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Handbook Of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, And Herbaceous Plants | by W. Botting Hemsley



The growing love of horticulture, both in England and America, is continually demanding new hand-books of botanical knowledge. Although a most attractive science, the study of botany has, until within a very few years, received but little attention; there have been few scholars and few teachers. - The garden in which grow the fairest of the children of nature has been surrounded by an almost impenetrable hedge of technicalities, of uninteresting de-tail, and seemingly unmeaning nomenclature; so that few have had the courage to attempt to break through so formidable a barrier.

TitleHandbook Of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, And Herbaceous Plants
AuthorW. Botting Hemsley
PublisherEstes & Lauriat
Year1873
Copyright1873, Estes & Lauriat
AmazonHandbook of hardy trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants

Handbook Of Hardy Trees, Shrubs, And Herbaceous Plants.

Containing Descriptions, Native Countries, Etc. Of A Selection Of The Best Species In Cultivation.

Together With Cultural Details, Comparative Hardiness, Suitability For Particular Positions, Etc.

Based On The French Work Of Messrs. Decaisne And Naudin (Members Of The Institute Of France)

Untitled Manuel De L'amateur Des Jardins,' And Including The Original Woodcuts By Riocreux And Leblanc.

By W. B. Hemsley,

Formerly Assistant At The Herbarium Of The Royal Gardens. Kew.

With An Introduction By Edward S. Rand, Junr. Author Of 'flowers F O R Parlor And Garden.'

With Nearly 300 Illustrations.

Boston: Estes & Lauriat, 143 Washington Street. 1873

Entered According To The Act Of Congress, In The Year 1873 By Estes And Lauriat In The Office Of The Librarian Of Congress At Washington.

-Introduction To The American Edition
The growing love of horticulture, both in England and America, is continually demanding new hand-books of botanical knowledge. Although a most attractive science, the study of botany has, until within...
-Preface
The principal object of the compiler of this volume is to furnish something between a mere dictionary of names and a scientific treatise containing nothing beyond technical descrip-. tions of plants. ...
-Introduction
Within the last few years horticulturists generally have evinced an increasing desire to study the physiology and structural affinities of plants, as well as the art of growing them successfully. This...
-Basis Of Classification
The characters upon which systematic classification is founded, reside chiefly in the various modifications of the organs of reproduction and the floral envelopes. Distinguishing the organs of a plant...
-Botanical And Horticultural Nomenclature
With regard to the nomenclature of plants, we have endeavoured to select the names sanctioned by recognised authorities; and in cases where plants are more generally known under erroneous appellations...
-Geography Of Plants Hardy In The British Isles
In the chapter on Climate will be found some information respecting the countries which furnish the greater part of the exotic plants hardy in Britain. The few remarks to be made here refer to the cla...
-Artificial Key To The Natural Orders And Anomalous Genera
The following Key is intended to assist in ascertaining the order to which a plant belongs. It should be observed, however, that some acquaintance with the rudiments of Descriptive Botany is necessary...
-Sub-Class I. - Dicotyledons Or Exogens 1
1. Flowers having both calyx and corolla; petals free, A. Stamens more than twenty. Ovary inferior or partially so. + Leaves alternate, stipulate. * Carpels more or less united, often ...
-Sub-Class I. - Dicotyledons Or Exogens. Part 2
Calyx valvate; stamens alternate with the petals. Herbs or shrubs with showy flowers and exalbuminous seeds . . . Onagrarieae, p. 196 Shrubs with inconspicuous flowers and simple, deciduous, or persis...
-Sub-Class I. - Dicotyledons Or Exogens. Part 3
Styles wholly combined. Herbs, shrubs, or trees, usually having glandular cysts containing pungent juice, and hermaphrodite flowers Rutacca, p. 95 Shrubs or trees with dioecious or polygamous fl...
-Sub-Class I. - Dicotyledons Or Exogens. Part 4
Anthers with recurved valves. Evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs.....Lauraceae, p. 392 Perianth tubular, coloured, hardened at the base. Herbs Nyctaginaceae, p. 385 Perianth tubular, usua...
-Sub-Class II. Monocotyledons Or Endogens
, p. 458. A. Flowers having a distinct, usually coloured perianth. Ovary inferior. * Flowers gynandrous (anthers and stigmas consolidated). Tuberous or fibrous-rooted terrestrial or ep...
