This section is from the book "The Gardener's Monthly And Horticulturist V18", by Thomas Meehan. See also: Four-Season Harvest: Organic Vegetables from Your Home Garden All Year Long.
By the time this reaches most of our readers, the great Exhibition will have closed; and we shall soon be in a position to see what gain, if any, has accrued to Agriculture and Horticulture - the last of which it is our especial business to deal with.
So far as the fruit and vegetable department is concerned, our readers have been tolerably well informed through copies of the reports of the Judges made from week to week, and which have been kindly placed at the disposal of the Press by the Centennial Commission. We have not been able to give all these reports on account of the length of some of them, and the reference occasionally to matters from distant parts of the earth, that, however interesting to the people of those districts, could hardly be of service to the majority of our readers. The awards which will be made on the strength of these reports may perhaps tell more in time than these reports do now.
We cannot but think that it was a mistake not to do for Horticulture proper what the Agricultural Department did for fruits and vegetables. A continuous floral exhibition, would have been a great charm. This week pansies, and other things in season - next week geraniums, then rhododendrons, then roses, then leaf plants for bedding, then gladiolus, and so on down to chrysanthemums ; and not limiting the exhibition to anything named, but allowing any thing to be brought that was beautiful, and rewarding it according to its merits by an honorable mention in a report, as well as by a special medal and diploma at the close, in those cases where special merit was exemplified in the article exhibited.
Horticulture has gained a little by the Centennial Exhibition. It has exhibited good lessons in landscape gardening, in arranging bedding plants, and in arboriculture - in any other respect the great world, which in numbers ranging from near fifty thousand to two hundred and fifty thousand a day visited the Exposition, knows little more than if the Exposition had never been held.
To Messrs. Such, Dick, and Williams of England, who at a great expense in personal attendance, kept collections of rare plants in the building all the season, Horticulture in America owes a debt of gratitude, and the special exhibit of Rhododendrons is entitled to no less praise. The points we have named are the chief redeeming features in one huge blank. Where the blame for this huge failure rests we have no disposition to investigate, and it would serve no good purpose now. We only know that a Centennial Horticultural Society was organized, and hoped to do something. The Centennial Commission hoped to do something. The Chief of the Bureau hoped, and we know, tried to bring these good things about. The Penna. Horticultural Society was no less earnest in its efforts to have Horticulture well sustained. We have heard many reasons given why they all failed, and to a certain extent there seems good ground in every case to account for the failure. All we have to do is with "the facts of history," and these unvarnished facts tell simply that while in Pomology we have been able to get a fair idea from the Centennial as to what fruit-growers are doing, in Horticulture we have not.
Philadelphia, Sept. 28th, 1876. Hon. A. T. Goshorn, Director General U. S. Centennial Commission.
Sir : - During the past week we have examined a collection of the native fruits of the Philippine Islands, exhibited by the " Inspector of Woods and Forests " in the Spanish pavilion. This is a particularly valuable contribution to the exhibition, making us for the first time acquainted with the indigenous pomological products of these Islands. There are 97 kinds in all, some of them, of course, of little more value than the wild berries of other countries, but many are regarded as of superior excellence. The following appear to be among the most striking, the botanical names being given as being more intelligable to the civilized world than the obscure native names.
Averrhoe Camberala. This is related to our Sour Grass (Oxalis), but is a tree, having fruit of the same form, but as large as a small cucumber. It is employed to make acidulated drink.
, Anona squamosa. This is closely allied to our North American Papaw. and so highly esteemed as to be already under extensive culture in the West Indies.
Dillenia speciosa. A tree not far removed from our Magnolia, and producing a fruit for acidulated drink.
Artocarpus Rima and A. Carwansie of the same genus as the celebrated "Bread" fruit and "Jack" fruit belong - these are much smaller fruit than they. Sandoricum indicum; this belongs to the same family as our " China " tree of the South (Melia Azederach), but the apple-like fruit is as large as a good-sized garden plum. So far as we can learn, its beauty is superior to its eatable character.
Diospyros Sapota. This is a persimmon double the size of ours.
There are-several species of the orange family (Citrus nobilus, C. Mitris), mostly smaller than our popular kinds - Mangoes, Custard Apples, Tamarinds - and a curiously flattened form of the common cocoanut, yielding a superior quality of oil. As we believe this is the first specific exhibit of the fruits of the Philippines ever made, and as such especially instructive. We regard it as highly meritorious.
The New Jersey State Agricultural Society in Agricultural Hall exhibit watermelons and 90 plates of apples. The specimens were fully up to the average of the best specimens of the same kinds as grown any where in size and beauty - the Kings, Porters and Maiden's Blush rather above the average. The Washington strawberry apple, a kind seldom seen in collection, but reported to be of superior quality, was conspicuous for its size and beauty. As showing the fitness of the district represented by this society for producing superior apples, we regard the collection as meritorious.
Samuel Streeper, Broadaxe, Pa., apples. There were only 13 kinds in the exhibit, but all of them of remarkable good character, valuable varieties, and equal to the highest average in size. A very meritorious exhibit.
