Grafting is an operation in which two cut surfaces of the same plant or of different plants are placed so as to unite and grow together. The portion cut off is termed the scion or graft and the plant on which it is worked or grafted is called the stock.
Whip-grafting is generally considered the best kind of grafting and is the one most extensively used.
When the stock and the scion are of equal thickness, the wood of the cut surfaces when placed together, should cover each other completely and exactly, so that the inner bark of the stock touches the inner bark of the scion.
In proceeding to operate, cut the stock in a sloping direction, terminating, if possible, above a bud. Then take the scion and cut it sloping from above and thin towards the end, the shape of the scion being similar to that of the stock; cut a split or tongue a little above the middle of the scion and a like tongue in the cut surface of the stock, the purpose of the tongues being to hold the parts together. The parts should then be secured by being tied with matting or other material and surrounded with grafting-wax, clay or some other substance which will exclude the air and wet.
There are several other modes of grafting including Saddle-grafting, Cleft-grafting and Side-grafting, the object being in all systems to bring together the inner bark so that the sap vessels of the stock will fit exactly with the sap vessels of the scion, and to securely keep them in position until a union is effected.