This section is from the book "Handbook Of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, And Herbaceous Plants", by W. Botting Hemsley. Also available from Amazon: Handbook of hardy trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants.
L. Philadelphicum is a North American species with the leaves usually in distinct whorls and orange-red flowers spotted with purple. It is near L. bulbiferum, but the stems are never cottony and the perianth-segments are distinctly clawed. L. medeoloides is a Japanese species with whorled leaves and small reddish-yellow spotted flowers. L. Catesbaei, syn. L. spectabile of Salisbury, and L. Carolinianum of Catesby, not of Michaux, is a tender North American species remarkable for the long slender claw of the perianth-segments. Flowers orange-red spotted with purple.
10. L. bulbiferum. - Under this we include several forms, all characterised by having scattered linear-lanceolate leaves, commonly bulbiliferous in their axils, and few erect flowers with distinctly clawed spreading not recurved perianth-segments. The true L. bulbiferum has cottony stems, bulbili-ferous leaves, and reddish-yellow flowers. The sub-species croceum (fig. 249), Orange Lily, differs in the upper leaves being destitute of bulblets, and the flowers of a more decided orange-colour, never scarlet or crimson. Both of these are European forms. L. Davuricum, syn. L. spectabile of Link, and L. Thunbergianum, are Asiatic forms. The latter is from Japan and common in gardens, and is distinguished by its broader foliage and larger scarcely spotted flowers. Besides the above extreme forms there is a host of intermediate varieties in cul-tivation differing chiefly in 1 he size and colouring of the flowers : vitellinum, auran-tiacum, hamiatochroum, atromaculatum, atrosan-guineum, and venustum, are some of them.
Fig. 249. Lilium bulbiferum, var. croceum. (1/4 nat. size.)
L. pulchellum is an elegant dwarf species from Eastern Siberia with glabrous linear leaves and very small bright scarlet slightly spotted flowers. L. con-color, including L.Sinicum, is a Chinese species with pubescent lanceolate leaves and small bright red and yellow faintly spotted flowers. L. lancifolium has small white flowers less than an inch long. It is a native of Japan, and has never been in cultivation in this country. 11. L. Martagon. - This is another of the common old species. Stem 2 or 3 feet high, more or less pubescent, and often streaked with purple. Leaves mostly in regular whorls of 6 to 9, larjceolate-spathulate, lower ones from 3 to 5 inches long. Flowers in a loose raceme, drooping, purplish-red copiously spotted with black, or rarely white. Perianth-segments recurved from the base, the pubescent tips almost touching the pedicel. Stamens widely spreading; pollen reddish. A native of Central and Southern Europe and Western Asia. X. maculatum is a native of North-eastern Asia and North-western America. It is a glabrous plant with bright red flowers remarkable for the short style.
12. L. Canadense. - Stem l 1/2 to 3 feet high. Leaves mostly whorled, 2 to 4 inches long, lanceolate, acute, glabrous. Flowers about 4 to 6, sub-umbellate on long drooping pedicels. Perianth-segments lanceolate, acute, about 1 1/2 inch long, spreading but not reflexed. The flowers vary from bright red to pale yellow, and are more or less copiously spotted with purple-brown. L. parviflorum is a variety in which the perianth-segments are reflexed. L. Humboldtii is a taller-growing form with much larger orange-yellow carmine-spotted racemose flowers. L. Wdlkeri and L. Hartwegii are also referred here by Mr. Baker, as is also L. superbum, a magnificent plant 4 to 6 feet high with more numerous longer leaves and larger flowers with very much reflexed segments. L. Carolinianum, Michaux (L. au-tiimndle of Loddiges), is- intermediate between the last and the typical L. Canadense.
13. L. monadelphum. - Stem about 3 to 5 feet high, glabrous or slightly pubescent. Leaves scattered, numerous, 5- to 7-nerved, linear-lanceolate, the lower ones 3 to 4 inches long. Flowers pale yellow spotted with carmine; segments of the perianth reflexed from above the middle. Filaments connate at the base. L. Szovitsianum, syn. L. Colchicum, is very near this, and associated with it by Mr. Baker, but the filaments are quite free, and it is said to flower two months earlier than L. monadelphum. Both forms are from the Caucasus and quite hardy in this country.
