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The Villa Gardener | by J. C. Loudon



Comprising the choice of a suburban villa residence; the laying out, planting, and culure of the garden and grounds; and the managementof the villa form including the dairy and poultry-yard. Adapted, in extent, for grounds from one perch to fifty acres and upwards. and intended for the instruction of those who know little of gardening and rural affairs, and more particularly for the use of ladies.

TitleThe Villa Gardener
AuthorJ. C. Loudon
PublisherWm. S. Orr & Co.
Year1850
Copyright1850, J. C. Loudon
AmazonThe Villa Gardener

Illustrated by numerous Engravings

By J. C. Loudon, F.L.S. H.S. etc. Author Of The Encyclopaedlas Of Gardening, Of Trees And Shrubs, And Of Cottage, Farm, And Villa Architecture And Furniture.

Second Edition. Edited By Mrs. Loudon.

-Preface
It was my late Husband's intention, had he lived to prepare a new Edition of his Suburban Gardener, to alter the work considerably; by omitting a portion of the Suburban Gardens, and inserting more de...
-Introduction
The enjoyments to be derived from a country residence depend principally on a knowledge of the resources which a garden, however small, is capable of affording. The benefits experienced by breathing a...
-Introduction. Part 2
One of the greatest of all the sources of enjoyment resulting from the possession of a garden is the endless variety which it produces, either by the perpetual progress of vegetation which is going fo...
-Introduction. Part 3
We venture to assert, that there is not any lady who can design a pattern, and embroider a gown, that might not, in a few hours, be taught to design flower-gardens with as much skill and taste as a pr...
-Book I. On The General Principles Which Should Be Taken Into Consideration Previously To Laying Out And Planting A Villa Residence
1. Preliminary Observations Though it does not fall to the lot of every one who inhabits a villa, to build the house, and lay out the grounds himself; yet most people who have a country residence, ha...
-4. Elevation
In the neighbourhood of towns, where the air is always more or less charged with smoke, an elevated site will always be found to have the clearest atmosphere; and, for persons in good health, it is ge...
-6. Character Of Surface
An irregular surface is always attended by an irregular climate. This is occasioned by the different influence of the sun on surfaces of different degrees of slope; and by the different degrees of int...
-8. Exposure
All elevated situations are more exposed to the prevailing winds of a country than plains; but, as the highest winds of any particular locality generally blow from one direction only, situations that ...
-9. Aspect
By the aspect of ground, is generally understood the direction of its surface relatively to the different points of the compass. A south-eastern aspect, or that in which the surface of the ground has ...
-10. Soil
Though the soil, in small spots, may be very much changed by art; and though, in suburban gardens of only two or three perches, the soil may be entirely artificial, and consequently be made, in a grea...
-11. Subsoil
The substratum on which the surface soil rests, is, both for building and gardening, of more importance than the soil itself. No surface soil whatever, on a wet or springy subsoil, or even on a soil n...
-12. Climate
The kind of climate of the given locality is the circumstance of a permanent nature which, next to elevation and soil, ought most to influence the choice of a country residence. In warm climates, an o...
-13. Water
This element, so essential both for the house and garden, is not likely to be lost sight of; because, from the earliest times, it has been an understood requisite both for a dwelling and a garden. Hen...
-14. External Appearance And Architectural Style
Many persons who have not had much experience in the choice of a house, are captivated by the exterior; and are more influenced by picturesque effect, than by any property in the dwelling connected wi...
-External Appearance And Architectural Style. Continued
17. As the cubic form is known to enclose more space with the same quantity of walling and roof than any other, so it is an established rule, that a house square in the plan is preferable in all that ...
-20. Laying Out And Planting
However paradoxical it may seem, it is nevertheless true, that the difficulties of building, planting, and gardening, on a small scale, so as completely to attain the objects in view, are greater than...
-27. The Principles Common To Architecturs And Gardening As Fine Arts
In order to render this subject as plain as possible, it may be advisable to commence by endeavouring to point out what a fine art is. A fine art may he said to be a creation, or composition, intended...
-28. Appearance Of Art
Any creation, to be recognised as a work of art, must be such as can never be mistaken for a work of nature. It is true that art may create a work which shall be mistaken for nature; but in such a cas...
-Appearance Of Art. Continued
Water, bounded by the formal lines of the ancient style is easily recognisable as artificial: but how is this end to be attained in a style which professes to be an imitation of nature? There are two ...
-34. Combination Of Parts To Form A Whole
The rules, or rather, subordinate principles, derived from the principle of a whole are very numerous, both in architecture and landscape-gardening. In architecture, a building is generally considered...
-39. Regularity And Symmetry
In the modern, or irregular, style of landscape-gardening, as well as in the irregular style of architecture, which, whether under the name of Gothic or Italian, is the style of country houses now mos...
-Regularity And Symmetry. Part 2
44. In the disposition of a great number of sorts of trees and shrubs in a plantation, some principle of order must be adopted. If the sorts are mixed together indiscriminately, the result is left to ...
-Regularity And Symmetry. Part 3
A deep view includes a greater number of objects, and, consequently, admits of a greater variety of effect of light and shade; it increases our ideas of extent, and, by concealing more from the eye th...
-50. Combination Of Objects
When the artist has brought together in his imagination all the different artificial sources of variety that his subject is capable of receiving, his next business is to arrange these according to som...
-53. Style And Character
A house, or the scenery of a country residence, may be pleasing from its regularity, its symmetry, its variety, and the harmonious effect of the whole, and yet have nothing in it to distinguish it fro...
-56. The Natural, Or English, Style
As the lands devoted to agriculture in England were, sooner than in any other country in Europe, generally enclosed with hedges and hedgerow trees; so the face of the country in England, sooner than i...
-57. Artistic Imitation Of Natural Scenery
The imitation of natural scenery by the hand of man may be rendered artistic in three different ways. First, we may employ the same sorts of shrubs and trees which are common in the surrounding countr...
-58. Picturesque Imitation
To design and execute a scene in either of these styles of imitative art, the artist would require to have, to a certain extent, the eye of a landscape-painter; the science of an architect and of a bo...
-59. Gardenesque Imitation
Where the gardenesque style of imitating nature is to be employed, the trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants must be separated; and, instead of being grouped together as in forest scenery (where two tr...
-62. Comparative Merits Of The Different Styles
We have been thus diffuse on the different styles of laying out grounds, in order to show the distinctive character of each; and that each has its peculiar uses and beauties. Since the introduction of...
-Book II. Ground Plans Foe Latino Out And Planting Country Houses And Villas Of Various Kinds
65. Country houses may be divided into three classes. 1. Suburban Residences These may be subdivided into two kinds; vis. those of the smallest kind, which form a continuous row, or street, with sma...
-Chapter I. Suburban Residences
66. The word Suburban implies the neighbourhood of a town; and consequently houses of this class are always found within a short distance of a town or village, if they do not actually form part of o...