-Glossary Of Terms: A
In addition to most of the terms employed in describing the plants in this work, we include the principal specific names, with their significations, for the use of those who have not studied Latin. Co...
-Glossary Of Terms: B
Baccate Having a more or less succulent or pulpy seed-vessel or berry. Barbatus Bearded, having tufts of soft hairs. Bi, in compounds, signifies twice. Blade The lamina or flat part o...
-Glossary Of Terms: C
Caducous Dropping off. Cceruleus Pale blue. Cessius Ash-grey. Calyx The outer floral envelope (where there are two), composed of separate or connate sepals. Campestris Gr...
-Glossary Of Terms: D
Deca, in compounds, signifies ten. Deciduous Falling off, as the leaves of a large class of trees and shrubs in autumn, or the sepals and petals of most flowers after expansion. Decimate B...
-Glossary Of Terms: E
E, ex, in compounds, denotes absence, as ebracteate, eg'andtclar, ex-albuminous. Echinate Clothed with bristles, like the fruit of the Sweet Chestnut. Emarginate Notched at the tip. Emb...
-Glossary Of Terms: F
Falcate Curved in the form of a sickle. Fastigiate Applied to the branches of a tree when they are erect and close, as in the Upright Cypress and Lom-bardy Poplar. Fascicled Several org...
-Glossary Of Terms: G
Glabrous Having no hairs, smooth. Glaucous Sea-green. Graveolens Possessing an intense odour. Gymnos, in compounds, signifies naked. Gyncecium The female organs collectivel...
-Glossary Of Terms: H
Herbaceous Applied to all green parts and annual stems. Hermaphrodite Applied to flowers containing both male and female organs. Hirsutus With long soft hairs. Hispid Having lo...
-Glossary Of Terms: I-J
Igneus Bright scarlet. Imbcrbis Destitute of hairs. Imbricate Applied to leaves or to the parts of a flower when they overlap each other. Imparipinnate Unequally pinnate, havin...
-Glossary Of Terms: K-L
Keel The name given to the lower pair of petals of Papilionaceous flowers. Labiate, lipped, as the flowers of many Labiatae, etc. Lacteus White with a faint tinge of blue. Lacustris ...
-Glossary Of Terms: N
Macros, in composition, long, large. Mono, in compounds, signifies one. Monocarpic Flowering and fruiting only once. Monocotyledonous Having one seed-leaf. Monoecious Sexes in sep...
-Glossary Of Terms: O
Ob A prefix denoting inversion: ob-cordate, obovate, etc. Obtuse Rounded or blunt. odes, oides. - A termination denoting similarity, resemblance. Orbicular Circular. Ovate Egg-...
-Glossary Of Terms: P
Palmate Lobed in the form of a hand. Paludogus Paludosus}Growing in marshy places. Panicle A compound raceme. Papilionaceous Butterfly-flowered,like the Pea. Pappus The c...
-Glossary Of Terms: R
Raceme A kind of inflorescence in which the pedicellate flowers are arranged singly on a common peduncle. Ex. Kibes, Wallflower. Rachis The divisions of the petiole of a frond. Radical ...
-Glossary Of Terms: S
Sabidosus Growing in sandy places. Sagittate Shaped in the form of an arrow-head. Samara Applied to such winged in-dehiscent fruits as the Sycamore. Saxatilis Growing on rocks or ...
-Glossary Of Terms: T
Tenuis Slender, thin. Terete Cylindrical. Testa The skin of a seed. Tdradynamous Having six stamens, of which two are shorter than the other four. Thalamus The receptacle or...
-Glossary Of Terms: U
Uliginosus Inhabiting swampy places. Umbel An inflorescence, having the flower- stalks radiating from one point. An umbel is either simple or compound. Umbrosus Growing in shady places....
-Glossary Of Terms: V-W
Valvate (Aestivation) Sepals or petals meeting at the margins, but not overlapping each other. Velutinus Velvety, as the surface of leaves. Ventral The anterior part of an organ. Ver...
-Part I. - Descriptions Of Hardy Plants Systematically Arranged. Phaenogamous Or Flowering Plants
Vegetables with manifest staminate and pistillate flowers, and seeds containing a distinct embryo. ...
-Sub-Class I. - Dicotyledons Or Exogens
Stem when perennial consisting of a central pith, concentric layers of wood, and a separable bark; and increasing in size by additions between the wood already formed and the bark. Leaves net-veined. ...
