This section is from the book "Handbook Of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, And Herbaceous Plants", by W. Botting Hemsley. Also available from Amazon: Handbook of hardy trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants.
, p. 458.
Tuberous or fibrous-rooted terrestrial or epiphytal herbs with very irregular flowers .... Orchidaceae, p. 466
** Flowers not gynandrous (stamens free).
Leaves usually broad, veins diverging from the midrib.
Anther one, 1-celled. Leaves 1-3 feet long Marantaceae, p. 467
Anthers five or more. Leaves very large . . Musaceae, p. 467 Leaves usually long and narrow, veins parallel with midrib. Stamens three.
Fruit 3-celled. Outer perianth-segments petaloid. Herbs with bulbous or fibrous roots, with an umbellate or paniculate inflorescence or solitary . flower ..... Amaryllideae, p. 480
Fruit 3-celled. Outer perianth-segments sepaloid,
Outer perianth-segments sepaloid or glumaceous. Carpels consolidated.
Outer perianth-segments quite distinct from the inner. Placentas axile.
Herbs with net-veined verticillate leaves and white or violet flowers . . . . . Trillium, p. 531
Herbs with parallel-veined leaves and umbellate flowers
Commclynaccae, page 536 Placentas parietal.
Flowers scattered, inconspicuous. Leaves flat or fistular,
Juncaceae, p. 537 Flowers on a spadix. Leaves usually broad with reticulated veins........Aroideae, p. 461
Flowers usually umbellate. Leaves broad, net-veined and ribbed. Shrubs......Smilacineae, p. 532
Outer perianth-segments petaloid. Carpels more or less distinct.
Placentas narrow. An aquatic with sagittate leaves and elongated inflorescence.....Sagittaria, p. 464
Carpels combined into a solid pistil.
Placentas parietal. A climbing shrub with 5-nerved ovate leaves and showy flowers . Lapageria, p. 532
Petals rolled inwards after flowering. Aquatic herbs with cordate or oblong leaves and small blue flowers
Pontederaceae, p. 535 Petals not rolled inwards after flowering.
Anthers turned outwards. Capsule usually dehiscing sep-ticidally. Crocus-like plants or with broad conspi-cuously-nerved leaves and paniculate flowers,
B. Flowers without a distinct perianth.
§ Flowers glumaceous.
Tufted herbs with linear leaves, sheath not split, and usually angular solid flower-stems . . . . Cyperaceae, p. 537
§§ Flowers naked or with a few bristles or hairs, and arranged on a spadix. Fruit baccate. Spadix usually more or less enveloped in a spathe,
Aroidecae, p. 461 Fruit dry. Spadix naked, or spathe reduced to a bract Typhacccae, p. 464