thick juicy leaves. They are formed to exist, says that excellent botanist and horticulturist, Mr. Fortune, now traveling for the London Hor...
-Suckers
Suckers, says Dr. Lindley, in his Theory of Horticulture, are branches naturally thrown up by a plant from its base, when the onward current of growth of the stem is stopped. Every stem, even the old...
-Sugar Bakers' Refuse - Syringe
Sugar Bakers' Refuse See Animal Matters. Sumach Rhus. Sunflower Actinotus Helianthi. Sun Rose Helianthemum. Surface Grubs Surface Grubs, or caterpillars, are the larva; of s...
-Sunflower
Helianthus. H. annum. Annual Sunflower. Soil And Situation A light rich soil, and as unshadowed by trees as possible, suits it best. It is now much cultivated for its oil, and as a food for c...
-Sweet William
Dianthus bar-batus. Varieties Narrow-leaved kinds: Deep Red; Pale Red; Pale Red and Flesh-coloured; Purplish, white-eyed; Snow White; White and Flesh-coloured ; White and Purple ; White Spotted ...
-Synchronical Times
Synchronical Times are validly observed for the performance of gardening operations. More than one botanist has observed that if the time of the foliation and blossoming of trees and herbs, and the da...
-Syzygium - Tecoma
Syzygium Three species. Stove evergreen trees or shrubs. Cuttings. Sandy peat. Tabernaemontana Fifteen species. Stove evergreen shrubs and trees. Cuttings. Loam, peat, and sand. Tacca S...
-Tansy
Tanacetum vulgare. Varieties The Curled or Double Tansy, the one chiefly grown for culinary purposes; the Variegated; and the Common or Plain. This last is but of little worth, except for medici...
-Tarragon
Artemisia dracuncu-lus. Use it in salads to correct the coldness of the other herbs; and its leaves are likewise excellent when pickled. Soil And Situation It will flourish in any that are poor ...
-Teedia - Tetrapteris
Teedia Two species. Greenhouse biennials. Cuttings or seeds. Light rich soil. Teesdalia Two species. Hardy annuals. Seeds. Common soil. Telekia Telekia speciosa. Hardy herbaceous perenn...
-Tender Annuals
The following arc rather more tender than those classed as half-hardy, but may be managed in the same manner. Achillea aegyptiaca. Agapanthus umb. maj. ------------------------media. -----...
-Tenthredo
Saw-fly. T. moris, Plum Saw-fly, attacks the green-gage, and other plums, when about the size of peas. It pierces them, causing their fall, to deposit its eggs in their pulp. M. Kollar gives these cor...
-Tephritis
Tephritis onopordinis. Celery Fly. This insect causes blisters on the leaves of celery by puncturing them, and depositing its eggs within their tissue. Mr. Curtis observes that, - On examining the...
-Terraces
Terraces are not permissible anywhere but around the mansion. Mr. Whately justly observes, in connection with these structures, that, - Choice arrangement, composition, improvement, and preservati...
-Tetratheca - Thuja
Tetratheca Seven species. Green-house evergreen shrubs. Young cuttings. Loam, peat, and sand. Tettigonia Tettigonia spumaria. Froth Fly, or Cuckoo Spit. The frothy patches seen in April and M...
-Thermometer
This instrument is the only unfailing guide for the gardener in regulating the heat to which he allows the roots and foliage of his plants to be subjected. Fahrenheit's is that employed in England; bu...
-Thinning
The exhaustion consequent upon the production of seed, is a chief cause of the decay of plants. This explains why fruit trees are weakened or rendered temporarily unproductive, and even killed, by bei...
-Tulip. Tulipa Gesneriane
Tulipa Gesneriane. From this species are descended our innumerable garden varieties. Of these it is needless to do more than offer a selection; and the most judgmatical is the following, by Mr. Slater...
-Tulip. Tulipa Gesneriane. Part 2
Bizarres Bolivar (Lawrence's); Carlo Dolci; Catafalque Superieure; Duke of Wellington; Emperor of Austria; Jubilee (Rider's); Sir Sidney Smith, alias Magnum Bonum, Trebi-sonde, Demetrius, and Frank...