-Section I. General Observations On Suburban Residences
67. As there are several circumstances connected with suburban houses, different from other houses, but which exercise considerable influence upon the health and comfort of the occupier, we shall ende...
-General Observations On Suburban Residences. Part 2
Ivy or ornamental creepers may be grown on the wall having a northern exposure; and almost any kind of plant thought desirable may be cultivated in the interior of the garden; provided such trees or s...
-General Observations On Suburban Residences. Part 3
71. Where narrow slips of garden ground are necessarily placed east and west, the fences between them ought to be as low as can be permitted if opaque, or to be composed of open iron railings. For the...
-General Observations On Suburban Residences. Part 4
74. The height or level of the road relatively to Hie height or level of the ground floor of the house, may seem almost too insignificant a subject to be noticed as a separate desideratum. In practice...
-76. Pipes Through The Garden, For Mater Or Gas, $C
As most houses in the neighbourhood of large towns are supplied with water from public sources, by means of small pipes laid from a main pipe in the street to the cistern or cisterns in the house, one...
-77. Out-Buildings, Pump Or Well, Etc
In gardens to suburban houses, a dust hole is essential; and a privy is sometimes required either as a substitute for, or in addition to, a water-closet in the house. Both these ought to be placed clo...
-78. Drainage, Walks, And Texture Of The Soil, Etc
The ground, where not naturally dry, ought to be perfectly under- drained, by drains down the middle of both the front and back gardens, communicating with the public sewer, or with some other main dr...
-79. Arrangements For Posts To Support Clothes-Lines
One considerable advantage of a suburban residence to most families, and particularly to such as have children, is, that they are enabled by it to wash at home, and have their clothes dried in the ope...
-83. Leading Rules For Laying Out And Planting Flower-Beds In The Gardens Of Suburban Residences
The following rules will be found useful in laying out and planting all flower-gardens, but more especially those of suburban residences, where a regular gardener is not kept. 1. Where the space is s...
-84. Keeping The Plants Distinct
Where there is abundance of room, it ii most convenient for culture, to. keep perennials, biennials, annuals, and bulbs in beds or compartments by themselves; but, whether the apace for flowers be lim...
-Section II. Designs For Laying Out And Planting The Gardens Of Suburban Residences From One Perch To Two Acre8 In Extent
85. The gardens of houses in a connected street, or row, which are the smallest in this class, generally consist of two parts, divided from each other by the house, through which the hack garden is en...
-Design I. Luying Out And Planting The Gardens Of A Street House Of The Smallest Size. 93. Laging Out The Ground
Fig. 31. shows a plot of ground, in which the houses which is 30 ft. by 20 ft, has a front garden of neatly the same sire, and a back garden about 90 ft. in length by 30 ft. in breadth. The kitchen of...
-94. Planting The Front Garden
The boundary fences of the front garden may be planted with gold and silver-leaved ivy, intermixed with a plant or two of the common ivy; and the boundary fences of the back garden may be wholly plant...
-Design II. To Lay Out And Plant The Garden Of A Street House Of Larger Size, But Still In The Simplest Manner
99. To lay out and plant a larger garden of the same kind, and for the attainment of the same objects, all the difference would be, that, instead of one shrub in the front garden, there should be seve...
-Design III. To Lay Out And Plant The Gardens Of A Suburban Villa, With Regard To Economy, But With Some Attention To Ornament
100. The situation of the house in fig. 33. appears almost inconveniently near the street or road; but the house is so placed, in order to allow an appearance of ample space, and breadth of lawn, to b...
-101. Laying Out
We shall suppose the piece of ground to be about 250 ft. in length, and 100 fit. in breadth, and that the ground has been properly levelled; the next point is to provide efficient drainage, as the par...
-106. Planting The Walls
The side walls near the house should be completely covered, in order to disguise the boundary; and for this purpose we would recommend ornamental climbers and creepers, or planting the whole with ivy....
-Design IV. To Lay Out And Plant The Garden Of A Street-House
To lay out and plant the garden of a street-house, where the principal object is the culture of fruit and vegetables. 111. General Arrangements The mode of laying out and planting a suburban garden,...
-To Lay Out And Plant The Garden Of A Street-House. Continued
As the nails in the Bide wall next the path might be liable to catch the dress of ladies passing near them, instead of nails, a rod or a wire might be fixed there: and, indeed, the most elegant mode o...
-116. The Back Garden
If the hack garden lies in the direction of east and west, then the wall, having a southern exposure, may be planted with peaches, nectarines, and apricots. The wall facing the east or west might be p...
-117. Selection Of Fruit-Trees
As the object in view in planting this garden is rather to produce the fruits most useful in a family, than to grow a great variety of sorts, the first point is to consider what kinds are best adapted...
-118. Walks And Borders
On the supposition that the walks are of flagstone, supported on brick piers, then the wall borders need not be more than 18 in. wide; as the space under the flagstones (the latter not touching the so...
-119. Planting The Central Plot Of The Back Garden
The object being to grow culinary vegetables in it, on no account would we recommend standard fruit-trees to be planted there; because the shade of them is injurious to the flavour of the vegetables g...
-Planting The Central Plot Of The Back Garden. Continued
122. On the supposition that only a part of the vegetables consumed by the family can be grown in the back garden, the next point is to determine those which it is advisable to grow. This depends on v...
-124. Selection Of Culinary Vegetables Beet Adapted For Small Suburban Gardens
Of the cabbages, Knight's early dwarf, introduced in the year 1835, and the early Battersea, are the best kinds for the early crops; and die latter will be found suitable for the secondary summer, aut...
-127. Expense
The first cost of laying out and planting a garden of the kind here described, will be about 30l.; and the annual expense afterwards, supposing a commercial gardener to be employed, will be, on an ave...
-128. General Arrangement
In fig, 35., a is the entrance from the street; b, the steps to the front door; e, the hall and staircase; d, a library or business-room; e, breakfast parlour, school-room, or bed-room; f, dining-room...
-General Arrangement. Continued
131. - In choosing the flowers for the beds, the best and easiest way is to choose greenhouse plants, which will produce a brilliant effect from May to September, though they will require to be renewe...
-133. Another Mode Of Planting The Back Gardens Of Fig. 35
For this mode of planting we shall suppose the gardens to be laid out like that in fig. 34. in page 71, as in no kitchen-garden whatever, whether large or small, would we introduce standard fruit tree...
-134. The Walls
We shall suppose that one of the side walls faces the south, and is 100 ft. long and 7 ft. high. On this may be placed ten trees, to each of which there will be 70 superficial feet of walling; and a v...
-138. Culinary Crops
The space left for these, in a back garden of the size shown in figs. 34. and 35., and laid out in the manner we have described, with flagstone walks, will be but small; being merely a bed about 12 ft...
-139. Wall Garden
We have now planted and cropped the whole of the back garden, unless we except the wall borders, in which there is the row el strawberries that forms the edging to the walk on that side; and the narro...
