Ornamental evergreen trees or shrubs with needle or scalelike leaves set thickly on the stems or branches, the flowers being inconspicuous and the fruit a small cone-like berry. All are perfectly hardy in California, being mostly natives of temperate climates. The genus contains species with low-spreading habit of growth, well adapted for covering rocky ledges or forming groundwork for hiding bare ground under large trees; some having a stiff pyramidal habit are much used in formal gardening, while others make fine single specimens on the lawn or planted in groups about large pleasure-grounds.

The best of the species with bushy habit are Juniperus Chin-ensis, Juniperus communis, Juniperus Californica, Juniperus Suecica, Juniperus Virginiana, Juniperus Bermudiana, and Juniperus Fortunis. There are also many varieties of each of the species, a number of which are very attractive. The best of the creeping species are Juniperus sabina, Juniperus procumbens and their varieties, many of which have variegated leaves.

Propagate, in October, by cuttings in sandy soil in a cold frame; when they are rooted in Spring transplant them about two inches apart into boxes and give them the room their growth requires. They may also be propagated by seeds sown one sixteenth of an inch deep in the open ground in Spring, the seeds preferring a shady situation.

Juniperus Chinensis.