This section is from the book "The Gardener's Monthly And Horticulturist V20", by Thomas Meehan. See also: Four-Season Harvest: Organic Vegetables from Your Home Garden All Year Long.
Numerous have been the articles written in our horticultural journals upon the advantages or necessity of shade from the Winter sun, or protection to the trunks and larger limbs of fruit trees in cold northern latitudes. This protection has been largely given in this State, still the trees die, often by wholesale, and with the surviving it is only a question of time. Out of fifty varieties planted in my own grounds, but three trees survive, these are the Walbridge, Alter and Plumb's Cider. The two last are weak and diseased, but the Walbridge is in perfect health; has not shown a sign of failure during seven years, though a tree of the same variety within ten feet of it succumbed long since. My attention has often been called to the vigorous tree and to the solution of the question of its healthy growth. In coversation with a friend lately, about my failure with the Apple, he said, plant some hardy tree, a Trans-cendant Crab, for instance, on the south side of your apple trees and near enough to shade them from the Summer sun, and watch the result. He mentioned a case where a neighbor had planted alternate rows of Apple and Crab trees so near that the Crabs shaded the others, and they had not been injured by a cold of 40° below zero. Here then was the secret of my success.
My tree had never had Winter protection, but on the south side of it within a few feet stood a large Crab tree that shaded the Apple during the hottest hours of the day in Summer. The conclusion to be drawn from these facts would indicate that Summer shade should be given, either by planting evergreens in our orchards, as advocated by Mr. Elliott, or by alternate rows of trees of unquestioned hardiness, near enough to shade those of a more tender constitution.