This section is from the book "Handbook Of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, And Herbaceous Plants", by W. Botting Hemsley. Also available from Amazon: Handbook of hardy trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants.
- This is the only distinctive character, but the leaves are often persistent, which may be considered as a secondary character. We have here:R. systyla, the Hill Rose, closely resembling the Dog Rose, from which it differs mainly in its confluent styles, and also in having usually more numerous-flowered corymbs, and the rather more persistent though always deciduous foliage. This bush is common in England and Northern France. By some authors it is united with the following.
Lady Monson's Rose, R. Monsoniae, is attached to this as a variety, perhaps hybrid; but some authors have called it a distinct species. It was found in a hedgerow in England towards the end of the last century. This pretty somewhat dwarf variety is still preserved in the collections of some English amateurs.
R. arvensis, the Field Rose, is common all over Europe, including Britain. It is distinguished from the preceding by its more creeping shoots, unequal prickles, and by its leaves being glaucous beneath. The leaves consist of 5 to 7 small flat oval toothed leaflets. The flowers, are solitary or clustered, small, single, scented, white slightly tinged with yellow towards the centre. The calyx-tube is obovoid and glabrous, and the mature fruit nearly round and scarlet.
It has been clearly demonstrated by the botanist Sims first, and subsequently by Dr. Lindley, that the Ayrshire Rose of English gardens, doubtless of hybrid origin, should be attached to the Field Rose.
This Rose, which has preserved most of the characters of R. arvensis, and particularly its confluent styles and perfect hardiness, has given birth to several varieties pretty widely spread in gardens, with double or semi-double white, pink, or bright carmine odoriferous flowers. The Rose Williams's Yellow Briar, sometimes classed with the Ayrshires, may it-self be a mere hybrid. The Ayrshire Roses are, from their hardiness and rapid growth, admirably adapted for covering old trees, pillars, buildings, etc. One of the best is Bennet's Seedling, or Thoresbyana, a very profuse small-flowered double white variety.
R. sempervirens, the Evergreen Rose, a native of the Mediterranean region both in Europe and Africa. This is a climbing shrub with long slender branches armed with hooked prickles. Leaves shining, glabrous, composed of 5 to 7 ovate-lanceolate leaflets, persistent even in Winter. Flowers medium size, numerous, clustered, white, sweet-scented; styles coherent, forming a long hairy column. The orange-coloured fruit is small and round.
This has been under cultivation a long time, and has produced several esteemed varieties, valuable for the same purposes as those of the preceding species. We may mention as among the best, Donna Maria, pure white, medium size, and double; Princesse Marie, bright rose, double, and cupped.
R. onultiflora, the Many-flowered Rose (fig. 92), comes from China and Japan. A climbing shrub with slender flexible elongated branches armed with hooked prickles arranged in pairs below the insertion of the leaves. The latter are composed of about seven leaflets which are hairy on both sides, oval or lanceolate, and more or less acute. Flowers in dense clusters, small, very double, bright rose. The column of styles is slightly hairy. The calyx-leaves drop shortly before the turbinate bright red fruits become ripe.
This Rose is remarkable for the smallness of its white or rose flowers, which scarcely surpass those of the double cultivated Bramble. The wild type, very probably single, is unknown to us, and as the double variety (the only one we have from the extreme East) is usually sterile, no hybrid variety, of course, has been reported to which this has given birth; but there are several sub-varieties, which have been perpetuated by grafting. We append the names of the best: Rose de la Grifferaie, Multiflore du Luxembourg, and Laure Davoust.
Fig. 92. Rosa multiflora. (1/2 nat. size.)
The Chinese R. anemonceflora might be placed next, as it resembles the foregoing in habit, but still it is better located in the following section.
R. moschata, the Musk Rose, originally from Northern Africa, but now naturalised in Spain and about Roussillon. An erect much branched free-flowering shrub from 5 to 10 feet high, armed with hooked almost equal spines. Leaves of 5 to 7 ovate-lanceolate dentate leaflets, smooth and dull green above, glaucous below, with the midrib hairy. The flowers are generally in clusters of about seven, white, and very fragrant. Calyx-leaves deciduous, dropping soon after the fall of the petals. The fruit is small, obovoid, and red when ripe. This Rose has been cultivated from time immemorial in the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea inhabited by Mussulman tribes, where it furnishes the bulk of the essence of Roses employed in the local perfumery. In our gardens it blooms late (August or September), and it has produced several semi-double varieties; among others the old Double Musk Rose, pure white; and Comtesse de Plater, white tinged with yellow. It is also supposed to have contributed pollen towards the production of some other hybrids, the Noisette for example, which we have already alluded to.
R. setigera, syn. R. rubifolia, the progenitor of the Prairie Roses of English gardens, from North America. This should not to be confounded with R. multiflora. A shrub 3 to 5 feet high, easily recognised by its short prickles, leaves of 3 to 5 ovate acute dentate leaflets, and its solitary or slightly clustered pale rose flowers about the size of those of the common Bramble. The fruit is globular, about the size of a pea, smooth and glabrous. This very distinct species differs notably in habit from all others of this section, but on account of the confluence of its styles it cannot be removed from them in a classification. It has given birth to some garden varieties not without interest, such as Queen of the Prairies, Belle de Baltimore, Miss Edgeworth, Purpurea, Seraphine, Washington's Bride, etc., mostly semi-double or double, some white or flesh, and others bright rose.