-Tulip. Tulipa Gesneriane. Part 3. Propagation
By Seed An excellent French authority gives these directions: - When the ripeness of the tulip seed, where the flower has bloomed in a full exposure, is indicated by the opening of the capsule, it...
-Tulip. Tulipa Gesneriane. Part 4. Planting In Beds
On this part of their culture the best practical information is given by Mr. Glenny. He says - A bed properly arranged consists of seven long rows, of which the tallest tulips should be the middle...
-Tulip. Tulipa Gesneriane. Part 5
Shade Tulips cannot be grown more advantageously than in two beds, arranged and sheltered according to the plan of which the following is an end view. But whether grown in two beds or in one. highe...
-Thrips
Thrips, a genus of predatory insects. T. adonidum is particularly injurious to stove plants. Its different forms are thus portrayed by that excellent entomologist, Mr. Curtis: - The larva; and ...
-Thunbergia
Ten species. Stove evergreen climbers, except T. auran-tiaca, a green-house herbaceous perennial. Cuttings or seeds. Sandy loam and leaf mould. Mr. MacIntyre says, that the species of this genus, ...
-Thymbra - Trachytella
Thymbra Thymbra spicata. Half-hardy evergreen shrub. Young cuttings or seeds. Gravelly soil. Thymus Thyme. Nineteen species, and several varieties. Hardy or half-hardy evergreen shrubs or tra...
-Thyme
Thymus vulgaris. Varieties Broad-leaved Green, Narrow-leaved Green, Variegated, and Lemon-scented. The Variegated is grown almost solely on account of its ornamental foliage. Soil And Situati...
-Tinea
Tinea, a genus of moths, the larvae of which are very destructive. T. Daucella Carret Moth. Head and back and upper wings reddish-brown; abdomen gray and white. Its cater-pillar is greenish-gray...
-Tipula
Crane Fly or Daddy-longlegs. T. oleracea, the grubs or leather jackets, so injurious to the market gardener, are its larva;. They attack the roots of scarlet beans, lettuces, dahlias, potatoes, e...
-Tobacco
Nicotiana, whether in the form of snuff, or its decoction in water, or its smoke whilst burning, is very destructive to insects. Tobacco paper is paper saturated with the decoction of tobacco, and ...
-Tool-House
Upon this too much neglected garden edifice, the editor has been favoured by Mr. Barnes, of Bicton Gardens, with the following excellent remarks: - Have a place for everything, and everything in its ...
-Tortrix
A genus of moths. T. luscana generates a red grub, and T. cynosbana a black-spotted green grub, both very destructive of blossom buds. T. Vitisana Vine Tortrix. Found on the vine in April and...
-Tradescantia - Trillium
Tradescantia Twenty-seven species. Chiefly stove and hardy herbaceous perennials. A few hardy annuals, and stove and green-house evergreen trailers. T. paniculata is a greenhouse biennial. T. tuber...
-Training
Training has tor its object rendering plants more productive either of flowers or of fruit, by reijulatincr the number and position of their branches. If their number be too great, they over- . shadow...
-Transplanting
Transplanting is most successfully performed, whenever the roots are least required for supplying the leaves with moisture. The reason is obvious, because the roots are always in some degree broken, a...
-Trees
Trees are a chief material in landscape gardening. Trees and shrubs are of different shapes, colours, and growths. The varieties in their shapes, says Mr. Whateley, may be reduced to the followi...
-Tree - Paeony
P. moutan. Dr. Lindley's directions for cultivating this are as follow: - Propagation It is easily increased, and in several ways, when the plants are rather large and old; but when they are sma...
-Tree - Paeony. Continued
From Single Eyes Any time when the plant is in a dormant state, cut off a branch of the two or three year old wood, winch has a quantity of buds upon it, and cut it into pieces of about two inches ...
-Tree Guards
The following are cheap and effectual. Mr. W. Brown, gardener at Merevale Hall, uses stakes about the thickness of the wrist, seven feet in length, and tolerably straight: he chops each a little flat ...
