The various methods of grafting are too many to describe here; the simplest is the cleft graft; the stock is sawed off and the end cleft or split for a few inches down through the center, (Fig. 16); the cion, (or two if the stock is over an inch in diameter), with two or three buds, has its lower end smoothly cut to form a wedge a trifle thicker on one side than the other, (fig. 17); the cleft in the stock is pried open by means of an iron wedge or a wedge-shaped stick, and the cion or cions set with the thicker edge of the wedge outward, observing to bring the inner bark and new wood of stock and cion in as close contact as possible; the opening wedge being withdrawn, the spring of the stock will hold the cions in place, (fig. 18); the junction is to be covered with grafting was, or waxed cloth, taking care to completely cover every wounded portion of both stock and cion. It is by this method that most of the grafting is done all over the country; it is rude but very successful; the objection to it is that it leaves too great & wound to be closed over. For small stocks the whip-graft is generally used; it is much easier to do it than to describe it; stock and cion should be as near of a size as possible; both are cut with a similar slope, and in each slope is cut a tongue as in fig. 19; when the two slopes are put together, the two tongues are interlocked as in the engraving, taking care that the inner bark of stock and cion come in contact as completely as possible. In this illustration the parts are represented as tied with twine, to show the joint below, but in practice the whole is completely covered with a band of waxed cloth. This, where practicable, is an excellent graft, there being no large wounds to heal over, and the points of union are numerous. This graft is much used by nurserymen in root-grafting small apple and pear stocks. A very simple form called the side-graft is often employed by florists and nurserymen; the cion is cut to a long wedge, and the stock has a downward cat made in its stem into which the cion is inserted as in Fig. 20. In grafting the Camellia and other hard-wooded plants, a combination of the whip and aide graft is made use of as shown in fig. 21.
Fig. 18. Cleft Grafting.
Fig. 19, Whip Graft,
Fig. 20. - Side Graft.
Grafting was used to cover the wounds made in grafting may be purchased at the seed and implement stores, or the amateur can make it himself. It should be soft enough to be molded by the heat of the hand on a cool day, but not so soft as to run when exposed to the heat of the sun. It is essentially rosin and beeswax, with tallow or linseed oil enough to make it sufficiently soft. A good formula is rosin 2 lbs., beeswax I1, lb., tallow '|, lb. The better way for the amateur to use this is to melt the whole together thoroughly and then dip in it strips of well worn cloth, such as may be torn from a worn-out sheet or calico dress. These waxed strips will tear readily, and may be neatly fitted to the graft to make a complete covering; the fingers should be slightly greased when applying the waxed cloth.
Fig. 21. - Grafting The Camellia.