14. L. Carniolicum. - Stem 2 to 3 feet high, stout, glabrous. Leaves scattered, linear-lanceolate, thick in texture and distinctly ciliated. Flowers about 4 to 6, pendulous, bright orange or scarlet. Perianth-segments 1 1/2 to 2 inches long and 6 to 9 lines broad, reflexed from near the base. A handsome species from South-eastern Europe, rare in British gardens.
L. Ponticum, from Asia Minor, has much narrower perianth-segments; and L. polyphyllum is an Indian species of which little is known.
15. L. Chalcedonicum (fig. 250). - Stem erect, 2 to 3 feet high, densely clothed with short ascending or appressed 3-to 5-nerved slightly hairy leaves, the lower ones 2 to 3 inches long;
Flowers bright scarlet or yellow, not spotted. A very hardy species, native of the South of Europe, and long in cultivation.
Fig. 250. Lilium Chalcedonicuni. (1/4 nat. size.)
16. L. Pyrenaicum, L. flavum. - This species is very near the last and L. Pomponium, differing from the latter in its broader distinctly 3-nerved leaves less revolute at the margin, and from the former in its bright yellow spotted flowers. A native of the Pyrenees.
L. callosum is remarkable for its indurated hood-shaped bracts. The leaves are few and distant, and the flowers bright scarlet with reflexed segments. Japan.
17. L. testaceum, syn. L. excel-eum, L. Isabellinum. - This is a distinct plant with a slender stem 5 to 6 feet high, and crowded ascending linear 3- to 5-nerved leaves ciliate on the margin and nerves beneath, the lower ones 3 to 4 inches long. Flowers 1 to 6 or more, on long pedicels in a thyrsoid raceme, nankeen yellow tinged with red. Perianth-segments 2 1/2 to 3 inches long, 8 to 12 lines broad, united at the base, strongly reflexed and slightly papillose within. This is reported to be of hybrid origin between L. cdndidum and L. Chalce-donicum, but nothing certain is known of its origin.
18. L. Leichtlinii. - Stem rather slender, rising to a height of 2 or 3 feet, and rather loosely clothed with small linear slightly puberulous 3-nerved leaves. Flowers usually solitary or two together, bright yellow spotted with purplish red. Perianth-segments lanceolate, 2 1/2 to 3 inches long, recurved from the base, hairy inside towards the base. This plant came up in a bed of L. auratum at Messrs. Veitch's, and it is not known whether it be a wild Japanese species or of hybrid origin.
L. Maximowiczii, syn. L. pseudo-tigrinum, is very near the last, but the stems are tinged with purple and somewhat cottony, and the ground colour of the flower is a brilliant scarlet. Japan?
19. L. Pomponium, syn. L. angustifolium. - An old inhabitant of our gardens, and one of the prettiest of the moderate-sized species. It has an erect finely-furrowed rigid stem and very numerous short narrow 1-nerved linear leaves 1 1/2 to 2 lines broad in the middle, attenuated towards both ends and in-curved at the margin. Flowers pendulous, 1 to 8, or usually more in cultivation, in a thyrsoid raceme, the lower pedicels 3 to 4 inches long. Perianth-segments lanceolate, reflexed from below the middle, hairy at the tip and slightly papillose within. Flowers more or less spotted with black on a scarlet, orange-scarlet, yellow or white ground. A native of Lombardy, Savoy, and neighbouring districts.
20. L. tenuifolium, syn. L. linifolium, L. pumilum. - A very dwarf slender species from 6 to 12 inches high with numerous glabrous linear-subulate minutely-toothed leaves and 1 or 2 or more nodding flowers. Perianth-segments lanceolate-spathulate, 14 to 16 lines long, spreading from near the base and distinctly clawed, bright scarlet, rarely spotted. This very beautiful little plant is a native of Siberia and China.