-Tree Or Canada Onion
Allium proliferum. This, like the Ciboule, is without a bulbous root, but throws out numerous offsets. Its top bulbs are greatly prized for pickling, being considered of superior flavour to the common...
-Trellis Or Treillage
Trellis Or Treillage, is an arrangement of supporters upon which to train plants. Espalier Trellis The cheapest, the easiest, and soonest made, is that formed with straight poles or stakes, of a...
-Trenching
Trenching is one of the readiest modes in the gardener's power for renovating his soil. The process is thus conducted: - From the end of the piece of ground where it is intended to begin, take out...
-Triopteris - Tulip
Triopteris Two species. Stove evergreen twiners. Ripe cuttings. Loam and peat. Triphasia Triphasia trifoliata. Green-house evergreen shrub. Ripe cuttings. Turfy loam and peat. Triptilion ...
-Triphaenia
Triphaenia pronuba. Yellow Un-derwing Moth. Mr. Curtis says that its caterpillar is hatched in July or August, and if the egg has been deposited in a cabbage or cauliflower, the young larva immediate...
-Tropaeolum
Nasturtium. Fourteen species. Green-house hardy and half-hardy annuals, and evergreen twiners. T. brachyceras and T. tuberosum are half-hardy tuberous-rooted perennials. The green-house and half-hardy...
-Trowel
This implement, made of iron from twelve to six inches long in the plate, and half as broad, hollowed like a scoop, and fixed on a short handle to hold with one hand, is convenient in removing small p...
-Truffle
Tuber magnatum, Pied-montese Truffle; T. Borchii, Italy; T. moschatum, Musk Truffle, near Bath ; T. cibarium, Common Truffle, England. But besides the tubers there are other edible fungi known as truf...
-Tulip Tree - Uvaria
Tulip Tree Liriodendron. Tupa Six species. Half-hardy herbaceous perennials. Division and seed. Light, rich, or peaty soil. Turn Era Eleven species. Stove annuals, biennials, and evergr...
-Turf
Turf may be obtained either by sowing grass seeds, or laying turf obtained from a common or down; and if the latter mode can be adopted, it is the best, as the turf is obtained at once, and more regul...
-Turf Ashes
See Ashes. These, which are the basis of charred turf, now becoming so usual a manure, are, according to M. Sprengel, thus constituted: - Silica........93.10 Alumina ................
-Turf Tools
Turf Tools are the Racer or Rut-ter, for cutting the edges of turf after it has been laid, and for cutting the outlines of the turves when first obtained. It is a thin sharp edged implement, somewhat ...
-Turnip
Brassica rapa. The turnip is a biennial plant, growing in a wild state in some parts of England, but better known as an inhabitant of the garden and farm. There are an immense variety: to cultivate a...
-Uvularia - Venus's Fly-Trap
Uvularia Six species. Hardy herbaceous perennials. Division. Light sandy soil. Vaccinium Whortleberry. Thirty-two species and some varieties. Chiefly hardy deciduous shrubs; V. caracasa-num a...
-Heaths
Heaths (Erica). This truly beautiful tribe is in the climate of the United States of but little interest. Scarcely half a dozen of the almost countless species and varieties of Erica have proved capab...
-Heaths. Part 2
Propagation Mr. Fleming gives the following very full and excellent directions: - Heaths are propagated in two ways - by seeds and by cuttings. Seeds are either obtained from the Cape of Good H...
-Heaths. Part 3
Soil The best for the growth of heaths is that rich brown turfy peat, commonly found on the surface of land where the native heath grows. Sometimes grass will be found growing very strong on this ...
-Venus's Hair - Viola
Venus's Hair Adiantum capillis veneris. Venus's Looking-Glass Spe-cularia speculum. Venus's Navelwort Ompha-lodes. Vepris Vepris obovata. Stove evergreen shrub. Cuttings. Peat, lo...
-Verbena
Vervain. Thirty-two species. Hardy, half-hardy and greenhouse herbaceous perennials, and hardy and half-hardy annuals and biennials. These latter increase by seed, the perennials by cuttings. Light lo...
