This section is from the book "Handbook Of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, And Herbaceous Plants", by W. Botting Hemsley. Also available from Amazon: Handbook of hardy trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants.
In this class we have greater variety than in the preceding, both in habit and foliage, as well as flowers. We have trees of large and small dimensions, desirable in landscape gardening either for the beauty of their flowers or foliage, or for both combined. The number of large trees distinguished more for their foliage and grandeur of habit than for the attractiveness of their flowers, is very large, including the Oaks (Quercus Robur, Q. Cerris, Q. coccinea, etc.), Beeches, Elms, Sweet Chestnut, Planes (Platanus orientalis), some of the Willows (Salix fragilis and S. alba), many of the Maples (Acer platanoides, A. rubrum, A. Pseudoplatanus and A. eriocarpus), the Poplars (Populus tremula, P. alba, P. nigra, P. balsamifera, P. angulata, etc.), Hop Hornbeam, Planera Richardii, Common Birch, etc. - with simple, entire, toothed, or lobed leaves. Amongst large trees with pinnate leaves we have the Ailanthus glandulosa, Sophora Japonica, Common Walnut (Juglans regia), Black Walnut (J. nigra), the Hickories (Carya spp,), and the Ashes (Fraxinus spp.). Deciduous coniferous trees are not numerous; but there are three well-known species, representing as many distinct types, namely, the deciduous Cypress (Taxodium distichum), the Common Larch (Larix Europaea), and the Maidenhair tree (Salisburia adianti-folia). Amongst trees of smaller dimensions we may mention : - the Hornbeam, Common Alder, Sallow Willow, Liquidambar, some of the Maples (Acer Monspessulanum, A. Tataricum, A. polymorphum, and A. Pennsylvanicum), Paper Mulberry (Brous-sonetia papyrifera), etc. - with simple, entire, or lobed leaves;
A small number of deciduous trees are equally ornamental in flower and foliage. The most conspicuous example in this group is the Common Horse-Chestnut, to which we may add the Scarlet Horse-Chestnut, the Tulip-tree, the Lime, the False Acacia (Robinia Pseudacacia), the Cucumber-tree, (Magnolia acuminata), the Umbrella-tree (Magnolia tripetala), Catalpa bignonioides, and Paulownia imperialis, but the last seldom produces its flowers in perfection with us.
We now ,come to those trees planted almost exclusively for the colour they impart to the landscape, all of which are of comparatively small dimensions. To the first class belong the Laburnum in its numerous varieties, the Scarlet and Pink Thorns (Crataegus Oxyacantha vars.), the Almond, several species of Pyrus, as P. spectabilis and P. coronaria, and the Judas-tree (Cercis Siliquastrum). The following, though less ornamental, are worthy of a place in a large collection where greater variety is desirable: Cladrastis lutea, AEsculus Pavia in variety, AE. Californica and AE, glabra, Acer rubrum, Cerasus Avium, Crataegus Crus-galli splendens, and C. prunifolia, Halesia tetraptera, Caragana spp, on stems, Amelanchier vulgaris, etc.
The fruits of some trees are conspicuous in autumn and winter : such are the Mountain Ash (Pyrus Aucuparia), the Scarlet-fruited Thorn (Crataegus coccinea), some of the Crabs, as Pyrus melanocarpa, P. prunifolia, P. cerasifera, etc., Coto-neaster affmis, Rhus glabra var. coccinea, and Gleditschia tri-acanthos (very long thin twisted pods).