-142. Expense Of Management
If the operations of culture and keeping are performed by the occupier himself, the annual amount of money required to be laid out will be very trifling. The first year, a good garden syringe, some wa...
-Design VI. To Lag Out A Small Suburban Garden
To lag out a small suburban garden, where the main object is a display of ornamental trees and shrubs and border flowers. 144. General Arrangement We shall suppose the extent and form of the ground ...
-145. Mode Of Management
This garden may be managed with greater ease and certainty of success than one where fruit-trees are grown against the walls; because the care and labour requisite to bring a plant into flower is only...
-146. Estimate Of Expense
This will depend chiefly on the rarity and value of the shrubs and plants chosen, which may vary from an average of 1s. to 3s. each. Taking them at the first sum, and estimating the total number at ab...
-Design VII. To Lay Out And Plant A Suburban Garden
To lay out and plant a suburban garden, where the object is chiefly to make a picturesque display of ornamental trees and shrubs, with a few flowers. 148. General Arrangement For this example, we sh...
-To Lay Out And Plant A Suburban Garden. Continued
151. The trees are almost all of the low-growing and flowering kinds; under 20ft. in height; and purchasable,1 on an average, for cash, at 1s. 6d. each. Their names are as follow. The prices were kind...
-153. Bulbs
Hithertq, we have supposed only fibrous-rooted herbaceous plants to be planted in the beds; but, if bulbs are mixed with these, the bulbs may be allowed to remain after the fibrous-rooted flowers have...
-155. Culinary Crops
With respect to that part of the garden which is cropped with asparagus, sea-kale, strawberries, gooseberries, and other fruit shrubs, very little need be said. The asparagus and sea-kale will require...
-156. Estimate Of Expense
The preparation of the ground, including the draining and the formation of the walks in this garden; will cost about.... s d 10 0 0 The trees require...
-157. Management
A garden laid out in this manner may be managed with great ease, and at very little expense. During the spring months, such training and pruning as are required may be effected!; and, during summer, t...
-Design VIII. A Double Suburban Villa
A double suburban villa, with an ornamental garden, and the entrance porches at opposite sides 159. General Arrangement Fig. 43. shows a common, and at the same time an effectual, mode of arranging ...
-161. Planting
We would first plant common ivy against the exterior boundary wall, but not against the wall which separates the two back gardens. This ivy, if of the common kind, will require no farther attention wh...
-162. Laying Down In Grass
After all the trees and shrubs are planted, the whole garden may be laid down in grass; the surface having been previously consolidated and raked quite smooth. If the trees and shrubs have been plante...
-163. Expense And Management
Supposing the length of the back gardes to be 150 ft., the soil moderately good, and the subsoil such as not to require much drainage, the expense of laying out, and blocking out the walks, may be 20l...
-Design IX. To Lay Out A Double Suburban Villa
To lay out a double suburban villa, with an ornamental gardens the entrance-porches being close together. 165. General Arrangement In small houses like those before us, this is a considerable advant...
-166. Planting The Garden
The front and side boundary walls, and the party fence which divides the two back gardens, are supposed to be planted with ivy; and the margins within the side and front boundary walls with laurustinu...
-170. Planting With Fibrous-Rooted Perennials Of The Lowest Growth
The whole of the plot is dug; and the borders surrounding it, and the beds, axe edged with thrift, or sea pink (Armeria vulgaris), and the walks gravelled. If paved, the flagstones should be laid holl...
-Design X. To Lag Out And Plant A Small Suburban Garden
To lag out and plant a small suburban garden, where the object is to have a green-home, or to force fruits and flowers. 175. General Arrangement Wherever plant-houses, pits, or frames, are introduce...
-176. The Green-Home
Whatever may be the aspect of the house, a greenhouse may be projected from it, unless it be due north; and even in that case there are many exceptions. We shall take the same extent of ground that ha...
-177. Pits, Frames, And The Reserve Ground
At the lower end of the garden, a space is shown, walled off, in which pines and melons may be grown in pits, either heated by dung or by hot water; and here, also, cucumbers, and roses and other flow...
-178. Forcing-Houses
If these are required, we should continue them, as indicated in fig. 49., from the end of the green-house towards the reserve ground, as shown at d and e; and, if this were done, the same fire which h...
-Management
If the occupier intends to manage this garden himself, he must be at home every day throughout the year; with the exception, perhaps, of a month or two during summer, when his forced trees, having yie...
-Design XI. To Lay Out A Double Suburban Villa
To lay out a double suburban villa, with green-houses attached. 180. General Arrangement In order to prevent both the entrances a a in fig. 50. from being seen at once, it requires a considerable pr...
-182. Planting The Front Garden
To return to our plan (fig. 50), each boose consists of a vestibule (d), ball and staircase (e), dining-room (f), and drawn ing-room (g), communicating with the conservatory (c). In the garden at h, a...
-184. Planting A Front Garden To As To Product Symmetrical Masses Of Colour
- An agreeable variety might be produced in this design, by substituting fig. 51. for i i in fig. 50. This garden is supposed to face the south; and to be. 30 ft broad, and 45 ft. long. It is surround...
-185. Introduction Of Statuary Ornaments In Front Gardens
The centre bed (ft) may have a sun-dial in the middle, rising from the base, surrounded by rockwork (the manner of forming which will bo given hereafter), planted with select creeping plants; and ther...
-180. Plantmg With Bulbs, To Be Succeeded By Showy Annuals
Instead of this arrangement, the three central beds might be planted with three different kinds of showy perennials, or with three different kinds of bulbs, or with three different kinds of annuals. T...
-187. Planting With Bulble, To Be Succeeded By Half-Hardy Annuals And Green-House Plants
The third mode is adapted for gardens where there is not only a reserve ground, but pits or hot-beds in which to preserve some of the plants which we shall recommend during winter, and to bring forwar...
-Design XII. To Lay Out, And Plant The Grounds Of A Double Suburban Villa In The Italian Style
To lay out, and plant the grounds of a double suburban villa in the Italian style, with the entrances from a common terrace. 190. General Arrangement This house, of which fig. 56. is the plan, and f...
-192. Laying Out And Planting
The object, in laying out and planting these two gardens, we shall suppose to be picturesque effect, so as to harmonise with the broken outline and numerous parts which compose the elevation of the ho...
-194. The Flowerbeds
The two arabesque beds in the front garden may be planted with carnations and pinks, which are peculiarly the flowers of Italy; or with wallflowers and stocks, which are also very much prized then; o...
-195. The Italian Terrace And The Green-House
For ornamenting these in summer, we would cultivate, in a green-house or orangery in the reserve garden, some orange trees, oleanders, pomegranates, olives, myrtles, and jasmines, in large pots or box...
-Design XIII. To Lay Out And Plant The Grounds Of A Detached House, Occupying About An Acre And Three Quarters
199. The general form is that of a parallelogram, as shown in fig. 59. In this plan the street entrance is by the veranda (a) to the porch (o), which leads to the staircase (e), dining-room (d), ...
