This section is from the book "How To Make A Flower Garden", by Wilhelm Miller. Also available from Amazon: The Well-Tended Perennial Garden: Planting and Pruning Techniques.
See Aconite, Winter.
In spring plant the bulbs four or more inches deep in rich, moist, but well-drained soil. In the North dig the bulbs after the tops have died, or protect with a mulch of leaves or litter over winter. In favoured situations and warmer regions this latter method gives best results, since the plants do best when undisturbed and allowed to grow in clumps for several years.
Sow seeds in a sunny place in sandy soil as soon as the ground becomes warm in spring. Thin to about six inches. For indoor use sow seeds in midsummer or transplant plants from the garden in autumn before frost. The plants withstand drought well.
See Morning-glory; Cypress-vine.
Plant the rootstocks or tubers in moist, even wet soil in spring or autumn, and keep the clumps free from weeds. As occasion may demand, divide the clumps. If in very wet places, the division may take place in midsummer, the clumps being removed to a shed and the roots covered with earth until autumn. Propagation may also be effected by means of seed, which must often, however, be obtained by cross fertilisation of the flowers.
Cultivate like Daffodil, which see.
Sow seeds in any odd, moist corner of the greenhouse, among taller growing plants, or in partially shaded places out of doors, and let the plants take care of themselves. The outdoor specimens will die during winter, but will resow themselves. They may be readily propagated by division.
Plant seeds in late winter and keep growing vigorously in several shifts of pots until the weather becomes settled, when the plants may be set in good soil, well exposed to the sun. These should flower the first season. Annual kinds are so propagated. The perennial is started this way, but later propagation is by means of division of the clumps in the spring or by cuttings of young growth taken in spring, or of second growth which appears after flowering. After flowering, the old tops of some species may be cut and a second crop of bloom obtained in the autumn. Seeds may also be sown in autumn where the plants are to remain or for transplanting. The clumps should be divided every third year.
Sow seed where the plants are to remain and thin the seedlings to stand about a foot apart. After once becoming established the tubers may be used for further propagation.
In well-drained, deeply worked, fairly rich garden loam, plant the bulbs from four to six inches deep. (L. auratum ten or twelve inches deep). Mid to late autumn is the best time for planting most species. (L. candidum and L. excelsum should be planted in August or September.) With the exception of L. candidum, which thrives in full sun, lilies do best in the partial shade or shrubbery, trees or buildings, especially if the shade protects the plants during the neat of the day. During winter a liberal mulch of leaves or litter should be given. When the plants seem to need division they should be dug after growth has started in the spring and placed in new quarters (already prepared) as soon as possible.
Plant the bulbs in ordinary potting soil as soon as they can be obtained after importation and keep in cold place until needed, when they may be brought into a living-room, provided they have formed roots. They are often grown among stones in water, no soil being used. In this case also good root development must precede the development of the tops. The bulbs should, therefore, be kept in a dark, cool place, as above indicated.
See Flowering Maple.
Plant the pips in late autumn in a partially shaded good, light garden loam, where the plants may be allowed to spread. No further attention except ordinary manuring is necessary. Dividing and transplanting may be done in autumn or early spring.
See Flax, Flowering.
Sow seeds during winter in the greenhouse; when about two inches tail transplant to flats or small pots, and when the ground becomes warm transplant from four to six inches apart in rather rich soil in a sunny situation. For later bloom, sow in early spring where the plants are to remain and thin out the excess. They respond to stimulating manures with improved flowers. See also Cardinal Flower.
Sow seeds in any soil in early spring or start under glass. Set the plants about a foot apart. Perennial species may be divided.
Plant seeds in a mild hotbed or greenhouse, or in the open ground. Transplant while small to pots or permanent quarters in ordinary soil. Allow from eighteen to twenty-four inches between plants. Select sunny place.
Sow the seeds in a coldframe in late winter or early spring, and when about three inches tall transplant to any good garden soil when the soil becomes warm. The African varieties should stand about fifteen inches apart; the French about ten inches; and the dwarf varieties about six inches.
Sow seeds in late winter or early spring in a moderately warm hotbed or greenhouse; transplant when two or three leaves are formed, using small pots, and set in good soil when the weather has become settled. Provide trellis about ten feet tall. Cuttings readily take root in the greenhouse.