-Division I. - Polypetalae
Petals, when present, free from the base, or very slightly united. ...
-Order I. - Ranunculaceje
Perennial or annual herbs with radical or alternate leaves, rarely climbing shrubs with opposite leaves. Stipules absent, or adnate to the petiole. Flowers regular or irregular. Sepals 5 or more, rare...
-Tribe I. - Clematideae
Sepals valvate. Petals none, or narrow and staminoid. Carpels numerous, 1-seeded, indehiscent. Stem herbaceous or woody and climbing. Leaves opposite. ...
-1. Clematis
A noble genus of woody or herbaceous climbing plants, with usually opposite, ternate, or pinnate leaves, and twining petioles sometimes transformed into tendrils. Flowers in terminal or axillary panic...
-Tribe II. - Anemoneae
Sepals imbricate. Carpels 1-seeded, indehiscent; seed pendulous, raphe dorsal. Herbs with radical or alternate leaves. ...
-2. Thalictrum
Erect graceful perennials. Leaves compound. Flowers small, numerous, in panicles or racemes. Sepals 4 or 5, petaloid. Petals absent. Stamens numerous, with long usually yellow conspicuous anthers proj...
-3. Anemone. Hepatica
Perennial herbs. Leaves all radical, variously lobed and dissected. Flowers showy, blue, white, red, purple, or yellow. Scape usually 1-flowered, with a 3-leaved involucre distant or closer under the ...
-4. Adonis
A small genus of annual and perennial plants with compound leaves very finely divided into thread-like segments. Flowers yellow or red. Sepals 5 to 8, petaloid, deciduous. Petals 5 to 16, destitute of...
-Tribe III. - Ranunguleae
Sepals imbricate. Carpels 1-seeded, indehiscent; seeds ascending, raphe ventral. ...
-5. Ranunculus
Annual or perennial herbs with entire or dissected leaves, cauline often differing from the radical. Flowers double in some cultivated varieties, usually yellow or white, in terminal panicles, or sess...
-Tribe IV. - Helleboreae
Sepals imbricate. Petals small, or deformed, or none. Car-pels many-seeded. ...
-6. Caltha
Marsh or semi-aquatic herbs with fleshy creeping rootstocks. Leaves petiolate, cordate, glabrous. Flowers few, terminal, yellow. Sepals 5 or more, petaloid. Petals none. Carpels several, many-seeded. ...
-7. Trollius
Erect perennials. Leaves deeply palmately lobed. Flowers terminal, large, globular, yellow or lilac. Sepals 5 to 15, petaloid. Petals 5 to 15, small, narrow, shortly clawed, with a glandular pit at th...
-8. Eranthis
Dwarf herbs with creeping fleshy rootstocks and radical palmate leaves appearing after the flowers. Scape about four inches high, furnished with a single stem-clasping leaf, whose verticillate segment...
-9. Helleborus
Perennial herbs with thick rhizomes and palmately, digitately or pedately divided leaves on long petioles. Flowers solitary or panicled, rather large, white, greenish, or dull purple. Sepals 5, regula...
-10. Nigella
Erect annuals with alternate finely dissected compound leaves. Flowers solitary, terminal, yellow, blue, or white, surrounded by a finely divided leafy involucre in some species Sepals 5, regular, pet...
-11. Aquilegia
The Columbines are amongst the most familiar of herbaceous plants. Leaves alternate and ternately divided. Flowers very showy, solitary or panicled, blue, white, yellow, scarlet, or yellow, or some co...
-12. Delphinium
The Larkspurs are erect leafy annual or perennial herbs. Leaves alternate, variously lobed or cut. Sepals 5, cohering below, the upper spurred behind. Petals 2 to 4, small, the two dorsal spurred with...
-13. Aconitum
Erect perennial poisonous herbs with palmately divided leaves. Flowers in racemes or panicles, blue, purple, yellowish, or white Sepals 5, the dorsal or upper one helmet-shaped, the two lateral broade...
-Tribe V. - Paeonieae
Sepals imbricate. Petals large. Carpels seated on a fleshy disk, many-seeded, indehiscent. ...
-14. Paeonia
A genus of herbaceous or shrubby plants with large alternate lobed or dissected leaves and immense showy crimson, purple, rose, pink, or white flowers. Sepals 5, not petaloid, persistent. Petals 5 to ...