-201. Expense And Management
Such a house as we have shown need not cost more than 750l.; and 250l. more will lay out and plant the garden, including the erection of the two pits. As so considerable a portion of the surface is un...
-Design XIV. To Lay Out And Plant The Garden Of A Double Suburban Villa, In Porchester Terrace, Bayswater. 208. General Arrangement
In the ground plan, fig. 63. the entrances to the two houses are on opposite sides, on the same principle as in fig. 43. in p. 104; but here, the porches not being so conspicuous, and it being utterly...
-204. Drainage, Service-Pipes, Etc
The soil being a loam on a subsoil of gravel, no under-draining was required, except the drains for the water-closets, back-kitchen, and rain-water pipes. For these purposes, each house has a barrel-d...
-205. Soil, Walks, Etc
The whole of the ground, except the part on which the house stands, was trenched 4 ft. deep; the surface soil of what was excavated for the foundation and basement story of the house, and the half on ...
-206. The Houses
The general appearance of this double house, as seen from the road, is shown in fig. 64., which is a sketch taken by E. B. Lamb, Esq., in September, 1837. The two street entrances, or gates, are shown...
-208. Out-Door Arrangements
-The front gardens are divided by a light wire fence, in the centre of which is the pedestal o, surmounted by a handsome sculptured vase of Coade's artificial stone. The back gardens are separated by ...
-209. General System Of Planting Both Gardens
The object being to make both gardens, as well as both houses, appear as one, whether when seen in front or from behind, the more conspicuous ornamental and fruit-bearing trees and shrubs chosen for b...
-214. Boxes For Flowers
Between the pillars, immediately within the panels of open ironwork, are placed narrow boxes, the exact length of each opening, which are filled with small pots of plants in flower, changed throughout...
-215. Grass-Plot In The Front Garden
We have now completed the planting of the front gardens; and all that remains is, to state that the surface of the soil among these plants, composing much the larger half of both gardens, was next sow...
-Grass-Plot In The Front Garden. Continued
219. Plants take the greater part of their food, which must be either in a gaseous or liquid state, partly through the spongioles of their roots, and partly through the pores in their leaves; and ...
-225. Selection Of Plants For A Suburban Garden
It is generally necessary, before planting a suburban garden, to decide whether it will be better to plant trees or flowers; or, in other words, whether the garden shall be shady or showy, as it is ve...
-226. - Renovating Suburban Gardens
Whoever does not build or take possession of a new house, so as to have the garden to lay out himself, will, on changing his residence, probably find that the garden of his new abode requires renovati...
-Renovating Suburban Gardens. Part 2
229. The boundary walk, or fences, of the garden, of whatever kind these may be, can hardly fail to require some repairs. If they are brick walls, on which trees have been trained for many years, the ...
-Renovating Suburban Gardens. Part 3
232. The most important consideration, however, with reference to renovating suburban gardens, is the state of the trees and shrubs. In almost all suburban gardens of twenty years' standing, this ...
-235. The Only Remaining Subject Connected With The Renovation Of Suburban Gardens, It That Of Insects And Other Vermin
Where these have not been kept down by vigilant attention, the soil, owing to the state of closeness and dampness in which small gardens usually are kept, will be found teeming with snails, slugs, and...
-Chapter II. Country Villas
239. Country villas, even of the smallest fixe, differ from suburban villas, in not being regulated in the situation of the house by any street or road. Hitherto, we have been limited, by the ...
-Section I. General Observations Oh Country Villas
240. The most important point of difference between a suburban and a country villo, is undoubtedly the circumstance of the latter never forming part of a street or road: but there are several other ...
-241. What Constitutes An Artistical Landscape
It may be necessary to rented the general reader that by a landscape, in the tense in which it is understood by artists, is meant a scene, verdant, architectural, or aquatic, which can be seen by the ...
-243. The House
In proceeding to lay out the grounds of a country residence, the first point that requires to he determined is, the situation of the house and domestic offices; the latter including the kitchen-court ...
-244. The Offices
It is almost needless to observe that the kitchen-court should always be immediately connected with the mansion; and that in some cases, as in small houses, the kitchen and other offices should be, in...
-247. The Conservatory And Flower-Garden
The conservatory has been already treated of, as an appendage to the mansion, in pp. 54. to 57. inclusive, and several designs for conservatories and other kinds of plant-houses will be given in an af...
-252. Drainage Map
In all extensive establishments, and even in small ones, where the drainage is in any degree intricate, it is desirable to have a map exclusively devoted to the under-drains, which should be accuratel...
-257. Grate Walks
Besides gravel walks, there ought, in every case where there is a lawn of an acre or two in extent, to be either broad margins of turf to the main walk, running parallel to the gravel, on which person...
-Grate Walks. Continued
260. The inclination of the surface of an approach road is subject to the same general principles as its line of direction. In a 'common road across a field, its surface follows every inequality in ...
-266. Trenching
The use of trenching ground which is afterwards to be covered permanently with grass, or trees and shrubs, is, to enable the roots of the grass and other plants to reach a greater depth, and thus to b...
-268. Planting
Trees and shrubs are distributed over the grounds of a residence, because these objects are considered the most effective in producing the kind of beauty which is desirable in the country. To trees an...
-269. Trees
In every country, the plants which are indigenous, and found there when it is rescued from an uncultivated state, form but a very small number of those which will grow in it. Hence, with the progress ...
-273. Improved Mode Of Planting The Pleasure Grounds Of Country Villas
Having seen the mode of distributing trees and plants adopted by the majority of gardeners, in the present and in former times, and their natural distribution in this country, and in every other, it m...
-II. Flowers
Chouce of kinds. 1. As the kinds of flowers are exceedingly numerous, unless there were a decided taste or desire for botanical knowledge, we would introduce only the more showy and vigorous-growing ...
-274. Architectural Ornaments
The number of these about a place depends on various circumstances, but chiefly on whether the pleasure-ground is plain, or much decorated in the immediate vicinity of the mansion. If there be a terra...
-278. Sculpture In Gardens
Whoever understands the phrase unity of expression, and can examine any scene presented to him by the test of its being or not being, a harmonious whole, will be able to determine what is right an...
-Sculpture In Gardens. Continued
281. On a level surface, a preparation may be made, beginning at a short distance from where the main body of rockwork is to be placed, by sinking, some fragments of stone into the earth, so deep as ...
-284. Water
To determine the extent to which water should be introduced, and the character which it ought to assume in small places, is a point requiring some consideration. In the case of a spring or a running s...
-Water. Continued
286. With a view to beauty, the distinctive properties of water, as contrasted with those of ground are, clearness and brilliancy, the power of multiplying objects, coolness, and motion. These are ...
-289. The Union Of All The Parte Which Compote A Country Residence, So As To Form A Harmonious And Expressive Whole
In the preceding remarks, we neither pretend to have embraced every part of which a place is composed, nor to have given all the details which belong to any one of the parts treated of. Our object ha...
