This section is from the book "Handbook Of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, And Herbaceous Plants", by W. Botting Hemsley. Also available from Amazon: Handbook of hardy trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants.
We include here several perennial plants, tender or otherwise, which will flower the first season, and are consequently suited for the same purposes as those of essentially annual duration. Several orders are particularly rich in annual plants, just as certain regions favour an annual or perennial vegetation, according to climate.1 The principal orders represented by annual plants, are the Ranun-culaceae, Papaveraceae, Cruciferae, Caryophyllaceae, Malvaceae, Geraniaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Composite, Polemoniaceae, Con-volvulaceae, Scrophularineae, and Amaranthaceae. Many other orders are represented in gardens by annual species, and indeed by some of the most ornamental, such as the Portulacaceae and the Campanulaceae; but by far the greater number are referred to the orders above enumerated. For practical purposes annual herbs may be divided into several different classes, according to height, colour, degree of hardiness, etc. Climbing and trailing annuals are referred to at p. 613, where climbers with annual stems are reviewed. The most important division of plants belonging to this group depends upon their comparative hardiness. They may be roughly classed as hardy and half-hardy. The first will bear frost, more or less, and are usually sown in the open ground, where it is intended they shall bloom; and those belonging to the second class will not bear frost, and must be raised under glass, if desired that they should flower early and ripen seed.
1 For further observations on this point, see the paragraph on Geographical Botany in the Introduction.
The following is a selection of desirable hardy annuals : - Lychnis Cceli-rosa, rose or white, one to two feet high; Amar-anthus caudatus (Love-lies-Bleeding), deep dark red, one to two feet high; A. speciosus (Prince's Feather); Centaurea moschata (Purple Sweet Sultan); C. odorata (Yellow Sultan), twelve to eighteen inches high; Anagallis indica, a trailer, with deep blue flowers; Bartonia aurea, yellow, one to two feet high; Centaurea Cyanus (Cornflower), various colours, two to three feet high; Chrysanthemum carinatum, varieties, about two feet high; Clarkia elegans and C. pulchella varieties, one to two feet high; Delphinium Ajacis and D. Con-solida varieties (Larkspur), two feet high; Erysimum Beroff-skianum, orange yellow, one to two feet high; Eschscholtzia Californica varieties, one foot high; Gilia, several species; (Enothera (Godetia), spp.; Helianthus annuus (Sunflower); Iberis umbellata, odorata, and amara (Candytuft), crimson, purple, and white; Lavatera trimestris, rosy-purple and white, three feet high; Leptosiphon species and varieties, various colours, about six inches high; Linum grandiflorum, rich red, two feet high; Lupinus affinis, luteus, etc., various colours; Malcolmia maritima (Virginian Stock), lilac-purple or white, one foot high; Nemophila various species, dwarf plants, with conspicuous flowers; Nigella damascena (Love-in-a-Mist), blue, one foot high; Papaver Rhaeas and somniferum (Poppy), numerous varieties; Convolvulus tricolor varieties; Pharbitis hispida varieties; Reseda odorata (Mignonette); Saponaria Calabrica, rose or white, one foot high; Scabiosa atropurpurea, various colours, three feet high; Sphenogyne speciosa aurea, orange-yellow and black centre, very dwarf; Whitlavia grandi-flora, violet or white, one foot high, etc.
The tender annuals in cultivation are equally as numerous as the hardy ones, and include many of the handsomer kinds, such as the numerous varieties of Callistephus hortensis (China Aster); Tagetes erecta (African Marigold); Tagetes patula (French Marigold); Zinnia elegans; Phlox Brummondii; Helichrysum bracteatum and apiculatum (Everlasting Flowers); Matthiola annua (Ten-week and Intermediate Stocks), and Impatiens Balsamina (Balsams), etc. To these we may add the less commonly grown Browallia elata, violet-blue, eighteen inches high; Calandrinia discolor, rosy pink, one foot high; Centaurea Americana, lilac-purple, three to four feet high; Cleome rosea, three feet high; Clintonia pulchella, blue and white trailer; many Curcurbitaceae with ornamental fruits; Datura ceratocaula, white, three feet high; Graillardia Drum-mondii, crimson and yellow, eighteen inches high; Gram-manthes gentianoides, orange-red, three or four inches high; Helipterum species; Martynia fragrans, bright purple, twelve to eighteen inches high; Perilla Nankinensis, purple foliage; Portulaca grandiflora, varieties; Rhodanthe Manglesii and rosea, rosy-pink and yellow, about one foot high; Waitzia acuminata and corymbosa, pink or yellow, about one foot high. This and the preceding genus have everlasting flowers.
The following is a list of perennial and biennial herbs which will flower the first season. Some of them are perfectly hardy; whilst others, those with an asterisk prefixed, are tender, and of necessity treated as annuals : *Ammobium alatum, yellow and white, small-flowered, everlasting, from one to two feet high; Abronia arenaria, a trailing plant, with fragrant yellow flowers; *Anagallis linifolia, a trailing plant with blue flowers; Calandrinia umbellata, crimson flowers, six inches high; Calliopsis Atkinsoniana (B.),1 yellow, with dark centre, two to three feet high; Callirhoe involucrata, a trailing plant with crimson flowers; Campanula Carpathica, a dwarf species, with violet-blue or white flowers; Celsia Cretica (B.), yellow and brown, three to four feet high; Centranthus ruber, crimson or rose, two to three feet high; Eschscholtzia Californica (B.) varieties, orange-yellow, etc., twelve to eighteen inches high; Hedysarum coronarium (B.) (French Honeysuckle), red and white varieties, two to three feet high; Humea elegans (B.), a tender plant with graceful drooping grass-like inflorescence, four to six feet high; Linaria alpina, blue and orange, three or four inches high; *Lobelia Erinus varieties, dwarf, with blue and white flowers; Lychnis fulgens, bright red, one foot high; *Mirabilis Jalapa (Marvel of Peru), various, three feet high; Mimulus species and varieties; Oenothera acaulis, and taraxacifolia, dwarf plants, with large white flowers; Oxalis Valdiviensis, yellow, dwarf habit; *Reseda odorata (Mignonette); Scabiosa atropurpurea (Sweet Scabious) (B.), various, three feet high; Spergula pilifera, a pretty rnoss-like Caryophyl-laceous plant; Statice, various; *Salpiglossis sinuata, various colours, twelve to eighteen inches high; *Tropaeolum Lob-bianum varieties; Verbascum Phceniceum varieties, three feet high; Viola cornuta varieties, blue; Viola tricolor (Pansy) varieties, etc.
1 Those plants designated by the letter B. are of biennial duration.