After this discussion of general principles, let us come to the practice of grafting and budding. In what has been said, they have been used as synonyms, and their object is precisely the same - to propagate a particular plant upon a rooted plant of another kind. Among fruits we do this because we cannot multiply choice varieties by seed or by cuttings; stocks are raised from seed, which if allowed to grow and bear, might produce a poor and worthless fruit, or it may be a good kind. To make matters sure, we graft a twig of a kind that we know upon a seedling about which we know nothing. "With Camellias, the choice kinds cannot well be propagated from cuttings, but some of the commoner kinds will grow in this way, and the choice Camellias are grafted upon stocks obtained by rooting cuttings of the others; so in various cases among fruits and flowers, budding or grafting affords the readiest, if not the only method, by which we can multiply certain varieties. A graft is a twig containing one or more buds, and so inserted or planted in the stock that the new bark and new wood of the two shall be in close contact; in budding, a single bud with no wood, or as little wood as possible, is inserted or planted below the bark of the stock and in direct contact with its new or sap-wood. While we give the two operations different names, the French call budding simply a variety of grafting - shield-grafting. In a general way it may be stated that in grafting we use buds of a previous year, and insert them upon the stock where they are to grow the spring after they are formed, and as soon as vegetation starts, these buds commence to grow. In budding we use buds of the current season's growth; the recently formed buds, near the end of the growing season, are planted in the stock where they unite, and remain dormant until spring, when the inserted bud pushes into growth at the time that the natural buds of the stock start. These statements apply only to out-door grafting and budding; when these operations are performed under glass, the propagator has control of atmospheric conditions, and varies them to suit the subjects in hand. In oat-door grafting, such as that upon fruit-trees, the cions are best if cat in the fall and preserved in sand or sawdust in the cellar during the winter; though with very hardy sorts this is not essential, they should be cut before any swelling of the buds takes place. The operation succeeds best when the buds on the cion are perfectly dormant, and those on the stock hare swollen and about to open.