-Vines In Hot-House
Varieties The proportions the different vines should bear to each other, in order to secure the best succession and a constant supply, are three Black Hamburgh's; two White Muscats of Alexandria; o...
-Vines In Hot-House. Part 2
Forcing This is sometimes commenced in September, but the close of the next month is sufficiently early. Mr. Appleby, of Macclesfield, gives the following very full and excellent directions: - In ...
-Vines In Hot-House. Part 3
Thinning The Berries As soon as the berries are set and begin to swell, it is time to thin them. For this operation there are proper scissors, with long handles and short blades. Provided with thes...
-Violet
Viola odorata. Varieties The best are Neapolitan, double pale blue; Russian, blue; Tree Violet, semi-double, blue, stem eighteen inches high. Double Blue; White; Pink. Soil All the varieti...
-Violet Thlaspi - Weeds
Violet Thlaspi Clypeola lon Thlaspi. Viorna Clematis viorna. Viper's Bugloss Echium. Viper's Grass See Scorzonera. Virgilia Six species. Greenhouse evergreen shrubs, except ...
-Walks
See Gravel. It may be observed here, that of whatever material a walk is composed, that it is essentia] to have it well under-drained, and for this purpose an understratum of flints or brick-bats, twe...
-Walls
Walls are usually built in panels, from fifteen to thirty feet in length, one brick thick, with pillars for the sake of adding to their strength, at these specified distances ; the foundation a brick ...
-Wall Culture
Aspect The object to be obtained is not only warmth, but shelter from the wind, which is injurious to the vine at all times of its growth. To secure this desideratum, the best aspect is S.E. Even E...
-Wall-Flower Or Stock-Gilliflower. Cheiranthus
Cheiranthus arboreus. Shrubby W. F. Yellow. June. Cheiranthus cheiri. Common W. F. Yellow, crimson, brown. June. Cheiranthusfirmus. Permanent W. F. Yellow. July. Cheiranthus linifolius. Flax-...
-Walnut, English
Juglansregia. Varieties Common Duck Nut; Ha-tif; Highflyer; Double; Tardif; Yorkshire. Of these Highflyer and Yorkshire are best. - London Hort. Soc. Catalogue. Propagation By Seed Sow in ...
-Wasps
Wasps should be sedulously destroyed during April, May, and June, for all appearing in these months are queens, and the foundresses of nests. Their favourite resort at that season is the laurel, for t...
-Water
Water being an essential application to the seed, as well as to the growing plant, the source from whence it comes is by no means immaterial. The best for the gardener's purpose is rain water, preserv...
-Water Cress
Nasturtium officinale. Varieties Small brown - leaved, hardiest; Large brown-leaved, best for deep water; Green-leaved, easiest cultivated. - London Hort. Soc. Trans. Planting In Water On ...
-Watering Pots
These should have roses pierced with very fine holes; the diameter of those usually used is too large. Long-spouted watering pots are required for watering plants in pots upon shelves. French watering...
-Weather
The gardener, even more than the farmer, is dependent upon the weather for opportunity to insert and to remove the plants tinder his care. I shall, therefore, give him all the prognostics which appear...
-Weeding Tools - Wulfenia
Weeding Tools See Hoe. Besides spuds, weeding pincers, and hoes, there are several implements invented for eradicating the deeper-rooting weeds. Such are Hall's Land Crab (Fig. 179), Dockspuds and ...
-Weights
AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 16 Drachms, 1 ounce. 16 Ounces, 1 pound. 2S Pounds, 1 quarter. ...
-Wheelbarrows
The greater the diameter of the wheel of a barrow, and the smaller the axis or spindle on which it turns, the less power will be required to drive it forward; for the friction is proportionately reduc...
-Wire-Worms
Wire-Worms are the larva; of various species of Elater, Click Beetle, or Skip Jack. Of these there are more than fifty species; but the most common are:- E. segetis, of which the wire-worm is often...
-Worms
Worms are beneficial in all the compartments of the garden, acting as a kind of underdrainers, by their bur-rowings. To keep them from coming near the surface of lawns, it may be sprinkled with salt a...