-293. Planting Single Trees
Nothing is more common than for gentlemen of leisure, who have small country residences, to attend nurserymen's sales, and purchase articles they do not want, merely because they are cheap. These chea...
-295. Fixing On The Situation, Extent, Etc
Fig. 105. may be supposed to exhibit a portion of country, the greater part of which is to be sold by private contract, in lots as various in magnitude and form as the size and shape of the fields; or...
-296. Character Of The Country
But to return to our choice. The five fields, f to j, are supposed to contain no great variety of surface; and the country around to be tame rather than otherwise, and in the same style as that which ...
-Promt State Of The Five Fields, Purchased By Mr. C, And Intended To Be Laid Out As A Villa Residence
The numbers preceding each paragraph refer to the numbers in the squares in the plan (fig. 106.). 1. Surface here only about ft ft. higher than the public road, towards which it gradually slopes. Soi...
-301. The Working Surf Ace Plan
Having, by means of the plans and sections already described, and of conversations with the proprietor and his family, acquired a knowledge of what are technically called the data and desiderata of th...
-305. Mode Of Concealing The Offices
The position of the house (a) and the kitchen-garden (b) being fixed on, the most convenient situation for the offices, as we have already observed, is between them; and to disguise these offices, or,...
-Mode Of Concealing The Offices. Continued
307. The conservatory, it will be observed, has a south-east aspect; while the conservative wall, and the forcing structures (m) in the reserve garden, front directly to the south. By turning to the ...
-311. A Rustic Seat
From q in fig, 119. p. 207., where the walk emerges from the tunnel, it gradually rises till we arrive at the seat r. From this seat, which may be a rustic thatched structure, in the manner of fig, 12...
-312. Doric Temple
From r, in fig. 119., p. 207., the walk proceeds along an uniform surface to s; where there may be constructed in atone, or brick covered with cement, a Doric temple, or any other building that the pr...
-315. Planting
The general disposition of the trees and shrubs is exhibited in the plan fig. 125.; but it remains for us to indicate the distribution of the leading genera. The first point which deserves to be notic...
-Planting. Continued
319. With respect to the distribution of the kinds of tress, setting out from the natural oak wood (f in fig. 125. in p. 216.), we would introduce, from that point to the entrance lodge, and along ...
-322. Planting Execution
All that we have said hitherto may be considered as only committed to paper in the form of plans, and a report, for the consideration of the proprietor and his family. When these are approved of the n...
-Design XV. To Lay Out A Piece Of Ground, Of A Regular Form, And Two Acres In Extent, As A Small Country Villa. 329. Ground Plan
Though this villa, figs. 128. and 129., is bounded by straight lines, and, being rectangular, might form a portion of ground along any road, yet the manner in which the buildings are disposed prevents...
-331. Ground Plan
In this design (figs. 130. and 131.), Mr. Rutger informs us, the house is approached by a lodge entrance (a), and the area in front presents an oval: the carriage road to the stables (b) is from the ...
-Design XVII. For Laying Out A Villa Of Three Acres And A Half, On A Level Surface, With A First-Rate House. 332. Ground Plan
For this design (figs. 132. and 133.) we are also indebted to Mr. Rutger. The house is approached from the south-west by a lodge entrance (a), and, as the road indicates, the carriage returns to the ...
-333. The Conservatory
The ingenious manner in which the conservatory is made to front the south, and is, at the same time, connected with the house by the covered way, is worthy of notice. This covered way might be greatly...
-Design XVIII. For Laying Out A Villa Of Four Acres, With A Regular Outline. 335. Ground Plan
This villa (figs. 134. and 135.) is also by Mr. Rutger. The lodge entrance (a) is at the north-east corner: the road forms a sweep to the house, and passes on to the stables, at the south-east corner...
-336. Remarks Applicable To The Preceding Designs
The surface of the ground, in all these designs, is supposed to be even, and for the most part flat; in consequence of which, there can be no difficulty in laying out the roads and walks in any direct...
-Design XIX. To Lay Out A Villa Residence Of Two Acres, Within A Regular Boundary, In The Geometrical Style. 339. Ground Plan, Etc
The object in this case is to produce a splendid effect at a moderate expense of annual keeping, but with no regard to profit. The general form of the ground is that of a parallelogram, and its dispos...
-Design XX. Plan Of The Grounds Of Chester Holme Cottage, Laid Out By Mr. Harland. 341. General Observations
This cottage (see fig. 139.) was the residence of the late Rev. Anthony Hedley. It is situated in a most romantic spot, at the head or opening of a deep rocky glen, which runs southward, and the botto...
-342. Ground Plan, Etc
From the elevated situation of the house a in fig. 140., and the quick descent from it, it became necessary to make a considerable terrace (b) on the south side, to give ease and facility to the appro...
-343. Planting
The ornamental trees used in planting this place were the scarlet maple, the Norway maple, the scarlet horse-chestnut, the yellow horse-chestnut, or buckeye, the cut-leaved alder, the sweet chestnut, ...
-Design XXI. Descriptive Notice Of Bedford Lodge, The Villa Of Her Grace The Duchess Dowager Of Bedford, At Campden Hill, Near London
344. Ground Plan, Etc Fig. 141. is a view of the south-front of the house, showing the verandas, the flower-beds, and the scattered trees and shrubs on the lawn; with an ivied arbour on the ...
-Descriptive Notice Of Bedford Lodge. Part 2
7, A basket corresponding with that at 3, in which Calceolaria angustifolia, yellow, occupies the whole space, with the exception of a plant of Maurandya Barclayana, blue, which is planted in the cent...
-Descriptive Notice Of Bedford Lodge. Part 3
73, Scarlet ten-week stocks, and Phlox Drunmondii. 74, Verbena Drummondii, light lilac 75, Scarlet pelargoniums. 76, Indian chief calceolaria. 77, Petinia ernbesoens, whitish. 78, Scarlet pelargo...
-Subsect. 2. Culture Of Small Country Villas
345. The culture of the gardens of small country villas differs materially from that of suburban villas; as the plants are more healthy, and require less general care. The distance at which plants of ...
-Subsect. 3. Renovation Of Small Country Villas
347. When the grounds of a small country villa have been neglected, almost all the trees and shrubs will have become overgrown and shapeless, and will require to be either cut in or cut down, or even,...
-352. Renovating The Kitchen-Garden
Where the occupier has only a temporary interest in a residence, say of seven or eight years, though he may not think it worth his while to undertake substantial repairs, he will naturally require a s...
-354. The Dairy
A cow, to a person with a family, is one of the principal sources of comfort derivable from a country residence. A cow, it is true, may be kept in town as well as in the country, and may occupy a stal...
-The Dairy. Continued
357. The paddock in which the cow is to pasture, and take her exercise, may either be barely sufficient for the latter purpose, or it may be of such an extent as not only to afford pasture for the ...
-362. Ornamental Trees
The trees for a paddock ought to be of small size, even when fully grown; but they ought to be such as grow rapidly when young, so as to be soon out of the reach of cattle. The following kinds possess...
