This section is from the book "Handbook Of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, And Herbaceous Plants", by W. Botting Hemsley. Also available from Amazon: Handbook of hardy trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants.
Perianth tubular, coloured, hardened at the base. Herbs
Nyctaginaceae, p. 385
Perianth tubular, usually coloured, not hardened at the base. Stamens borne on the segments of the perianth.
Shrubs and trees . . . Proteaceae, page 395
Ovules pendulous. Shrubs with a tough fibrous bark.....Thymelaceae, p. 393
Perianth short, not tubular or only slightly so.
Leaves lepidote. Shrubs . . . Elaeagnaceae, p. 395 Leaves not lepidote.
Perianth dry and coloured. Herbs Amaranthaceae, p. 388 Perianth herbaceous or succulent Chenopodiaceae, p. 388 Flowers unisexual. Herbs or shrubs with scaly simple leaves and a membranous or baccate 1-seeded fruit . Chenopodiaceae, p. 388 3. Flowers with both calyx and corolla, the latter monopetalous.1 § Ovary superior. Flowers regular. * Ovary 3- to 5-lobed. Leaves usually scabrid. Inflorescence gyrate. Herbs or undershrubs...... Borraginaceae, p. 319
** Ovary not lobed.
Anthers opening by pores. Evergreen or deciduous shrubs with conspicuous flowers......Ericeae, p. 275
Anthers opening by slits. Carpels 4 or 5 or only 1.
Stamens equal in number and opposite to the petals. Herbs
Brimulacccae, p. 371 Stamens not opposite the petals if of the same number. Carpels distinct; seeds indefinite. Succulent herbs
Crassulaceae, p. 188 Carpels combined.
AEstivation of corolla plicate. Climbing, twining, or trailing herbs with brightly coloured flowers Convolvidaceae, p. 315 Estivation of corolla imbricated. Shrubs often with prickly evergreen leaves and small flowers llicineae, p. 99
Carpels usually three.
Inflorescence gyrate. Herb3 . . Hydrophyllaceae, p. 314
Inflorescence not gyrate. Herbs or shrubs Polemoniaceeae, p. 305
Carpels only two. Stamens two.
Inflorescence gyrate. Herbs . . . Hydrophyllaceae, p. 314
1 In some instances the petals are only very slightly united at the base.
Calyx in a broken whorl. Trailing or climbing herbs,
Convolvulaceae, page 315
Calyx in a complete whorl.
Flowers symmetrical. Seed3 usually kidney-shaped and pitted. Herbs or shrubs . Solanaceae, p. 326
Anthers and stigmas consolidated. Seeds usually plumose. Herbs or shrubs . Asclepiadceae, p. 300
Anthers free from the stigma.
Corolla imbricated. Herbs with showy flowers and usually ribbed leaves . Gmtianaceae, p. 302 Corolla valvate or convolute. Herbs with flowers in one-sided spikes . . . Spigelia, p. 302
Corolla contorted, Seeds usually plumose. Shrubs or trailing herbs. Stigma constricted in the middle . . . . . Apoeyneae, p. 297
Flowers unsymmetrical. Leaves opposite, exstipulate.
Flowers spicate or capitate, tetramerous. Shrubs
* Ovary 4-lobed; lobes 1-seeded. Herbs or shrubs with opposite leaves usually furnished with immersed glands of aromatic fragrant oil ........... Labiates, p. 360
** Ovary undivided. Carpels two.
Fruit nucamentaceous, 2- or 4-celled. Herbs or shrubs
Verbenaceae, p. 357 Fruit capsular or succulent. Placentas parietal.
Annual herbs. Seeds not winged. Fruit terminated by a curved beak . . . . Martynia, p. 354
Shrubs or herbs of trailing, twining, or climbing habit.
Fruit not beaked; seeds winged . Bignoniaceae, p. 351
Seeds albuminous. Herbs, shrubs, or trees with showy flowers ..... Scrophidarineae, p. 333
Seeds winged. Shrubs or herbs of climbing or trailing habit and showy flowers . . . Bignoniaceae, p. 351 Seeds wingless, attached to hardy woody placentas. Herbs with elegant bipinnatifid leaves and leafy spikes of dull-coloured flowers . Acanthus, p. 355
§§§ Ovary inferior.
* Carpels solitary.
Anthers syngenesious (united with the pistil). Herbs or shrubs; flowers (florets) collected in involucrate heads. Ovary usually surmounted by a scaly bristly or plumose calyx (pappus) ... ... Composite, p. 229
** Carpels more than one.
Anthers syngenesious. Herbs with spicate or axillary irregular flowers.....Carrvpanulaceae (Lobelia), p. 272
Anthers opening by pores. Shrubs . . Vaccinieae, p. 274
Anthers opening by slits.
Herbs with blue or white usually bell-shaped flowers
Campanalaceae, p. 268 Shrubs or trees with alternate exstipulate simple leaves and small flowers.....Ebenaceae, p. 288
Herbs with angular stems, whorled leaves, and cymose flowers ....... Stellatae, p. 225
Shrubs with opposite leaves and showy usually fragrant flowers......Caprifoliaceae, p. 218