This section is from the book "How To Make A Flower Garden", by Wilhelm Miller. Also available from Amazon: The Well-Tended Perennial Garden: Planting and Pruning Techniques.
Sow in a mild hotbed or greenhouse in early spring; transplant to small pots or flats when about two inches tall, and when the weather becomes settled set in ordinary garden soil in a sunny place. Seed may also be planted where the plants are to remain. Allow about a foot between plants.
Plant the bulbs three inches deep in any friable soil that will supply plenty of moisture until the tops have completed their growth. Light is also essential. Dig and divide the plants every third year if in beds, but if in lawns let them die out, which they may be expected to do in a few years more. When conditions are favourable, however, the numerous seeds will replenish the ground. The seeds should be sown in a coldframe in which they should germinate the following winter and produce little bulbs in the spring. These may then be planted where needed or grown another year in nursery beds.
For the propagation of choice varieties or colours, cuttings of leaves and stems are employed, the former preferred. Seeds are usually more satisfactory for ordinary purposes. They should be sown during midwinter, carefully watered, transplanted while small and again as they need. The soil used should be light ana fibrous and fairly rich. If properly managed they should begin to blossom in early autumn and continue for several weeks. The dying of the leaves indicates the approach of the resting period. Water should then be withheld, the plants being allowed to become dry without shrivelling. At this time the temperature should be kept below fifty degrees. About midwinter the bulbs will commence to grow and the most active may be planted; others later for succession. The old soil and dead roots should be removed before repotting.
Sow in early spring under glass, and when the seedlings are about three inches tall transplant about fifteen inches apart in rather poor soil. In rich soil the plants become rank and produce fewer and poorer flowers. They may also be started in a coldframe or in the open ground, but are later than if transplanted from the greenhouse.
Transplant choice specimens from the fields and fence rows. They respond well to good treatment.
See Hyacinth, Grape.
See Silk Oak.
Plant tubers three inches deep in light soil well exposed to the sun. Three or four should be planted together. Provide trellis upon which the vines may twine for eight feet. Dig and divide annually to prevent undue spreading.
See Baby's Breath.
Sow in any garden soil when the soil becomes warm. Allow from one to two feet between plants If desired, seeds may be started in a mild hotbed or greenhouse and the seedlings transplanted when about two inches tall, and later to the garden.
Propagate by means of cuttings of terminal shoots in moist sand. Pot the rooted cuttings in light, rich potting soil; provide good drainage, but never let the plants suffer for want of water. Since the plants make rapid root growth, they need frequent changes of pots. For use in the garden, set the plants out after danger of frost has passed, choosing a sunny place and light, rich soil. They should be about thirty inches apart.
Sow seeds in a mild greenhouse or hotbed in early spring; transplant to small pots or flats when about two inches tall and set in ordinary garden soil when the weather becomes settled. Allow about a foot between plants. Seeds may also be sown in the garden when spring has opened.
All cultivated like H. Niger. See Rose, Christmas.
Sow seeds in good soil where the plants are to remain and thin out the seedlings to stand about eighteen inches apart. Use only for backgrounds, since the plants are tall growing.
See Rocket, Sweet.
See Coral Bells.
Plant the seed in January in a cool greenhouse, using ordinary potting soil. When the seedlings are large enough, pot them singly in small pots and as occasion may demand shift them to larger pots until the weather becomes settled in spring, when they may be planted where they are to remain in the garden. A light, deep, rich soil suits them best, but they will grow in poor soil. Allow three feet between plants. If started thus, flowers may be expected the first season, but if started in the garden they will not flower until the following season. Since they frequently fail to produce well the third year, successionsl annual sowings should be made.
Sow seeds of Japanese annual as soon as the ground becomes warm, choosing deep rich soil. Provide a trellis or strings twelve or more feet high. The perennial hop may be grown similarly from seed or established clumps may be divided in spring.
See Canterbury Bells.
Plant bulbs in autumn, four or five inches deep in ordinary soils, shallower in heavy, deeper in light. Protect in the North with a light mulch of litter or leaves, which must be removed in spring. When leaves have turned yellow, dig up, dry in the shade, clean and store until autumn.
Plant the bulbs in any moderately fertile soil during autumn, sinking them about two inches deep. They may be allowed to remain until they show signs of deterioration, when, after the tops have died down, they may be dug, cleaned, dried and replanted at the proper season. The foliage should always be allowed to die naturally, since bloom of the following season depends upon foliage of the present. May be planted in lawns like snowdrops.