-363. Fruit Trees
The following selection has been made with the approbation of Mr. Thompson, of the Horticultural Society's Garden, as ornamental in the shape of the tree, and of vigorous growth as standards: Apples ...
-364. Staking And Protecting Single Trees In Paddocks
Plants should be selected which have clear items, at least 6 ft. in height: they should he planted on little hillocks, if the ground is at all damp; and staked and protected from the rubbing of the co...
-Design XXII. Plan And Description
Plan and Description of the Villa formerly occupied by Mrs. Lawrence at Drayton Green. 365. Ground Plan, Etc Fig, 160. shows the general arrangement of the house and grounds; and the following are ...
-366. General Observations
This villa may be said to occupy in all about twenty-eight acres. The house, stable offices, and decorated grounds, stand on about two acres; and at the distance of about two or three hundred yards, a...
-369. Kitchen Garden, And Reserve Ground
The references to the plan,fig. 170., are given in pp. 277. and 278. Plan of the Grounds at Fortis Green. This sketch represents the narrow portion next the public road. Fig. 172. in p. 277. is a...
-Design XXIII. Plan And Description Of Fortis Green
Plan and Description of Fortis Green, Muswell Hill, with a small Sheep-farm attached. 371. Ground Plan, Etc This villa, which was laid out, planted, and formerly occupied by W. A. Nesfield, Esq., la...
-373. There Are Two Modes Of Stocking A Farm With Sheep Upon A Small Scale. - First Method
Buy in September, or in the beginning of October, three ewes in lamb, per acre, at 25s. each, which will, on an average, produce four lambs an acre, in February (though there are frequently five or si...
-Second Method
This is rather more profitable, with less risk in lambing, and also with less consumption of winter food. It consists in buying in autumn, as above, only two ewes per acre. The fair way, however, of r...
-Design XXIV. A Villa Of Four Acres. 376. General Observations
The occupier of the villa, the plan of which is shown m fig. 177., took a long lease of seven or eight acres of ground in the parish of Hammersmith. He took about four acres into his own possession, a...
-Design XXV. A Villa Of Seven Acres, Contained In A Apace Nearly Square. 378. Ground Plan, Etc
This design, of which fig. 178. is a ground plan, is contributed by Mr. Glendinning, landscape-gardener, Turnham-green. The form or outline of the ground, Mr. Glendinning observes, is the most unfavou...
-379. The Kitchen-Garden (Fig. 179)
Though the extent of this garden is but small, being only 1 1/2 acres, Mr. Glendinning observes that the accompanying list will show its capacity for containing fruit trees. The borders are proposed t...
-Design XXVI. - Plan And Description Of The 'Grounds At Fairfield Cot, By Mr, Parkins
a, House. b, Stable, cow-house, piggeries, etc, hidden from the grounds by a plantation, and approached by a road overshadowed with tall trees, c, Kitchen-garden, screened in the same manner...
-Design XXVII. Plan And Description Of Redleaf, At Penshurst, Near Tonbridge, The Seat Of The Late William Wells, Esq. 384. General Observations
The estate of Redleaf, near Penshurst, lies along the north side and in the bottom of a valley distinguished by the boldness of its undulations, the large proportion of the surface which is under wood...
-386. Object In View
Mr. Wells had obviously been guided by two principles; vis. first, that, in the views from the house, the natural character and expression of the surrounding country should be preserved; and, secondly...
-387. Flower-Garden
We must confess that it is sometimes a matter of difficulty to determine when a flower-garden should be laid out immediately in front of a house, so as to form a foreground to the distant scenery, and...
-Flower-Garden. Part 2
The effect of the woodman's cottage at l, which may be described as one of the aboriginal cottages of the country, is exceedingly good, as seen from the drawing-room, by the strong contrast which its ...
-Flower-Garden. Part 3
To insure this gardenesque appearance, the plants are taken up, reduced, and replanted in fresh peat soil, as soon as ever they begin to grow out of bounds. An aquarium, on the margin of a bank of ro...
-Design XXVIII. Plan And Description Of The Grounds At Hoole House, Near Chester, Occupied By Lady Broughton. 391. General Observations
Hoole is situated about two miles from the city of Chester, on the road to Liverpool. The extent of the place is between twenty and thirty acres; and it is arranged as a farm, a lawn, a kitchen-garden...
-396. General Observations
The vicarage grounds lie along the churchyard, from which they are separated by an open fence, so that the churchyard forms, as it were, a part of the pleasure-ground. The general surface, both of the...
-397. Ground Plan, Etc
Figs. 204. and 205. represent the general ground plan of the buildings and grounds, and Jiff. 206. is an isometrical view. In the ground plan, it will be seen that all the effect produced by the trees...
-Design XXX. Plan And Views Of The Garden And Grounds At Hendon Rectory
-Plan and views of the garden and grounds at Hendon Rectory, with the mode of planting them, 398. General Observations This residence is selected in order to show what may be effected on a very smal...
-Plan And Views Of The Garden And Grounds At Hendon Rectory. Part 2
Magnoliaceae Magnolia tripetala, 12 ft. high, and 6 ft. in diameter. M obovata, M. acuminata, 9 ft. high, and 8 ft. in diameter; in bog soil and silver sand. M. glauca, 7 ft high, and 3 1/2 ft. in d...
-Plan And Views Of The Garden And Grounds At Hendon Rectory. Part 3
The spectator, standing at v, with his back to the mass, sees the house on two sides to the greatest advantage, as in fig. 310.; looking towards x, he sees a fine display of plants in pots and vases, ...
-Plan And Views Of The Garden And Grounds At Hendon Rectory. Part 4
Taxaoeae Daecydium capressinum, 6 ft 9 in. high, and 5 ft wide; in a pot 17 in. wide, and 18 in deep: by far the largest and handsomest plant of this species ever seen in England. Conifera, A...
-Subsect. V. The Culture And Management Of Large Country Villas
400. The culture of the gardens of large country villas only differs from that of smaller ones in being on a larger scale; and neither possess any features to distinguish them from the general ...
-403. Management Of Cow Kept Constantly In A Cow-House
Unnatural as it may seem, it does not appear that constant confinement has any bad effect upon the health of the cow, or occasions any diminution of her milk. We have already mentioned ( 354. in...
-406. Renovating The Grass Land Of Large Country Villas
It very frequently happens, in neglected residences, where there is only pasture sufficient to keep one or two cows, that the grass has become deteriorated in quality, in consequence of its being mixe...
-407. Destroying Docks And Thistles
The same practice as that recommended for getting rid of the crowfoot will apply in the case of all broad-leaved weeds; but, as docks and thistles are not so readily eaten by cattle, they may be eithe...
-Destroying Docks And Thistles. Continued
410. With respect to the dimensions of the drains, as the surface is not to be ploughed, they need not be deep; and any greater width than may be required for attaining the depth fixed on is ...
