Quite a number of winter-blooming plants can also be used for flowering in the open borders in summer. Among these are Carnations, Heliotropes, Fuchsias, Geraniums, and particularly the monthly varieties of Roses. Also the following, not strictly winter-flowering, are such as will give a continuous bloom during the whole season, from June until October or November. Antirrhinums, (raised either from seeds or cuttings), Dwarf Dahlias, Erythrina or Coral Plant, Gladiolus, Geraniums of all kinds, particularly the class known as "Zonal," double and single, Lantanas, Lobelias, (seeds or cuttings), Petunias, single, (seeds or cuttings), Petunias, double; Pan-sies, (seeds only); Pentstemons, Passion-flowers, Ronde-letias, Salvias, (seeds or cuttings); Tropaeolums, (seeds or cuttings); Verbenas, (seeds or cuttings); Veronicas. All of the above have their principal attraction in their flowers. The following are only useful for the brilliant coloring or other peculiarities of foliage. Alternantheras, Achyranthes, Artemisias, Cerastium, Centaureas, (seeds or cuttings); Caladiums, Coleus, Cinerarias, (seeds or cuttings); Dracaenas, Echeverias, Geraniums,(silver, gold, or bronze); variegated Ivies; Lysimachia, variegated Grasses; Peristrophe, Sanchezia nobilis, Vinca major, etc., etc. For descriptions see florists' catalogues. All of the above can be raised from slips or cuttings taken from plants, (or by seeds where noted), during the winter or early spring months - January, February, March, or April, either from plants that have been kept for flowering in winter, or from large plants that have been preserved for the purpose of propagation; the young plants raised from slips are in nearly every instance preferable to the old plants. Our practice is, to grow the old, or "stock" plants, simply to make cuttings, until we get enough from them, and then to throw the old plant away, reserving the young ones only for selling, or for our own planting in the open borders. Cuttings are rooted in the way described in the chapter on "Propagation of Plants by Cuttings," or if by seeds, as in chapter on "Propagation by Seeds." The young plants should first be potted in 2-inch pots, and if early in the season, they will require to be shifted into 3-inch pots before it is time to plant them out in the open ground, which it is not safe to do in this latitude until the middle of May; nor in any other latitude before the time when tomatoes or egg plants can safely be planted out. Nothing is more satisfactory to the lover of flowers than raising his own plants, no matter how able he may be to purchase. Those of his own raising, whether for his own use or to present to his friends, are always more valuable than anything that money can buy. One of the most common mistakes made by purchasers of plants in our city markets, is that of almost invariably choosing large plants, forced into flower; such plants are usually grown under a high temperature to get them in bloom early, and many a housewife has found that the beautiful full blooming plant of a Rose, Fuchsia, or Pelargonium,; which she so tenderly carried home, will in 48 hours drop its flowers and leaves in the cooler and drier atmosphere of her greenhouse, parlor, or garden. But the florist is hardly to blame for this, though I know he is often severely censured; not one in a score of those who purchase plants in spring will buy any plant unless it is in bloom; the florist grows plants to sell, and must suit the wants of his customer. This partial divergence from the subject in hand, is to show that the small slips or cuttings that the amateur may raise himself, are in most instances better than full-blown forced plants, costing 50c. or $1 each. This is particularly so with monthly Roses, Verbenas, and Petunias; young plants of these, set out in May, if not more than 3 or 6 inches high, will grow and bloom in profusion the entire summer, while those which have been forced, if they recover at all, will be greatly inferior.
We plant our young Roses in May, usually in beds 4 feet wide, setting the plants 12 inches apart each way; they begin to bloom by the middle of June, and continue without interruption until checked by frost in the fall; and so with most other kinds here named; nearly all of which are from young plants, propagated during the •winter and spring months. The product of cuttings or slips from a "stock" plant varies greatly according to the kind. A good healthy plant of Fuchsia, say 18 inches high, will easily give 40 cuttings; while a Rose or Geranium of the same size will not afford half that number. A fair average for medium sized plants of those named would be 10 cuttings or slips to each plant, so that starting with 100 plants in the fall, by May 1,000 would be no unreasonable, increase to expect; or in that ratio be the number more or less.
If large quantities of plants are wanted for summer decoration by those who have neglected to propagate them, or did not wish to do so, they should purchase young plants in March or April, at which time the florists, to make room in their houses, sell them at very low rates, usually not more than one-fourth of the price that the same plants forced into bloom in May would cost. Such plants at that season are grown mainly in 2 and 3-inch pots; if taken from these pots, say by 1st of April, and kept in any cool room or greenhouse, where the temperature will average 45° or 50° at night, by the time of setting out in May they will have formed far better plants than those pushed rapidly into flower in May. Or in other words, $10 expended in March or April, will buy one hundred plants, which, if cared for as above described, will by the middle of May be of more value than the plants $50 would buy at that date from the same florist