-Order II. - Calycanthaceae
Deciduous shrubs with opposite undivided entire exstipulate leaves and solitary axillary often fragrant or aromatic flowers. Sepals and petals in many series, the outermost small and bract-like, the i...
-1. Calycanthus
Stamens in many series, the twelve outer fertile. Flowers purple, lurid red or brownish, appearing in Summer. There are three North American species, with seven or eight names. Derived from cup...
-2. Chimonanthus
Stamens in two series, the five outer fertile. Flowers yellowish, appearing in Winter before the leaves. The only species is a native of Japan. Name from winter, and avoos, a flower. 1. Ch. ...
-Order III - Magnoliaceae
Evergreen or deciduous, often aromatic trees or shrubs. Leaves alternate, simple, usually entire, with convolute or opposite deciduous stipules, or exstipulate. Flowers axillary or terminal, usually s...
-Tribe I. - Wintereae
Flowers hermaphrodite. Carpels verticillate. Stipules none. ...
-1. Illicium
Aromatic evergreen shrubs or small trees. Sepals 3 or 6, membranaceous. Petals many. Filaments fleshy. Carpels several, in a single whorl, 1-seeded, coriaceous, dehiscing along the inner. or superior ...
-Tribe II. - Magnolieae
Flowers hermaphrodite. Carpels in several series. Stipules large, covering the leaf-buds. ...
-2. Magnolia
Trees or shrubs with conspicuous fragrant solitary terminal flowers. Sepals 3. Petals 6 to 12,.in two or more series. Car-pels many, in an oblong cone-like spike, 2-seeded, coriaceous, opening along t...
-3. Liriodendron
Sepals 3, reflexed. Petals 6, connivent in two imbricated series. Carpels in an oblong spike, 2-seeded, at length sama-roid and indehiscent. Only one species is known, a native of North America. The n...
-Tribe III. - Schizandreae
Flowers unisexual. Carpels baccate, in several series, forming a head or spike. Climbing shrubs destitute of stipules. ...
-4. Schizandra (Including Maximowiczia)
Leaves, simple, membranaceous, with pellucid dots. Peduncles solitary, 1-flowered. Flowers red, yellow, or white. Sepals and petals 9 to 12, gradually increasing in size inwards, innermost only colour...
-5. Kadsura
This differs mainly from the last in the globose head of carpels and coriaceous leaves. There are seven species, all Asiatic. The Japanese name of one species. 1. K. Japonica. - A small shrub with ...
-Order IV. - Anonaceae
Trees or shrubs with alternate exstipulate leaves, tetrame-rous calyx and corolla, numerous stamens, consolidated fruit, and seeds with ruminate albumen. Nearly all the species are tropical except the...
-Order V - Menispermaceae
The Moonseed family affords few hardy species. They are chiefly climbing shrubs with alternate exstipulate leaves and dioecious small inconspicuous flowers. The most remarkable characteristic of most ...
-1. Menispermum
Climbing deciduous shrubs with large peltate or cordate palmately lobed leaves and paniculate flowers. Sepals 4 to 8, in two series. Petals 6 to 8, shorter than the sepals. Male flowers with from 12 t...
-Order VI - Berberideae
Herbs, or erect or climbing shrubs. Leaves alternate, or fascicled from the non-development of the branches, simple or compound, often spinose or reduced to spines. Flowers terminal or axillary, usual...
-1. Berberis
Erect or trailing spiny shrubs with yellow wood. Leaves simple or compound, often with spinose teeth, sometimes reduced to spines. Flowers yellow, solitary, racemose or fascicled. Sepals 8 or 9, outer...
-2. Berberidopsis
A genus of a single species of climbing habits. Sepals and petals 9 to 15; outer small, spreading, intermediate, orbicular, concave; inner obovate-cuneate, erect, inserted upon the fleshy torus. Stame...
-3. Epimedium
A small genus of elegant compound-leaved dwarf herbs with creeping rhizomes. Leaves ternately or pinnately divided. Flowers in terminal, simple or branched racemes. Sepals 8, petaloid, flat, the four ...
-4. Podophyllum
A singular genus of two species, one Indian and the other American, having fleshy rhizomes and erect stems, bearing usually 2 large opposite palmately-lobed leaves and a solitary white flower. Sepals ...
