This section is from the book "Handbook Of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, And Herbaceous Plants", by W. Botting Hemsley. Also available from Amazon: Handbook of hardy trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants.
Herbaceous plants with tuberous-fascicled roots, broadly ovate or cordate radical stalked plaited acuminate leaves having parallel veins or nerves, and sometimes variegated with white stripes. Flowers solitary in the axils of bracts, forming a raceme terminating the usually leafless stem. Several of the species have been published under the preceding genus, from which they differ in their broad foliage and racemose inflorescence. This genus was named in honour of H. Funck, a German botanist. The species are all from Japan. They are not so well defined as they might be, on account of the confusion among garden varieties, and the introduction of the same species under different names. Mr. Baker, in the 'Gardener's Chronicle,' 1868, reduces the cultivated forms to five species, distinguished as follows : 1. F. lancifolia. - Petiole 6 to 9 inches long, edges not in-curved; lamina oblong-lanceolate, 3 to 4 inches long by 1 1/2 to 2 inches broad, narrowed gradually towards both ends, 9- to 11-nerved. Scape or flower-stem 8 to 9 inches high, scarcely over-topping the leaves; raceme 3 to 5 inches long, 6- to 10-flowered, with lanceolate-spathulate bracts equalling the perianth in length. Perianth 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 inch long, white or with a lilac tinge, dilated suddenly from a tube not more than a line in thickness. F. albo-marginata barely differs in its rather larger flowers and leaves slightly variegated towards the edge with white. F. undulata appears to be a cultivated form of this with frilled or crisped leaves copiously variegated with streaks or patches of white, and shorter dilated petioles.
2. F. ovata. - Petiole 9 inches to a foot long, edges not in-curved; lamina 6 or 7 inches long by 4 or 5 broad, ovate, rounded or slightly cordate at the base, acute at the apex, 15-to 17-nerved. Scape including the raceme considerably over-topping the leaves, with a large leaf below the raceme, which is 5 to 6 inches long and 10- to 15-flowered. Perianth typically a decided bluish-lilac, occasionally white, 2 to 2 1/2 inches long, dilated suddenly from a tube an eighth of an inch in thickness. This is the commonest and best known species.
3. F. Sieboldiana. - Petiole a foot long, edges not incurved; lamina 10 or 12 inches long by 6 or 7 broad, cordate-ovate, cuspidate, 25- to 27-nerved. Scape not overtopping the leaves; raceme 8- to 12-flowered. Perianth 2 inches long, white with a pale lilac tinge, in shape like that of the last species.
4. F. grandiflora. - Petiole a foot long, edges incurved until they meet; lamina 8 to 9 inches long by 4 to 5 broad, ovate with a slightly cordate base, 15- to 17-nerved. Scape about 2 feet high, sometimes bearing a well-developed leaf below the 12- to 15-flowered raceme. Perianth pure white, nearly 4 inches long, dilated gradually from a tube a quarter of an inch thick.
5. F. subcordata. - Petiole 4 to 6 inches long, edges incurved and overlapping; lamina 4 to 5 inches long by 3 inches broad, ovate with a slightly cordate base, 13-nerved. Scape 1 to 1 1/2 foot high, sometimes bearing a leaf; raceme 10-to 15-flowered. Perianth always pure white, about 4 inches long, gradually dilated from a tube a quarter of an inch in thickness.