S. W, Noble, Jenkintown, Pa., Pennsylvania has given birth to a very large number of excellent apples. This collection of 53 kinds is made up chiefly of these, and on the score of the instruction such an exhibit affords we commend them. The Cornell's Fancy in the collection is particularly meritorious.
Adam Hoover, two kinds of apples.
James Wardrop, Pittsburg, Pa., Seckel pears of great size, beauty, and general quality. They measured 8 1/2 inches round each way.
Amos Murray, Frankford, Pa., exhibits peaches.
E. N.Wright, School Lane, German town, Phila., Alex. Cox, gardener, Black Hamburg grapes from glass culture. The berries were not of extra size, nor of the darkest color, but the bunches were above an average size (ten inches from the shoulder), of perfect form and superior flavor, two bunches being borne on each branchlet. On the whole, highly meritorious.
The State of Michigan, an additional exhibit grown by Samuel Hoppin, Bangor, Mich. This embraces 10 varieties of peaches, including Early Ann, about 6 in. round, Early York, 7 1/2, Morris White, 10 in., Hill's Chili and Jacques Rare Ripe, and Barnard (said to be a popular, abundant bearer in the State). Apples, 75 varieties. These were, on the whole, rather superior to the same kinds as usually grown; especially superior were Baldwin (11 inches round), Northern Spy, Rhode Island Greening, Gilly Flower, Red Russet, Blenheim Pippin, Black Detroit (12 1/2 in.) Chenango, Strawberry, Maiden's Blush, and Red Detroit. The last is considered a more profitable variety than Black Detroit. In the collection is an improved Siberian crab - more beautiful than the Hyslop, and a very valuable crab. The whole collection is a very meritorious one.
E. Bradfield, Adrian, Mich., per State of Mich., nine kinds of grapes. One of these, Bradfield's Prolific, is a large bunch, and the berries 3 1/4 in. in circumference. This is a remarkable, good-looking, black variety, but scarcely ripe enough to warrant us in awarding to it special merit, which, perhaps, when mature, it may deserve.
E. Engle, Papaw, Mich., per State of Mich., nine kinds of grapes, good: Marthas Diana, good; Salem, small bunches but extra large berries; Barry, good; Concord, very fine; Ives', extra fine. On the whole, worthy of commendation for superior culture.
A. 0. Winchester, Salem, Mich., per State, 25 plates, mostly Concord, Clinton, and Delaware-good fruit. Salem and Diana, extra fine.
John Whitelesley, St. Josephs, Mich., 8 kinds of grapes. Rebecca, very good. Concords, very good - from a trellis the vine covered 48 feet.
George Brinkerhoff, Monroe, Mich., very good grapes."State of Michigan deserves credit for this whole exhibit, manifesting how well this part of the State is adapted to grape culture.
H. E. Bid well. South Haven, Mich., Crawford's late peach, 9 inches in circumference, clear and beautiful.
J. S. Linderman, per South Haven Pomologi-cal Society, grapes, 30 plates, 4 kinds very good.
Peninsula Farmers' Club, Grand Traverse, Mich., peaches, apples, and pears. Of the two last we have to speak in terms of the highest praise. The Bartlett pears were not as large as often grown, but were of a clear brown color, of a brilliant scarlet on the sunny side, and with a delicious aroma. The Flemish Beauty pears were very highly colored, and measured 10 3/4 in. one way by 11 1/2 the other. Among the apples, Porter measured 10 3/4 by 11 inches round ; Spice, sweet, 12 in.; Duchess of Oldenburg, 11 1/4, Red Astrachan 10 3/4, and very beautiful. Taking the whole collection, it is highly meritorious.
James Courteney, West Philadelphia, celery and red peppers.
Urbana Wine Co., Hammondsport, N. Y., grapes, 113 boxes unnamed, but confined to the following kinds: Catawba, Diana, Salem, Concord, Iowa, and Delaware, all well-grown, average fruit, demonstrating the fitness of the locality for good grape culture.
International Jury on Pomology.
W. L. Schaffer,
Philadelphia, Sept, 21st, 1876.
Hon. A. T. Goshorn, Director General U. S. Centennial Commission.
Sir: - During the week ending with this date the following additional exhibits have been placed on the table :
State of Michigan, twenty-five plates of grapes in 5 varieties, South Haven, Mich. These are not quite equal to the highest average attained by the same varieties in other places, but we regard them as superior when the high northern latitude is considered.
J. B. Seelye, Canandaigua, N. Y., grapes-the Iowa, Delaware, Concord, Dinannd, Salem. These were very good specimens; the "Concord" remarkable for the size of the berries, some of which were three inches in circumference.
Fruit-Growers' Society of Ontario. This Canadian Society have added during the week to their already extensive exhibits 120 plates of apples, 7 of plums, 5 of peaches, 16 of pears, 3 of tomatoes, and 2 of nuts. This exhihit equal in many respects in value to some they have already made, is superior in some respects, the apple being remarkably fine. The St. Lawrence apple is especially well grown, being highly colored, and some measured 11 inches in circumference. The Baldwin measured the same; these were grown by Hugh Scott, Delaware, Ont. The peaches were of medium size, but we consider remarkable for Canada.