-5. Akebia
A small genus of climbing shrubs with the leaves digitately 3- or 5-foliolate. Flowers few, in axillary racemes, violet-coloured, polygamous. Sepals 3. Petals none. Male flowers with 6 free stamens an...
-6. Lardizabala
Climbing shrubs with bi- or tri-ternate leaves and dioecious flowers. Sepals 6, somewhat fleshy. Petals 6, much smaller. Stamens 6, monadelphous. Carpels 3, seeds numerous. Flowers axillary, violet or...
-Order VIL.- Nymphaeaceae
Aquatic herbs easily recognised by their large flat cordate or peltate leaves and showy flowers. Sepals 3 to 5. Petals 3 to 5, or numerous, sometimes small. Stamens many. Carpels 3 or more, in one who...
-1. Nymphaea
To this genus belongs our White Water-Lily, together with several splendid, though unfortunately not hardy species, having crimson, rose, or blue flowers, natives of Australia and South Africa. Beside...
-2. Nutphar
In this genus the sepals, which exceed 4 in number, are coloured, and conceal the smaller scale-like petals. Flowers always yellow, globose, and smaller than in Nymphoea. There are four or five specie...
-Order VIII. - Papaveraceae
Herbs, or very rarely shrubs, glaucescent or pilose; juice often coloured. Leaves alternate, or the floral occasionally opposite, entire, lobed, or finely divided, destitute of stipules. Peduncles 1-f...
-Sub-Order I. - Papavereae
Petals similar; stamens numerous. ...
-1. Platystemon
A small genus of annual herbs with narrow entire leaves. Flowers on long peduncles, yellow. Sepals 3. Petals 6. Stamens numerous, with dilated filaments. Carpels numerous, many-seeded, at first partia...
-2. Papaver
Showy annual and perennial herbs with lobed or dissected leaves and milky juice. Flowers on long peduncles, nodding when in bud. Sepals usually 2. Petals 4 or more. Stamens numerous. Ovary 1-celled; s...
-3. Argemone
Branching glaucescent annual herbs with yellow juice. Leaves deeply pinnatifid, usually spiny-toothed. Flowers large, white or yellow. Similar in floral characters to the Poppies, with an oblong capsu...
-4. Meconopsis
Perennial or annual herbs. Leaves entire or dissected. Flowers large and showy, on long peduncles, nodding when in bud. Sepals 2. Petals 4. Stamens numerous. Capsule 1-celled, oblong, opening by short...
-5. Sanguinaria
There is only one species of this genus, a native of North America. It is distinguished by having 8 or more petals, not crumpled, and an oblong 2-valved capsule. The name is from the Latin sanguis, bl...
-6. Bocconia
Tall shrubby herbs with yellow or vermilion juice. Leaves large, lobed. Flowers small, numerous, in large terminal panicles. Sepals 2, petaloid. Petals none. Stamens numerous. Capsule stipitate, oblon...
-7. Eschscholtzia
Annual or perennial herbs, glabrous and glaucescent. Leaves much divided into linear segments. This genus is distinguished by the sepals of its calyx cohering in the form of a cap, which is pushed off...
-Sub-Order II. - Fumarieae
Petals 4, dissimilar. Stamens 6. ...
-8. Dielytra
Handsome erect, diffuse, or climbing perennials with much-divided leaves. Flowers in racemes, terminal, or opposite the leaves. Sepals 2, minute. Petals 4, the exterior oblong, concave, saccate or cal...
-9. Corydalis
This genus differs mainly from the last in having only one of the outer petals spurred or inflated, the other being flat, and in the inflated 2-valved capsule; the flowers are also smaller. The Greek ...
-Order IX - Cruciferae
This very natural group of plants is so well defined that very little difficulty is experienced in recognising its members. They are almost without exception annual or perennial herbs with stellate ha...
-1. Matthiola
This genus includes all the different races of Stocks. Its distinctive characters are : entire or sinuate leaves, large flowers, the petals having long claws, a nearly cylindrical pod, connivent stigm...
-2. Cheiranthus
Herbs or undershrubs with bipartite hairs. Leaves entire or toothed. This genus differs very slightly from the last, distinguished by having a more flattened pod, wingless seeds, and a capitate or bil...
-3. Arabis
Annual or perennial herbs, often with large rosettes of leaves, glabrous or hairy. Radical leaves spathulate, cauline sessile. Flowers white, more rarely purple. Pod linear, compressed, keeled, not el...
