In the autumn the plants treated as above stated had grown in single stems, from three to six feet high, depending on the earlier or later start. The stems were quite thick.

These I laid down without cutting, nicking or breaking, by simply bending them nearly flat to the ground, and weaving them as one would osiers in wicker work. There is little elasticity, but great toughness in the wood, and the thorns secure them in place when bent and woven, without tying or any other sort of fastening.

The next year the hedge started with an average height of six inches from the ground of the stems, thus lying laterally along the ground. The leaf buds sent up shoots similar to those of the first year, but thicker and higher; many grew eight feet. The ground was cultivated with a hoe and weeded. In the autumn these stems were again laid down, without nicking, breaking or cutting. This made a hedge of lateral stems about eighteen inches from the ground.

The next summer the shoots grew, the upright ones much more vigorously than the laterals. When the upright shoots reached three feet or more, I cut the tops with a sickle at the height I determined.

This was repeated at intervals, whenever there were a few inches of ground above the line determined, from time to time, as the height of the hedge. This permitted the shorter and weaker stems to grow without checking till they reached the proper line.

The result was, that in the third summer from setting out the plants there was a good hedge, sufficient to turn ordinary cattle, as it seemed. Certainly in all subsequent years it was impervious to man or beast. And it had a foundation as firm as a fence.