E.Anderson, Felton, Delaware: pears - Duchess d'Angouleme - of remarkable size. One measured 12 1/2 inches one way by 14 1/4 the other, and weighed 20 oz. ; others weighed 17 1/2 oz., 19 oz., and 16 1/3 oz., respectively, a. M. Younglove, Hammondsport, N. Y., Diana, Concord, and Delaware grapes, the last particularly good.
The Berks County Agricultural Society of Pennsylvania, 150 varieties of fruits, chiefly apples and pears, made up by different growers of that region, and filling 340 plates. This exhibit is a particularly valuable one, as exhibiting a large number of Pennsylvania varieties of fruit of great merit, but which are little known outside of this region. Here were specimens of the Krauser, Yacht, Yost apples and the Reading pear. Other and well-known kinds were in superior condition - the "Fallowater," 13 inches round, and the Summer Rambo, 11 1/2 inches, in the same exhibit. The old White Doyenne, or Butter pear, grown by Washington Brookman, a variety now seldom seen, was of particularly superior excellence.
A. L. Felton, of Philadelphia, 215 kinds of fruits and vegetables. Among these were black Spanish watermelons, remarkable for solidity. One measured but 36 by 49 inches, but weighed 45 lbs. On the whole, the exhibit was very attractive to the visitors who crowded round the tables, and regard it as particularly instructive.
Chas. C. Hess, Germantown, Pa., Germantown quinces.
Henry Avery, Burlington, Iowa, apples and pears. The apples were superior specimens, indicating excellent cultivation; they were of the varieties Mother and Grimes' Golden, the latter 10 inches in circumference - large for this variety.
J. H. Lambert, Milwaukee, Oregon, one the egg plum, 6 inches in circumference.
Morgan Brown, Fontagany, Ohio, 70 varieties of vegetables - 17 of these, potatoes, and one large pumpkin weighing 250 lbs. Having but a single specimen or so of a kind, the exhibit made no great display. The quality, on the whole, is not equal to that of the districts around our large cities, but as illustrating the capacity of a comparatively unknown region in Ohio for good vegetable growing it is regarded as meritorious.
Judges on Pomology.
W. L. Schaffer,
A. W. Harrison,
T.T. Lyon (of special exhibit),
Hon. A. T. Goshorn, Director General U. S. Centennial Commission.
Sir : - Since our last report, and during the week ending with this date, additional exhibits have been made and examined by us as follows :
State of Wisconsin. 11 varieties of grapes. Taking the whole collection, these are rather above the average of the same varieties in color and flavor. A bunch of the Lindley was 7 inches in length from the uppermost berry to the lower, and weighed 11 1/2 oz.; Agawam,7 1/2 inches, and 12 3/4oz., Wilder, 7 oz, This is not only a meritorious exhibit for Wisconsin but would do credit to any State.
W. P. Ottley, Phelps, Ontario Co., N. Y., 10 kinds of apples and pears, under-sized fruit, but well colored and attractive.
Truman Mabbett, Vineland, N. J., sweet potatoes, a full collection of the best varieties - White Bermuda, Southern Queen, and Mansemund. These were unusually large, if that is any merit in a sweet potato, and possessed much interest in the fact that half of them had been kept since 1875, showing an excellent knowledge in preserving them.
A. Tripp, Albion, N. Y., 5 kinds of apples.
H. M. Engle, Marietta, Pa., 38 kinds of apples and 2 of peaches. These had been evidently selected with great care, and on the whole is a highly meritorious exhibit of good fruit.
D. G. Gyger, Radnor. Delaware Co., Pa., 64 plates of apples in 25 kinds, although none of these apples exhibited higher characters than are seen occasionally in the best specimens of their kinds, yet they were all very good. Seldom, indeed, that we find so many kinds brought together all doing so well, and on this ground we regard it as of special merit. The Cornell Fancy weighed 8 oz., and measured 10 1/2 inches round.
A. M. Smith, Grimsby, Out., 20 kinds of apples ; and White Doyenne, and Louise Bonne de Jersey pears. Taking into consideration the high northern latitude, the apples are of superior excellence. The Calvert, a beautiful specimen, weighed 7 oz.; Rhode Island Greening, 11 1/2 oz.; Fall Pippin, 12 oz., and others about in proportion to their general growth.
Robert Snyder, per Fruit Growers' Society, of Ontario, apples - Thorndale, Alexander, St. Lawrence Chenango Strawberry, Pomme-gris, and a large, reddish, tart seedling. These were beautiful specimens of their kinds, fully equal to the best averages.
State of Iowa, a collection of vegetables made up from all parts of the State. There were 64 plates, and about 60 varieties of potatoes, and about 50 other kinds of vegetables. The potatoes, beets, and Mangel Wurtzels, were of remarkably fine appearance, and showed how well the State is adapted to their growth. As illustrating the vegetable-growing capacity of the State, we regard the collection as very instructive and meritorious.
International Jury on Pomology.
W. L. Shaffer,
A. W. Harrison,