-Wormwoods
Artemisia. These are perennial rooted bitter aromatics, and cultivated solely for medicinal purposes. Common wormwood (Artemisia absinthium); Sea-wormwood (A. mari-tima); Roman wormwood (A. Pontica); ...
-Wurmbea - Zizia
Wurmbea Four species. Greenhouse and half-hardy bulbous perennials. Offsets. Sandy peat and loam. Wych Elm Ulmus montana. Xanthoriza Xanthoriza apiifolia. Hardy evergreen shrub. Suckers...
-Introduction To The Latin Grammar
BY LEONHARD SCHMITZ, Ph. D., F. R. S. E., etc. In one handsome 18mo. volume. The neatness, cheapness, and accuracy of this scries, together with its skillful adaptation to the wants both of teacher...
-Lives Of The Lord Chancellors And Keepers Of The Great Seal Of England
FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TO THE REIGN OF KING GEORGE IV., BY JOHN LORD CAMPBELL, A.M., F.R.S.E. First Series, forming three neat volumes in demy octavo, extra cloth. Bringing the work to the time...
-Lea And Blanchard's Publications. Encyclopaedia Americana
The numerous subscribers who have been waiting the completion of this volume can now perfect their sets, and all who want A REGISTER OF THE EVENTS OF THE LAST FIFTEEN YEARS, FOR THE WHOLE WORLD, ca...
-Picciola
ILLUSTRATED EDITION. PICCIOLA, THE PRISONER OF FENESTRELLA; OR, CAPTIVITY CAPTIVE. BY X. B. SAINTINE. A NEW EDITION, WITH ILLUSTRATIONS. In one elegant duodecimo volume, large type, and fi...
-An Essay On The Ass And The Mule
BY J. S. SKINN ER. Assistant Post-Master-General, and Editor of the Turf Register. This edition of Youatt's well-known and standard work on the Management, Diseases, and Treatment of the Horse, has...
-Francatelli's Modern French Cookery
THE MODERN COOK, A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE CULINARY ART, IN ALL ITS BRANCHES, ADAPTED AS WELL FOR-THE LARGEST ESTABLISHMENTS AS FOR THE USE OF PRIVATE FAMILIES. BY CHARLES ELME FRANCATELLI,...
-Johnson And Lan Dreth On Fruit, Kitchen, And Flower Gardening
A DICTIONARY OF MODERN GARDENING, BY GEORGE WILLIAM JOHNSON, ESQ. Author of the Principles of Practical Gardening, The Gardener's Almanac, etc. WITH ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTY WOOD-COTS. EDIT...
-School Books
Bird's Natural Philosophy NEARLY READY. ELEMENTS OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, BEING AN EXPERIMENTAL INTRODUCTION TO THE PHYSICAL SCIENCE8. ILLUSTRATED WITH OVER THREE HUNDRED WOOD-CUTS. BY GOLDI...
-Hilliard On Real Estate
THE AMERICAN LAW OF REAL PROPERTY. SECOND EDITION, REVISED, CORRECTED, AND ENLARGED. BY FRANCIS HILLIARD, COUNSELLOR AT LAW. In two large octavo volumes, beautifully printed, and bound in ...
-A New Law Dictionary
CONTAINING EXPLANATIONS OF SUCH TECHNICAL TERMS AND PHRASES AS OCCUP IN THE WORKS OF LEGAL AUTHORS, IN THE PRACTICE OF THE COURTS, AND IN THE PARLIAMENTARY PROCEEDINGS OF THE HOUSE OF LORDS AND ...
-Law Books
Addison On Contracts A TREATISE ON THE LAW OF CONTRACTS AND RIGHTS AND LIABILITIES EX CONTRACTU. BY C G. ADDISON, ESQ., Of the Inner Temple, Barrister at Law. In one volume, octavo, handsomel...
-Medical Books
To The Medical Profession The following list embraces works on Medical and other Sciences issued by the subscribers. They are to be met with at all the principal bookstores throughout the Union, an...
