Cuttings and layers which were put in in July should now be well-rooted and ready to be planted in their permanent quarters. Examine the soil, and, if it looks the least sour or sticky, have it dug and left rough, giving it no water for at least two weeks; this treatment will greatly assist in sweetening the soil. After the soil has been well dried and aired, give it a good watering and again turn it over with the spade; level it, and, after raking it, mark the ground and plant the young plants, setting them out about eight inches apart. Do not allow the roots to become at all dry before they are planted. After planting, give a good watering with the watering-pot to settle the soil about the roots, afterwards giving a light sprinkle to the leaves. A light spraying every evening for a week after planting will greatly benefit the young plants.
Dahlias should still afford a good show of flowers. See that they are all correctly labeled before the blooming season is over; remove all spent flowers and decaying leaves, and give copious supplies of light liquid-manure during dry weather.
Chrysanthemums will now be showing bloom. Give them also a generous supply of water at their roots and apply liquid-manure once a week. When large flowers are desired, thin out the flower-buds to one bud to each stalk and see that the stems are well-secured by being tied to light stakes to prevent them being blown about by the Autumn winds.
Fibrous-rooted Begonias, which have been occupying space in the flower-garden during the Summer, may now, if thought desirable, be taken up, potted and taken to the greenhouse where they will continue to flower most of the Winter. It is well to shade the plants for a week or ten days, after placing them indoors, until they form new roots.
Anemones may be planted during the present month; plant them six inches apart. One-half inch of soil should cover the crowns, and any good friable garden soil grows them well.
Plant Cowslips, hardy Primroses, Cinerarias, Pansies and other early Spring-flowering plants in their permanent quarters.
The more forward plants should now be put into three-inch pots in a compost of loam, two-thirds leaf-soil and one-third dry cow-manure from an open pasture, with a little sand and a sprinkling of bone-meal added. Let them stand on a bed of ashes in a protected spot facing North.
Pot off the young plants of Calceolarias in two-inch pots and treat as recommended for Cinerarias.
The early plants will soon begin to show their flower-spikes. If the pots are full of roots, give them a little weak liquid-manure occasionally. Later plants, now in three-inch pots, should be transferred to others, five inches in diameter, if they are already well-rooted. This treatment will be suitable for not only Primula sinensis but also Primula stellata (a type which should be more commonly seen) and Primula obconica; if well done, this will enable them to continue in bloom throughout the Winter.
Where the more delicate varieties are grown, great care should be given them at this season. Many tubers are lost every year by being dried too rapidly. As soon as the leaves show signs of dying off, the plants should be placed in a position where they may receive the full light and be watered carefully; reduce the quantity of water as the foliage decays, and discontinue it altogether when the foliage is all dry. When the tubers are ripe, allow the soil in the pots to become perfectly dry. The pots may be laid on their sides under the plant-stage or in any dry place where the temperature does not fall below fifty degrees Fahrenheit; they may remain there until wanted in early Spring.
Ferns, which have been growing in a close and moist atmosphere, should now be allowed more light and air, as soon as their growth is completed, in order to harden their fronds, as in this condition they are better prepared to withstand the cloudy days which may be expected during the next three months.