Litter of any kind placed around newly planted trees to prevent evaporation from the soil, was the original meaning of mulch, but it is at present extended to include a covering of the soil applied at any time, and for very different purposes. Good cultivators apply hay, straw, or other litter to the surface of the soil to protect the roots of certain plants against the action of frost, it being useful, not so much against freezing as to prevent the alternate freezing and thawing, that is apt to occur in our variable and uncertain climate, even in mid-winter. As mentioned under strawberry culture, the mulch applied in the fall protects the roots during winter, it is allowed to remain on the bed where, if thick enough, it keeps down weeds, and prevents the evaporation of moisture from the soil during the dry time we are apt to have between the flowering and the ripening of the strawberry. Besides all this, it makes a clean bed for the fruit to rest upon, and should a driving shower come up as the fruit is ripening, there is no danger that the berries will be splashed with mud and spoiled. The utility of a mulch is not confined to the strawberry among fruits; raspberries and currants are much benefitted by it, and by its use a gardener of my acquaintance succeeds in growing fine crops of the fine varieties of English gooseberries, a fruit with which very few succeed in our hot summers. Newly planted trees, whether of fruit or ornamental kinds, are much benefitted by a mulch, and its application often settles the question of success or failure. We have known a whole pear orchard to be mulched, and the owner thought its cost was more than repaid by saving the fallen fruit from bruises. The rooting of a layer is by some gardeners thought to be facilitated by placing a flat stone over the buried branch; the fact being that the stone acts as a mulch, and prevents the soil around the cut portion from drying out, and greatly favors the rooting process. Even in the vegetable garden, mulching is found useful, especially with cauliflowers, which find our summers quite too dry. The material of the mulch is not of much importance, the effect being purely mechanical, one kind of litter will answer as well as another; the material will be governed in great measure by locality; those living near salt water will find salt-hay, as hay from the marshes is called, the most readily procured; those who live near pine forests use the fallen leaves, or pine needles as they are called; in the grain growing districts straw is abundant, and nothing can be better; it can be applied more thoroughly if run through a cutter, though the thrashing machine often makes it short enough. Leaves are nature's own mulch, and answer admirably; if there is danger of their being blown away, brush laid over them, or even a little earth sprinkled on them will keep them in place. Tan-bark and sawdust may serve for some uses, but they are very bad for strawberries, their finer particles being about as objectionable as the soil. One of the best materials to use for summer mulching is the green grass mowed from lawns. This applied to the thickness of two or three inches around the roots of all kinds of small fruits, will be found not only to greatly benefit the crop, particularly in dry weather, but will save greatly in labor by preventing the growth of weeds. One of our best private gardeners in the vicinity of New York has adopted this summer mulching with the grass from the lawn for nearly twenty years, and has succeeded in growing all kinds of small fruits in the highest degree of perfection.