This section is from the book "Handbook Of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, And Herbaceous Plants", by W. Botting Hemsley. Also available from Amazon: Handbook of hardy trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants.
Styles wholly combined.
Herbs, shrubs, or trees, usually having glandular cysts containing pungent juice, and hermaphrodite flowers
Petals with or without appendages. Trees with compound deciduous leaves and showy flowers ..... Sapindceae, p. 104 Flowers papilionaceous (Pea-like). Herbs or under-shrubs with simple leaves; stamens united
Poly galea, p. 61 Calyx only slightly imbricated, in a complete whorl. Carpels four or more. Anthers opening by pores. Evergreen or deciduous shrubs with small flowers
Ericaccae, p. 274 Carpels four or more. Anthers opening by slits. Stamens united in a long tube. Trees with pinnate leaves and numerous small paniculate flowers,
Meliacccae, p. 98 Stamens free or nearly so. Shrubs with alternate leaves having a winged jointed petiole and fragrant flowers .... Citrus, p. 97
Carpels fewer than four. Flowers hermaphrodite.
Sepals two. Herbs . . Portulaccae, page 74 Sepals more than two. Stamens hypogynous.
Seeds plumose. Shrubs with minute imbricated persistent leaves and small spicate flowers . . . Tamariscineae, p. 75
Seeds naked. Shrubs or trees with alternate leaves and inconspicuous flowers Pittosporcae, p. 60 Stamens perigynous. Shrubs or trees with evergreen or deciduous simple leaves and inconspicuous flowers . Celastrineae, p. 100
Calyx valvate or open.
Stamens if equal in number to the petals, opposite to them. Shrubs with inconspicuous flowers Rhamneae, p. 101 Stamens if equal in number to the petals, alternate with them. Herbs having a tubular often coloured calyx and perigynous stamens Lythrarieae, p. 195 2. Flowers apetalous.
A. Flowers destitute of both calyx and corolla. + Leaves stipulate.
Ovules solitary or very few. Flowers unisexual.
Carpels solitary. Ovule erect. Deciduous shrubs covered with resinous glands. Flowers in catkins Myricaceae, p. 413
Carpels solitary. Ovule pendulous. Deciduous trees with large palmately - lobed leaves. Flowers in dense spherical heads.....Platanaceae, p. 405
Carpels three. Shrubs or herbs with small clustered often involucrate flowers . . . . Euphorbiaceae, p. 399
++ Leaves exstipulate.
Shrubs with hermaphrodite spicate flowers, simple leaves, and jointed stems...... Piperaceae, p. 399
Shrubs or trees with small clustered flowers and opposite leaves
Oleaceae, p. 291 Shrubs with simple deciduous leaves, usually covered with resinous vesicles.....Myricaceae, p. 413
B. Flowers with only one envelope, termed perianth or calyx. § Ovary inferior or partially so.
+ Leaves stipulate.
Flowers unisexual. Fruit naked, many-seeded, usually winged.
Herbs....., Begoniaceae, p. 207
++ Leaves exstipulate.
Flowers unisexual, amentaceous.
Leaves simple, alternate, usually furnished with resinous glands......Myricaceae, page 413
Flowers unisexual, not amentaceous. Tender herbs having ornamental fruits ..... Cucurbitaceae, p. 206 Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous.
Leaves with transparent dots. Evergreen shrubs or trees with numerous stamens . . . Myrtaccae, p. 193
Leaves without dots.
Ovary 3- to 6-celled, many-seeded. Herbs or climbing shrubs with an irregular or campanulate perianth
Aristolochiaceae, p. 397 Ovary 1-celled, 1-seeded. Herbs or shrubs usually having scaly leaves . . . . . Chenopodiaceae, p. 388 §§ Ovary superior. + Leaves stipulate.
Carpels more than one, combined into a solid pistil.
Perianth coloured, valvate; stamens monadelphous, hypogynous. A shrub .... Fremontia, p. 84
Perianth membranous. Fruit winged or drupaceous. Trees with simple alternate deciduous leaves . Ulmaceae, p. 403 Carpels solitary or quite separate. Styles terminal, three to each ovary.
Herbs with sheathing, often fringed stipules Polygonaceae, p. 383 Herbs with simple stipules . . . Phytolaccacce, p. 387 Flowers unisexual.
Carpels more than one, combined into a solid pistil. Flowers amentaceous. Deciduous trees with simple leaves
Betulaceae, p. 414 Flowers not amentaceous . . . Euphorbiaceae, p. 399
Carpels more than one, combined into a solid pistil. Perianth short, herbaceous.
Embryo curved round mealy albumen. Herbs or shrubs
PhytolaccaceaeB, p. 387 Perianth tubular, coloured. Herbs or undershrubs Lythrarieae, p. 195 Carpels solitary or quite separate.
Carpels several. Stamens hypogynous. Herbs or climbing shrubs with petaloid sepals and very small deformed petals or none . . . Banunculaceae, p. 1 Carpel solitary.