The shoot or stock to be budded upon must be in a thrifty growing state, so that the bark can be raised freely from the wood, and the bud to be inserted must be in such a state that it shows prominently at the axil of the leaf. Select a smooth portion of the stem of the stock, strip it of leaves, sufficiently to allow room for the operation, then make a cut through the bark to the wood of an inch or so, with a cross cut at the top, as shown in Fig. 33; it will be observed that the illustration shows that a slight cut of the bark is made above the cross cut, this is done to allow the bud to slip in better; this custom we think is not general, but we find the operation is done quicker and better by its use. Then take the shoot from which the bud is to be cut, and selecting a properly developed bud, cut it from the shoot as shown in fig. 22; if the portion of the shoot from which the bud is taken is well ripened, it is best to separate the wood from the bark of the bud; but if not it had better remain on. Usually it is necessary to take the wood from buds on the lower part of the shoot, while the upper part being less ripened, those buds may be inserted with the wood remaining. The edges of the cut in the stock are lifted by the point of the knife or an ivory attachment to the budding-knife, the bud inserted and pushed down as in Fig. 24; the portion of bark attached to the bud that projects above the horizontal cut in the stock is cut off, and the tie applied. This is usually bast matting, though cotton wick or other soft material will do. The engraving, fig. 25, shows where to place the tie, but when of bast it quite covers the wound and excludes water and prevents drying. In two or three weeks after the bud has been inserted, it will be safe to remove the tying, and if the operation has been performed on a Rose in June, it will often make a considerable growth the same season, but it usually lies dormant until the next spring. All shoots upon the stock below the bud must be rubbed off, and when the bud that has been inserted starts to grow, the stem above it must also be cut back just above, so that the inserted bud which now becomes the plant, may get the full benefit of the root.

Fig. 22.

Fig. 23.

Fig. 24.

Fig. 25. The Method Of Budding.