-4. Cardamine
Usually glabrous plants having pinnate leaves and white, lilac or purple flowers. It differs from Arabis in its pod being indistinctly keeled, with elastic valves. There are about fifty species, sprea...
-5. Lunaria
Biennial or perennial pilose herbs with erect branching stems and cordate simple dentate petiolate leaves and terminal racemes of purple flowers. This genus is remarkable for the oval or oblong compre...
-6. Aubrietia
A genus of small dwarf trailing hairy herbs with small entire or toothed leaves and rather large purple flowers. In character it is very close to Alys-sum, with the exception of the lateral sepals bei...
-7. Alyssum
Annuals or dwarf branching shrubby perennials, often clothed with hoary stellate hairs. Leaves distant, or the radical ones tufted, usually entire. Flowers small, white or yellow. Sepals equal. Petals...
-8. Hesperis
Erect biennial or perennial herbs with simple, forked or glandular hairs. Leaves scattered on the stem, ovate or oblong, entire or toothed or lyrate. Flowers rather large. Sepals erect, lateral ones s...
-9. Schizopetalon
Annual erect herbs with branching hairs and alternate dentate pinnate or pinnatifid leaves and purplish or white flowers. This may be known from all other Cruciferae by its pinnately lobed petals and ...
-10. Malcolmia
The Virginian Stock is the only member of this genus we need occupy ourselves with. In technical characters the genus comes very near Hesperis, differing in having a roundish pod thickened at the base...
-11. Erysimum
Tall biennial or perennial herbs with narrow entire leaves and yellow or orange flowers. Lateral sepals saccate at the base. Pod elongated, roundish or 4-angled; seeds not winged, oblong, in one row. ...
-12. Brassica
We introduce this genus merely to notice the varieties with ornamental foliage, imported some years ago from China. Their habit recalls somewhat that of a palm, all the leaves being tufted on the summ...
-13. Ionopsidium
Miniature glabrous annuals. Leaves sessile or petiolate, spathulate or orbiculate, entire or 3-lobed. Flowers small, white, violet, lilac, or flesh-coloured, on long peduncles. Sepals spreading, equal...
-14. Iberis
Annual or herbaceous or shrubby diffuse perennials. Leaves entire or pinnatifid, often fleshy. Flowers racemose or corymbose, white or purple. Sepals equal at the base. Petals unequal; the two exterio...
-15. Aethionema
A small genus of herbaceous or shrubby perennials, distinguished by the filaments of its four longer stamens being winged and furnished with a tooth, equal petals, and boat-shaped or spoon-like pods w...
-Order XI - Resedaceae
Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubby. Leaves scattered or fasciculated, simple, trifid or pinnate; stipules minute, glandular. Flowers hermaphrodite, small, dull-coloured, racemose, or spicate. C...
-1. Reseda
The characters as above. There are several species occasionally seen in cultivation, but none of them have much to recommend them except the fragrant species. Name from resedo, in allusion to its repu...
-Order XII - Cistineae
Dwarf, trailing, or erect shrubs with opposite or alternate simple usually entire leaves with large or small or no stipules and solitary or racemose showy ephemeral flowers. Flowers regular. Sepals 3 ...
-1. Helianthemum
Prostrate trailing herbaceous perennials or undershrubs. Flowers usually racemose. Valves and placentas of the capsule 3. About thirty species are known. The name is derived from the sun, and ...
-Order X - Capparideae
Herbs, shrubs, or trees. Leaves usually alternate sometimes digitate; stipules usually present, and occasionally spinescent. Sepals 4, rarely more. Petals 4, very seldom more, rarely none. Stamens oft...
-1. Capparis
A genus of about 120 species, chiefly tropical. The following is the only one seen in cultivation in the open air in this country, and that is tender. The name is of Arabic origin. 1. G. spinosa. C...
-2. Cleome
This is a very large genus of the warmer and tropical regions, containing some shrubby and many annual species of some beauty, a few of which are cultivated. The distinctive characters of the genus ar...
-2. Cistus
Mostly handsome erect shrubs from Western and Southern Europe, North Africa, and the Atlantic islands. Leaves opposite, entire or toothed, oblong or lanceolate. Flowers large and showy, but very evane...
-Order XIII. - Violarieae
Herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple, entire, seldom laciniate, stipulate. Flowers axillary and solitary, or cymose, paniculate, or racemose. Pedicels commonly furnished with two...