-Chapter III. Country Mansions
414. Country mansions differ from country villas, even of the largest size, in having a park and a farm attached, and in their size, as the extent of such a residence can scarcely be less than from ...
-421. Situation Of The Offices
In country houses built twenty or thirty years ago, and subjected to various repairs and additions, nothing is more common than to find the offices placed at the wrong end of the house, or perhaps par...
-422. The Kitchen Offices When Detached From The House
In designing these, it is of more importance to bear in mind general principles, than to adhere to particular forms and dimensions. Security from vermin is an essential requisite in the construction o...
-423. The Stable Offices
In designing these, a recurrence to first principles is of equal importance as in arranging the kitchen offices. The ground on which a stable or coach-house is built ought to be dry, either naturally ...
-427. The Farm
-Every one is aware that farming by a proprietor or an amateur is, for the most part, attended by loss in a pecuniary point of view, and that money would be saved by letting the lands to a professiona...
-429. Moral Influence Of Farming
It has generally been thought that the habit of labouring with animals, or looking after them, has a tendency to brutalise, or at least to render coarse, rather than refined, farmers and their servant...
-430. Situation Of The Farm
The part of a large country villa residence which is to be cultivated as a farm, will be most conveniently situated when it adjoins the park on one side, and when the farm buildings are placed central...
-Situation Of The Farm. Continued
432. The farm buildings for a villa or park farm, or for a ferme ornie, should, if possible, be situated at no great distance from the stable-court of the mansion; partly in order that the latter may ...
-435. The Piggery
The great requisites here are, cleanliness, dryness, warmth in winter and shade in summer, a convenient mode of keeping and supplying food, and a place for the pigs to take exercise. These requisites ...
-436. Poultry
Next to the kitchen-garden, there is no accompaniment of a country residence that contributes more to the comforts of its inhabitants than the poultry-yard; and, considerable as these comforts are, if...
-437. The Poultry-Yard
The situation of the poultry-yard should be open and airy, but at the same time thoroughly sheltered from the prevailing winds of the locality, and, in England, more especially, from the north, north-...
-439. Fattening Poultry
With respect to fattening poultry of every kind, it may be proper to observe, that the preceding recommendations as to fatten-ing-houses, have been given on the supposition that every kind of cramming...
-442. Warming The Houses For Common Fowls
Wherever it is intended to have an abundant supply of eggs in the winter season, provision should be made for supplying artificial heat to all the houses occupied by the common fowls. The temperature ...
-446. Houses For Aquatic Fowls
Where only a few geese and ducks are kept, one house will be sufficient for them, provided it be divided into three parts; one for the common lodging-place, one for laying and sitting, and the other f...
-448. The Pigeon-House, Or Dovecot
The common pigeon, of which there are many varieties, may be kept in a small house, in a manner similar to common fowls; but it succeeds better in buildings somewhat elevated, or in low buildings in w...
-451. The Rabbilry
Rabbits may frequently be kept in the aviary, though, unless the extent of ground be considerable, they are better in an area by themselves. There are two kinds of rabbits reared for the market; one i...
-453. The Fishponds
The custom of keeping fish in the grounds of country residences is much less common now than it was in the days when, from the whole country being Catholic, fish was essential as an article of food tw...
-454. Other Animals That May Be Kept In Country Residences
Those who wish to add to their sources of recreation and amusement may keep land tortoises, much in the same manner as we have proposed to keep rabbits, but with a smaller exercising-ground, and they ...
-456. The Ice-House
Ice may be kept in a dry cellar with as much ease as coals, wine, or beer. All that is necessary, is to have the walls and roof of extra thickness, so as to exclude heat; or to have them built double,...
-456. The Ice-Cellar
The cool temperature by which the ice must be surrounded, to make it keep, has suggested the idea of forming niches or shelves within the ice-house, or in the passage leading to it, for keeping articl...
-457. Out-Of-Door Ice-Houses
Where the soil is wet, and does not admit of underground drainage, the icehouse may be constructed above the natural surface, and afterwards surrounded and covered with a mound of earth; it being fart...
-Section III. The Scenery Of A Country Mansion Residence. 458. General Observations
Every place may be considered as producing three leading impressions on the mind of a stranger: that called forth by the entrance lodge, gates, and the portion of the approach which is seen through th...
-459. The Entrance Lodge And Gates
Good sense dictates that the architect ture of the entrance lodge and gates should be in harmony with that of the house; and hence, if the dwelling-house and offices have any marked character of the R...
-460. Gatee
Whether a gate ought to be of open work that may be seen through, or of close boards so as to obstruct the view, is a question that has reference chiefly to places in the immediate vicinity of towns. ...
-463. Entrance Lodges
Fig. 225, is a lodge in the old Engisth manner, designed by . B. Lamb, Esq., and executed at Chequers, in Buckingham-shire, the seat of Sir Robert Frankland Russell, Bart The watts are composed of st...
-467. The View From The Drawing-Room Window
Having entered the house, and been shown into the drawing-room, the greatest impression made on the stranger ought to be by the view which he sees from its windows. This should be the most striking an...
-468. The Lawn
As circumstances which seldom fail of producing beauty in the view, we may mention extreme smoothness and high polish in the lawn, the branches of the trees and shrubs being allowed to recline on the ...
-469. The Connexion Of The House With The Grounds
It is allowed by all authors who have written on landscape-gardening, since the days of Uvedale Price, that the want of artistical connexion between the house and the grounds is the most glaring defec...
-The Connexion Of The House With The Grounds. Part 2
470. Grettos and Moss-houses are very agreeable additions to pleasure-ground scenery in a large place; but they require to be managed with skill to produce a good effect. When it is practicable a ...
-The Connexion Of The House With The Grounds. Part 3
The following is the method in which the work is performed. The first thing necessary, before commencing operations, is to have an even close-boarded surface to work upon; and upon this ground draw wh...
-The Connexion Of The House With The Grounds. Part 4
472. Rustic Work may often be introduced with very good effect in park scenery. A rustic gate and railing (see fig. 255), may be used to form a boundary between the park and the pleasure-grounds; and ...
-The Connexion Of The House With The Grounds. Part 5
475. Fountains, as matters of taste, like every other object by which the fancy is called into exercise, admit of a great variety of designs. Our guide in the choice of these must he principally the ...
-The Connexion Of The House With The Grounds. Part 6
477. In some cases a number of flower-gardens, etc, are thrown together, as in the pleasure-grounds at Bagshot Park, as shown in fig, 278.; the pleasure-grounds are entered by a close rustic gate at ...
-The Connexion Of The House With The Grounds. Part 7
There are small grates placed in the walks, over the main drains, which take away all the surface water, and render the walks quite dry and firm to walk upon in wet weather or after a shower of rain. ...
-The Connexion Of The House With The Grounds. Part 8
479. Ornaments to flower-garderu. The features above enumerated may be considered as the essential materials, or component parts, of a flower-garden; and to them may be superadded various ornaments, ...