-Medical Books. Part 2
Pathology ABERCROMBIE ON THE STOMACH, new edition, 1 vol. 8vo., 320 pages. ABERCROMBLE ON THE BRAIN, new edition, 1 vol. 8vo., 324 pages. ALISON's OUTLINES OF PATHOLOGY, etc, 1 vol. 8vo., 420...
-Medical Books. Part 3
Surgery BRODIE ON URINARY ORGANS, 1 vol. 8vo., 214 pages. BRODIE ON THE JOINTS, 1 vol. 8vo. 210 pages. BRODIE's LECTURES ON SURGERY, 1 vol. 8vo., 350 pages. BRODIES SELECT SURGICAL WORK...
-Medical Books. Part 4
Chemistry And Hygiene BRIGHAM ON MENTAL EXCITEMENT, etc, 1 vol. 12iuo., '204 pages. DUNGLISON ON HUMAN HEALTH, 2d edition, 8vo., 464 pages. FOWNE's ELEMENTARY CHEMISTRY FUR STUDENTS, by Br...
-Strickland's Queens Of England
Lives Of The Queens Of England FROM THE NORMAN CONQUEST. WITH ANECDOTES OF THEIR COURTS. Now First Published from Official Records, and other Authentic Documents, Private as well as Public. N...
-Lynch's Dead Sea
CONDENSED AND CHEAPER EDITION. NOW READY. NARRATIVE OF THE U. S. EXPEDITION TO THE DEAD SEA AND RIVER JORDAN. BY W. F. LYNCH, U. S. N. Commander of the Expedition. New and condensed edit...
-Memoirs Of The Life Of William Wirt
BY JOHN P KENNEDY. SECOND EDITION, REVISED. In two large and handsome 12mo. volumes, with a Portrait and fac-simile of a letter from John Adams. ALSO, A handsome Library Edition, in two be...
-Johnston's Physical Atlas
THE PHYSICAL ATLAS OF NATURAL PHENOMENA. FOR THE USE OF COLLEGES, ACADEMIES, AND FAMILIES. BY ALEXANDER KEITH JOHNSTON, F. R. G. S., F. G. S. In one large volume, imperial quarto, handsome...
-Somerville's Physical Geography
New Edition, much improved. Now Ready. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. BY MARY SOMERVILLE, AUTHOR OF THE CONNECTION OF THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES,ETC. ETC. SECOND AMERICAN EDITION, from the Second and Re...
-Outlines Of Astronomy
BY SIR JOHN F W. HERSCHEL, F. R. S., etc. In one neat volume, crown octavo, with six plates and numerous wood-cuts. With this, we take leave of this remarkable work, which we hold to be, beyo...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications
Hervey's Court Of George II. Memoirs Of The Reign Of George The Second From his Accession to the Death of Queen Caroline. BY JOHN LORD HERVEY. EDITED, FROM THE ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPT, AT ICKWORT...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 2
Impressions And Experiences Of The West Indies And North America In 1849 BY ROBERT BAIRD, A. M. In one neat volume, royal 12mo., extra cloth. We have here a new instalment, not of British pr...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 3
Six Months In The Gold Mines FROM A JOURNAL OF A THREE YEARS' RESIDENCE IN UPPER AND LOWER CALIFORNIA DURING 1847, 1848, AND 1849. . BY E. GOULD BUFFUM, ESQ., Lieut. First Regiment New York V...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 4
Travels In Siberia INCLUDING EXCURSIONS NORTHWARD, Down the Obi to the Polar Circle, and Southward to the Chinese Frontier. BY ADOLPH ERMAN. Translated froM the German, by WILLIAM DESBOROU...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 5
The Sugar Planter's Manual BEING A TREATISE ON THE ART OF OBTAINING SUGAR FROM THE CANE. BY W J. EVANS, M. D. In one neat volume, small 8vo., 268 pages, with wood-cuts and two plates. The...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 6
The Western World; Or, Travels In The United States EXHIBITING THEM IN THEIR LATEST DEVELOPMENT, SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND INDUSTRIAL. INCLUDING A CHAPTER ON CALIFORNIA. BY ALEXANDER MACKAY, Esq. ...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 7
