A genus comprising about twenty species of lofty deciduous trees, greatly used in parks and large grounds for grouping, and also as avenue and street sidewalk trees. In good soil the Elm is a rapid grower.

In cultivating the Elm, care should be taken, when plowing or spading about the roots, not to injure them, for, if the least scratch or bruise is made, there shoots up a bunch of suckers which are difficult to get rid of.

Ulmus Americana, Ulmus cam-pestris, Ulmus scabra, and their varieties are considered the best species for general planting.

Propagate by seeds, sown one-eighth of an inch deep in the open ground, as soon as ripe which is generally in June; or by layers or suckers in Winter or early Spring before the buds swell; or by grafting in Winter; or by budding in May.

Umbellularia Caldtornica (California Laurel) This genus contains but one species and is found only on the Pacific Coast. The Laurel is one of our grandest evergreens, being handsome even in the nursery; when from fifteen to forty feet high it forms a fine pyramid, and, when fully grown in favorable soil, is a magnificent specimen. It loves a deep well-drained soil, preferably on the bank of a stream.

No evergreen tree, native or exotic, is better adapted for forming groups of dense foliage than the California Laurel if given a suitable place. In the hot interior valleys it is apt to be attacked by scale, so, on that account, should be given a shady situation and plenty of water at the roots during the dry season. Propagate by seeds sown, in early Spring, one inch deep in the open ground. Transplant them into nursery rows when the young plants are six inches high.

Veronica A genus comprising about one hundred and fifty species of shrubs or herbs, all being showy and free-flowering with blue, crimson or white flowers. They grow well in any garden soil in almost any situation, either in the sun or the shade, and stand exposure to harsh winds better than most shrubs. Their habit is compact and very well adapted to finishing groups of strong-growing shrubs or trees, connecting perfectly the foliage of the strong-growing upright- habited with the grassy slope or level lawn. Their foliage is smooth, carries no dust and is always glossy and fresh looking. They flower in racemes and are always in bloom.

Veronica decussata.

The shrubby species are mostly natives of New Zealand.

There are many species of this most desirable shrub, including Veronica Andersonii, Veronica buxifolia, Veronica decussata, Veronica Colensoi, Veronica elliptica, etc., all being excellent shrubs, especially for the coast counties, but they are not recommended for the central counties unless planted under the shade of trees or on a Northern exposure.

Propagate by cuttings placed in light sandy soil in a cold frame in September or October.