To have the Raspberry in perfection, the same preparation of soil is necessary as for the Strawberry. The canes or shoots of the Raspberry are biennial; that is, the cane or shoot that is formed one season, bears fruit the next season, and dies off after fruiting, giving place to the young cane that is to fruit the following season, and so on. The distances apart to plant the Raspberry for garden culture, may be, if in rows, five feet apart, with the plants two feet apart in the row, or if in separate stools or hills, they may be set four feet each way. If planted at distances of four feet apart, three plants may be put in each "hill," which will quicker secure a crop.
They may be set either in fall or in spring; if in fall, a covering of four or five inches of litter should be spread over the roots to prevent them from getting too much frozen. And even when the plants are established and growing, it is necessary in many cold sections, to bend down the canes and cover them with pine branches or some covering that will shield them from severe freezing. On the large scale the canes are bent down and covered with a few inches of earth, an operation that may be rapidly performed by two persons. One bends down the canes, (using a pitchfork or other implement), as shown in the accompanying diagram, (Fig. 65), while the other throws sufficient earth near the tips to hold the canes in place; after a row is thus bent over, the two go back and cover with earth more completely. All the pruning that is necessary for the Raspberry is to thin out the shoots in each hill to four or six; this is best done in the summer after the fruit is gathered, and at the same time the old canes that have borne the fruit should be cut out, so that the young shoots, coming forward to do duty next season, may have room to grow freely, and develop and ripen the wood. When the leaves drop in fall, the canes may be shortened down a foot or bo, which will complete the pruning process. To get the full benefit of all the fruit, it is very necessary to stake the Raspberry, this may be done either by tying the canes of each plant separately to a stout stake, driven two feet or so in the ground, or if grown in rows they may be tied to wires running along the rows ; the wires should be stretched between two stout posts, one at each end of the row, and three feet more or leas above the ground, according to variety; to prevent the wire from sagging, stakes should be driven into the ground directly under it, at intervals of six or ten feet; the wire is attached to these by means of staples placed over it and driven into the ends of the stakes. The diagram, Fig. 66, shows the method of training to the wire; the longer canes at the right and left are the canes which are to fruit the current year; these are tied out as there shown, while the new shoots, which are to furnish canes for the next year's fruiting, grow up in the center, and as soon as tall enough are tied to the wire; after the outer canes have fruited, they are cut away to give the others more room.
Fig. 66.-Laying Down Raspberry Canes.
The varieties are very numerous, those named below are such as will be most satisfactory for private use. From 100 to 200 hills or plants, of all varieties, will usually be sufficient for most families.
A large crimson fruit of delicious flavor.
An orange colored berry of large size, very productive, and of excellent flavor.
Not quite so large as the Fastolff, but of strong, robust habit, enduring well the extremes of heat and cold.
Fig. 66. - Training Raspberrrles To A Wire.
One of the hardiest and most productive, growing in soils and situations where the others would fail. It is of rather poor quality, but is useful for the above reasons.
A fall-bearing variety of medium size, color purplish crimson, medium flavor.