-Design XXX. Plan And Description Of Wimbledon House, Surrey, Ike Property Of Mrs. Marryatt. 484. General Observations
This estate, which once belonged to the celebrated Bond Hopkins, Esq., and was laid out for him about the middle of the last century, consists of about 100 acres of table-land, slightly varied on the ...
-Plan And Description Of Wimbledon House, Surrey. Part 2
Pieces of water of this kind are frequently of such a length as not to be seen all at once, but in succession; and as, from the irregularity of their width, they can never, when so seen, be mistaken f...
-Plan And Description Of Wimbledon House, Surrey. Part 3
Fig. 304. is a section and view, looking to the southwest, and showing the front of the house. It will be observed from the lines indicating walks, that there is one which makes the entire circuit of ...
-490. General Appearance Of The Grounds
In order to convey an idea of the general effect of the park and garden scenery of Wimbledon House, and to afford some relief to the reader after the fatigue of perusing so many details, we shall brie...
-491. - Wire Fence
As the park abounds with hares and rabbits, it is necessary to inclose the flower-garden on the sides next it, and the mill paddock, with a wire fence, hare-proof; and this fence is so artfully concea...
-Design XXXI. A Villa, Of From 50 To 100 Acres In The Geometrical Style. 494. General Observations
We have given this design, to show how the ancient style of laying out grounds can be adapted to modern uses. We have repeatedly observed that we are not among those who consider the ancient, or archi...
-495. Adaptation Of The Geometrical Style To Modem Residences
Since then the geometrical style is chiefly adapted for an unenclosed or wild country, and for public parks or gardens, on what grounds, it may be asked, is it recommended for suburban residences? Our...
-496. Ground Plan, Etc
Passing along the turnpike-road (a a in fig.314.) indication is given of a gentleman's seat by the triple row of trees within the boundary wall. Arrived at the point b, we there find an open iron gate...
-Design XXXII. Kenwood, The Seat Of The Earl Of Mansfield, At Hamp-Stead. 499. General Observations
This is, beyond all question, the finest country residence in the suburbs of London, in point of natural beauty of the ground and wood, and in point also of the main features of art. The park may be s...
-502. When Flower-Beds May Be Introduced On The Lawn Front, And When They Are Better Omitted
There are some places where the scenery, as viewed from the lawn front of the house, has little or no natural expression or character, and cannot be made to have any by the proprietor, either in conse...
-Book III. Plant-Houses
506. Houses for the protection of plants are of various kinds; some merely useful, and others useful and ornamental; some for plants from climates only a little warmer than our own, and which, ...
-Section I. Useful Plant-Houses
507. The merely useful plant-houses described and treated of in the present work, will be only those which are required for propagating greenhouse plants, and keeping them through the winter; those ...
-511. Conservative Wall, Protected By Glass
A specimen of a wall of this kind is shown in figs. 65. and 66., in p. 138. and p. 140, which existed, and was found to answer perfectly for upwards of fifteen years, in the garden of Mr. Loudon's hou...
-Section II. Ornamental Plant-Houses
518. Ornamental structures for containing plants are of various kinds, and of every size, from the little plant cabinet to the large conservatory or winter garden. Some of these plant-houses are not ...
-Ornamental Plant-Houses. Part 2
521. Where a plant cabinet faces the north, and the situation is much exposed to north winds, it could be very desirable if the glazed sides and roof were made double. This construction would retain ...
-Ornamental Plant-Houses. Part 3
523. The mode of heating a plant cabinet is sometimes a matter of difficulty, en account of the small space to be heated, end the large surface exposed to the external air. We have already mentioned ...
-528. Plant Cabinet Heated By Hot Footer
Fig. 353. is a plan, and. fig. 354. a cross section, of a plant cabinet, in which the stage is placed along the sides and against one end. The stove for heating it is placed at a, from which hot water...
-529. A Plant Cabinet, Arranged So At To Conceal The Mode Of Heating It
Fig. 355. is the plan, and fig. 356. a cross section of a span-roofed plant cabinet, with the plant stage in the middle. The stage may either be finished at the end next the entrance with right angles...
-532. Regulation Of Temperature
In the case of small green-houses, where a regular gardener is not kept, a provision for preventing the house from becoming over-heated, which will act independently of human assistance, is very desir...
-Subsect. II. Ornamental Green Houses
533. A green-house is a house with a glazed roof and sides, in which plants are kept in pots; usually on wooden stages in the centre, but sometimes on the brickwork, casing the pipes or flues; or on ...
-Subsect. III. Conservatories
537. A conservatory differs from a green-house in having the plants growing in the free ground, instead of being kept in pots. The conservatory is generally much larger, and more lofty than the green-...
-541. Jardin D'Hiver, Or Winter Garden
In conservatories of this kind, a piece of ground of from 100 ft. to 500 ft. in length, and of proportionate width, is laid out as a garden (as shown in the ground-plan fig. 371.), with walks, beds of...
-Subsect. IV. Hothouses
542. Hothouses differ from green-houses, chiefly in requiring more heat, as they are intended for the growth of tropical plants; whereas green-houses are intended for the plants of climates only a ...
-545. The Aquarium
This kind of house is more rare than any other, as the tropical aquatics are generally grown either in the orchideous house, or the common stove. As, however, some very interesting plants belong to th...
-547. Plant Houses And Forcing Houses Comprised In One Range
Figs. 377. and 378. are intended to represent a range of plant houses and pits, to be erected in a square of 100 ft, and to include all the houses necessary for the supply of a villa, arranged in suc...
-Book IV. Lists Of Ornamental Plants Suitable To Villa Gardens, With Their Culture
548. The plants grown in the open air in villa gardens may be divided into the ligneous, including the trees and shrubs; and the herbaceous, including the annuals, the biennials and perennials, and ...
-554. List Of Hardy Californian Annuals, With Their Colour And Size
The seeds of all these plants may be readily obtained in the seed-shops, and they should all be sown in autumn, if they are to flower in spring; as if sown in spring they will not flower till late in ...
-566. Culture Of Half-Hardy Annuals
The seeds may be sown either in plunged pots, or in a bed of earth on a slight hot-bed, in February or March; and after they have come up they may be pricked out into plunged pots, or into the earth ...
-Subsect. II. Ornamental Biennials And Perennials
558. Biennials are generally classed with perennials in gardening books, because both of them when raised from seeds do not flower till the second year; and though the biennials are said to die after ...
-Subsect. III. Ornamental Bulbs And Tubers
561. Bulbs arc, properly, underground stems which send upwards their leaves and flower-scapes, and downwards their true roots, as may be seen in hyacinths and tulips, when grown in glasses. What are ...
-566. The Ranunculus
The species of Ranunculus may be divided into two kinds: border flowers and florists' flowers. The latter consist of some hundreds of varieties obtained from the species Ranunculus asiaticus, a native...
-568. The Dahlia
The importance that has within the last few years attached to the Dahlia would render it easy to fill a volume with descriptions of its various species and varieties, and the details of their culture....









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