Knapp's Chemical Technology TECHN0L0GY; OR, CHEMISTRY APPLIED TO THE ARTS AND TO MANUFACTURES BY DR. F. KNAPP, Professor at the University of Giessen. Edited, with numerous Notes and Addit...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 8
Shaw's English Literature OUTLINES OF ENGLISH LITERATURE. BY THOMAS B SHAW, Professor of English Literature in the Imperial Alexander Lyceum of St. Petersburg. In one large and handsome ro...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 9
Murray's Encyclopaedia Of Geography THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF GEOGRAPHY, COMPRISING A COMPLETE DESCRIPTION OF THE EARTH, PHYSICAL, STATISTICAL, CIVIL AND POLITICAL. EXHIBITING ITS RELATION T...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 10
Lea And Blanchard's Publications. Niebuhr's Rome THE HISTORY OF ROME, BY B G. NIEBUHR. COMPLETE IN TWO LARGE OCTAVO VOLUMES. Done up in extra cloth; or five parts, paper, price $1.00 ea...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 11
History Of The Reformation In Germany BY PROFESSOR LEOPOLD RANKE. PARTS FIRST, SECOND AND THIRD NOW READY. TRANSLATED FROM THE SECOND EDITION, BY SARAH AUSTIN. To be completed in Five parts, eac...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 12
Wraxall's Historical Memoirs HISTORICAL MEMOIRS OF MY OWN TIMES, BY SIR N. W. WRAXALL. ONE NEAT VOLUME, EXTRA CLOTH. This is the work for which, in consequence of too truthful a portraitur...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 13
Text Book Of Ecclesiastical History BY J C. 1 GIESELER, PROFESSOR OF THEOLOGY IN GOTT1NGEN. TRANSLATED FROM THE THIRD GERMAN EDITION, BY F. CUNNINGHAM. In three octavo volumes, containing ove...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 14
Select Works Of Fielding And Smollett Printed in a neat and uniform style, to match the cheap edition of Dickens's Works. Select Works Of Tobias Smollett WITH A MEMOIR OF HIS LIFE AN D WR...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 15
The Language Of Flowers WITH ILLUSTRATIVE POETRY; TO WHICH ARE NOW ADDED THE CALENDAR OF FLOWERS, AND THE DIAL OF FLOWERS. SEVENTH AMERICAN, FROM THE NINTH LONDON EDITION. Revised by the Edit...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 16
Mackintosh's Dissertation On The Progress Of Ethical Philosophy WITH A PREFACE BY THE REV WILLIAM WHEWELL, M A. In one neat 8vo. vol., extra cloth. OVERLAND JOURNEY ROUND THE WORLD, DURING...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 17
Popular Science KIRBY AND SPENCErS ENTOMOLOGY, FOR POPULAR USE. AN INTTOSDUCTION TO ENTOMOLOGY; OR, ELEMENTS OF THE NATURAL HISTORY OF INSECTS: COMPRISING AN ACCOUNT OF NOXIOUS AND USEFUL ...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 18
A Treatise On Comparative Anatomy And Physiology BY W B. C A R P E N T E R. REVISED AND MUCH IMPROVED BY THE AUTHOR. WITH BEAUTIFUL STEEL PLATES. (Now preparing). Carpenter's Animal Ph...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 19
The Horse BY WILLIAM YOUATT. A NEW EDITION, WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS. TOGETHER WITH A GENERAL HISTORY OF THE HORSE; A DISSERTATION ON THE AMERICAN TROTTING HORSE; HOW TRAINED A...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 20
The Sportsman's Library OR HINTS ON HUNTERS HUNTLNG, HOUNDS, SHOOTING, GAME, DOGS, GUNS, FISHING, COURSING, etc, etc. BY JOHN MILLS, ESQ., Author of The Old English Gentleman, etc. ...
-Lea & Blanchard's New Publications. Part 21
The Complete Kitchen And Fruit Gardener A SELECT MANUAL OF KITCHEN GARDENING, AND THE CULTURE OF FRUITS, CONTAINING FAMILIAR DIRECTIONS FOR THE MOST APPROVED PRACTICE IN EACH DEPARTMENT, D...









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