This section is from the book "Handbook Of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, And Herbaceous Plants", by W. Botting Hemsley. Also available from Amazon: Handbook of hardy trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants.
Calyx valvate; stamens alternate with the petals. Herbs or shrubs with showy flowers and exalbuminous seeds . . . Onagrarieae, p. 196 Shrubs with inconspicuous flowers and simple, deciduous, or persistent leaves. Seeds albuminous ......Cornaceae, p. 215
Calyx not valvate.
Leaves dotted. Evergreen shrub with white fragrant flowers .... Myrtus, p. 194 Leaves not dotted.
Flowers tetramerous . . . Onagrarieae, p. 196
Flowers not tetramerous.
* Carpels distinct or solitary.
Anthers with recurved valves. Evergreen or deciduous shrubs with yellow flowers . . . Berberideae, p. 28
Anthers opening longitudinally.
Leguminosae, p. 113 Fruit drupaceous or capsular. Herbs or shrubs
Rosacea, p. 142-171 ** Carpels consolidated together with more placentas than one. Placentas parietal.
Flowers small and inconspicuous. Tufted scapigerous herbs with glandular leaves circinate in vernation
Droseraceae, p. 191 Flowers irregular, showy, usually fragrant; petals saccate or spurred. Herbs with entire or divided leaves, solitary axillary flowers, and a dry capsular fruit.......Violarieae, p. 57
Styles distinct to the base. Calyx imbricated. Stamens perigynous. Scapigerous tufted herbs with alternate leaves,
Styles more or less combined, proceeding from the base of the carpels (gynobasic).
Gynobase dry. Fruits not beaked. Herbs with 3-or
4-foliolate leaves and umbellate flowers . Oxalis, p. 93 Styles more or less combined, not gynobasic.
Calyx more or less imbricated. Shrubs or trees having deciduous alternate or opposite leaves and unsymmetrical flowers . . Sapindaceae, p. 104
Calyx slightly imbricated; sepals only two. Herbs with simple leaves .... Portulacecae, p. 74
Calyx valvate or open.
Stamens opposite to petals and equal to them in number.
Stamons porigynous. Eroct shrubs with simple leaves and inconspicuous flowers Rhamncce, page 101 Stamens hypogynous. Petals cohering at the tips and falling off without separating. Climbing shrubs . . . Ampdideae, p. 103 ++ Leaves exstipulate.
* Carpels more or less distiuct or solitary.
Anthers opening by rocurved valves. Evergreen or deciduous shrubs with yellow flowers .... Berberideae, p. 28
Anthers opening longitudinally.
Fruit leguminous. Herbs, shrubs, or trees usually having compound leaves and irregular flowers Lcguminosae, p. 113 Fruit not leguminous.
One hypogynous scale on the base of each carpel.
Succulent herbs with cymoso flowers . Crassidaceae, p. 188 Two hypogynous scales at the base of each carpel. Scapigerous herbs with the parts of the flowers in fours ....... Francoa, p. 182
Carpels without hypogynous scales.
Albumen very abundant; embryo minute.
Flowers unisexual or polygamous. Climbing shrubs with divided leaves and purplish flowers
Herbs. Albumen solid . . Ranunadacccae, p. 1
Shrubs. Albumen ruminated . . Anonacccae, p. 27 Albumen in small quantity or wanting. Carpels several, all perfect.
Carpels enclosed in the urceolate torus. Shrubs with opposite deciduous simple loaves, and fragrant aromatic flowers having the sepals and petals in several series, passing gradually from one into the other, Calycantheae, p. 22 Carpels on a conical torus. Climbing shrubs with large simple leaves and inconspicuous unisexual flowers . . Menispermaceae, p. 27
** Carpels consolidated. Placentas parietal.
Stamens tetradynamous (6, 2 shorter than the others). Herbs; sepals 4, petals 4......Cruciferae, p. 43
Stamens not tetradynamous.
Stamens indefinite. Hypogynous disk large. Shrubs
Capparideae, p. 53 Stamens definite. Hypogynous disk large. Herbs having inconspicuous fragrant flowers and an open capsule,
Rcscdaceae, p. 64 Stamens indefinite. Hypogynous disk very small or absent.
Herbs with a coloured juice and showy flowers; petals often crumpled; sepals very fugacious Papaverrae, p. 36
Stamens definite. Trailing herbs with very small leaves and small pink flowers . . . Frankeniaceae, p. 61
Placentas covering the dissepiments. Water plants Nymphaaceae, p. 34
Styles distinct to the base.
Calyx in a broken whorl, much imbricated.
Stamens polyadelphous. Shrubs or herbs having opposite, usually dotted leaves, and yellow flowers
Hyperieincae, page 76 Stamens monadelphous or free. Calyx slightly imbricated, sepals in a complete whorl. Each carpel with an hypogynous scale at its base. Succulent herbs with cymose flowers . Crassulaceae, p. 188 Carpels without hypogynous scales.
Carpels two, diverging at the top . Saxifrageae, p. 178
Carpels not diverging at the top. Herbs with opposite leaves and usually dichotomously cymose flowers .... Caryophylleae, p. 62
Styles more or less combined, gynobasic.
Trees with deciduous unequally pinnate leaves and inconspicuous flowers.....Ailanthus, p. 98