-Order XVII - Caryophylleae
Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes woody at the base, often enlarged at the joints. Leaves opposite, entire, with or without stipules. Flowers regular, hermaphrodite, more rarely unisexual by aborti...
-Tribe I. - Sileneae
Sepals united, forming a 4- or 5-lobed tubular calyx. Disk elongated, bearing the petals and stamens. ...
-1. Dianthus
The presence of two or more bracts at the base of a tubular calyx and peltate seeds with a straight embryo are the principal distinctive characters. The numerous species are dispersed across Europe, N...
-Order XIV. - Pittosporeae
Shrubs or small trees, or more rarely climbing or trailing shrubs. Leaves alternate, usually simple, exstipulate. There are two or three species of the genus Pittosporum hardy or nearly so in the Sout...
-1. Pittosporum
Sepals distinct or connate at the base. Petals cohering more or less, or spreading from the base. Stamens 5; filaments subulate. Capsule sessile, 2- or more celled, globose, ovate or obovate, often la...
-Order XV - Polygaleae
Herbs or undershrubs, often climbing or trailing. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, exstipulate, simple, and usually entire. Flowers hermaphrodite, irregular, solitary, spicate or racemose. Sepals 5,...
-1. Polygala
The character as above. A genus of nearly 200 species, dispersed nearly all over the world. The hardy species are not numerous, and by no means so showy as many of the tenderer kinds from the Cape of ...
-Order XVI. - Frankeniaceae
A small group of erect or trailing littoral and desert plants with very small opposite leaves and small flowers. They differ technically from the gamosepalous Caryophylleae in having parietal placenta...
-1. Frankenia
The only genus of the family, consisting of about twelve species. Named in honour of a Swedish botanist. ...
-1. Viola
Annual or perennial, rarely somewhat shrubby herbs. Leaves alternate, with persistent often foliaceous stipules. Peduncles axillary, usually one-flowered. Many species produce dimorphous flowers. The ...
-1. Viola. Continued
D. fruticosus is usually considered as a variety of the foregoing species. The Tree Carnations and most of the perpetual varieties come under this sub-species. The stems are half-woody at the base, an...
-2. Tunica
Small slender rigid herbs resembling small Pinks. They differ from Dianthus in the few-nerved calyx. About ten species are known, all inhabiting the Mediterranean region; but only one species is at al...
-3. Gypsophila
Elegant perennial often glaucous herbs with small usually flat leaves and very small paniculate flowers. The species of this genus are remarkable for their graceful habit and numerous small flowers on...
-4. Saponaria
Annual or perennial herbs, differing from the last genus in having the calyx constricted at the top and not membranaceous between the nerves, and from Silene in having only two styles, and especially ...
-5. Silene
A large genus of annual and perennial herbs of variable habit. Flowers terminal, solitary, cymose, paniculate, or in one-sided spikes. Calyx more or less inflated, 5-toothed, 10-nerved. Petals 5; claw...
-6. Lychnis
A genus closely allied to the last, differing chiefly in having more than three styles, usually five, more rarely four, and larger flowers. About thirty species, all natives of the northern temperate ...
-Tribe II. - Alsineae
Sepals free to the base. ...
-7. Cerastium
Decumbent densely hairy annual or perennial herbs with small white flowers and bifid petals. Forty species, natives of the temperate and cold parts of the whole world. Name from kepas a horn, from the...
-Order XVIII - Portulaceae
A small order of dwarf often trailing and succulent herbs, rarely shrubs, with brightly coloured flowers. They are distinguished from the neighbouring orders by having fewer sepals (usually only 2) th...
-1. Portulaca
Herbs with fleshy stems and leaves and scarious stipules. Leaves entire, flat or terete, the upper ones sometimes forming an involucre beneath the flowers. Sepals 2, cohering at the base in a tube adn...
-2. Calandrinia
Glabrous annual or perennial herbs, shrubby at the base. Leaves alternate or fasciculate, fleshy. Flowers in racemes or umbels, rarely solitary. Sepals 2, free. Petals 5, rarely fewer or many, hypogyn...
-Order XIX - Tamariscineae
Shrubs or small trees with very minute often scale-like imbricate leaves, and small flowers in dense spikes. Sepals 5, rarely 4, imbricate in bud. Petals of the same number or more, free or slightly c...
-1. Tamarix
The characters as above. About twenty species are known. The name is from Tamaris, a river in Spain, where this genus abounds. These shrubs are invaluable for planting by the sea-side, where scarcely ...
