As drainage will be in many instances indispensable to success, I will briefly state a few of the simplest methods that may be adopted, premising that it is utterly useless to expect to cultivate any soil satisfactorily that does not freely and rapidly carry off the surface water. An expert in soils can determine almost to a certainty by digging down two or three feet, whether or not a soil requires drainage, but the safest guide for the inexperienced is to judge by the growing crops in his neighborhood. If on a similar soil good crops of corn, potatoes, or hay, are found on undram-ed soil, then it is certain there is no necessity to drain, for no matter how cultivated, or how heavily manured land is, there can never be a good crop raised in any season, if the soil is water-logged. If the place to be drained is of large extent, and the ground nearly level, it will always be safer to call in the services of an engineer to give the proper levels and indicate the necessary fall, which should never be less than half a foot in the hundred, and if more can be had, bo much the better. In heavy, clayey soils, we make our lateral drains three feet deep and fifteen feet apart, where there is less clay in the subsoil, we make them from twenty to thirty feet apart, and four feet deep. If stones are plenty on the ground, they may be profitably used in filling up the excavated ditch to half its depth, as shown in figure 1, and which is known as a rubble drain, using the larger stones at the bottom, and smaller at top, and covering over with inverted sods, to keep the soil from being washed in among the stones, and thus choking up the drain. But when they can be obtained at reasonable price, the best and most durable draining is that done by tiles. It makes hut little difference whether the tile used is the round with collars, or the horse-shoe; we rather prefer the latter, particularly if the bottom of the drain is "spongy;" we then use a board for the bottom of the drain, as shown in figure 2. This board is a common one of hemlock or spruce, cut in four pieces; it is ripped through the middle, and then these parts split in two, making boards of five inches wide by half an inch in thickness, thus making the common hemlock board stretch out to a length of fifty feet. It is often a very troublesome matter to get the few drain tiles necessary to drain a small garden, and in such cases an excellent and cheap substitute can be had by using one of boards. Take ordinary rough boards, pine, hemlock, or spruce, and cut them into widths of three or four inches, nail them together so as to form a triangular pipe, as represented in figure 3, taking care to "break the joints" in putting the lengths together; care must be taken that the boards are not nailed together too closely, else they might swell so as to prevent the water passing into the drain to be carried off. These drains are usually set with a* flat side down, but they will keep clear better, if put with a point down, though it is more trouble to lay them. Drains made in this way will last much longer than might be supposed. Last season I came across some wooden drains that I had put down over twenty years before, and they seemed sound enough to last twenty years longer.
Fig. 1 -Rubble Drain.
Fig. 2. - Horse-Shoe Drain-Tile.
Fig. 3. - Triangular Board Drain.