-Order XX. - Hypericineae
Herbs or shrubs with opposite simple exstipulate entire or glandular-toothed leaves, often having transparent glands, and yellow (rarely white) flowers. Sepals 5 or 4, imbricate. Petals of the same nu...
-1. Hypericum
Characters as above. About 160 species, found in all temperate regions, and at great elevations within the tropics. The name is of Greek origin, supposed to have been applied to a species of this genu...
-Order XXI. - Ternstrcemiaceae
A small order of trees and shrubs with alternate simple ex-stipulate leaves and white, pink, or red flowers. Peduncles 1-flowered, axillary or terminal. Sepals 5 or 7, imbricated, coriaceous and decid...
-1. Eurya
Flowers dioecious. Sepals 5. Petals 5, cohering at the base. Stamens from 5 to 15. Fruit a berry. Evergreen shrubs with glabrous often crenate leaves and small white flowers on axillary fascicled pedu...
-2. Camellia (Including Thea)
Sepals 5 or 6, passing gradually from bracteoles into petals, the latter slightly cohering at the base. Stamens many. Capsule woody, 3- to 5-eelled; cells usually 1-seeded; seeds exal-buminous. The Ca...
-Order XXII - Malvaceae
An extensive and very distinct order of herbs, shrubs, or rarely trees, with stellate hairs, alternate stipulate leaves, and usually showy flowers. Flowers regular, usually furnished with a bracteate ...
-1. Malope
Hairy or glabrous annuals or biennials. Leaves entire or trifid. Involucel of 3 large distinct cordate bracts. Calyx 5-lobed, persistent. Carpels 1-seeded, irregularly clustered. Three species, native...
-2. Kitaibelia
Differing from the last genus in having an involucel of 6 to 9 connate bracts. Only one species is known, a native of Hungary. A commemorative name. 1. K. vitifolia. - A tall plant with angular 5-l...
-3. Palava
This genus has the carpels irregularly disposed in a head like the two preceding genera, but it is readily distinguished from them by the absence of involucral bracts. Three species are described, fro...
-4. Althaea
Tall or dwarf hairy herbs with lobed leaves and axillary solitary or racemose flowers. In-volucel 6- to 9-lobed. Staminal column long, filaments free at the top. Carpels arranged in a regular whorl, 1...
-5. Lavatera
Shrubs, occasionally arborescent, or herbs, with angled or lobed leaves and axillary and solitary or clustered or terminal and racemose flowers. Very near Malva, but differing in having the three to s...
-6. Malva
Hairy or glabrous herbs with angular or lobed leaves and axillary flowers. Involucel of 3 distinct free bracts. Carpels not beaked, whorled, separating from a short conical axis, indehiscent. There ar...
-7. Callirhoe
Summer-flowering perennial herbs with the habit of Malva, differing from that genus in the structure of the carpels, which are provided with a short beak. Involucel of 1 to 3 free bracts, or wanting. ...
-8. Hibiscus
Herbs, shrubs, or trees. Leaves often lobed. Flowers very large and showy, variously coloured, usually with a dark-coloured spot at the base of each petal. Involucel of many (rarely 4 or 5) more or le...
-Order XXIII - Sterculiaceae
This is a large order of trees and shrubs, differing from the preceding order principally in having 2-celled anthers. We introduce it here for the sake of including the following hardy ornamental shru...
-1. Fremontia
This genus is distinguished by its coloured calyx and absence of petals, and staminal column divided into 5 branches. Cap-sule 4- or 5-celled, splitting through the cells. Seeds numerous. Named after ...
-Order XXIV - Tiliaceae
A considerable order of plants, differing from its allies in having many nearly free stamens with 2-celled anthers. With the exception of the typical genus the members of this order are natives of the...
-1. Tilia
Trees with simple or stellate hairs. Leaves alternate, stipulate, obliquely cordate, serrate or lobed, on long petioles. Flowers fragrant, white or yellowish, in axillary or terminal cymes, with a lea...
-Order XXV. - Lineae
This order taken in its widest sense includes a great many trees and shrubs, but the following characters apply to the typical genus, which alone concerns us. ...
-1. Linum
Herbs, sometimes shrubby, glabrous, more rarely hirsute. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, narrow, entire; stipules absent or glandular. Flowers in terminal or lateral racemose panicles or fascicled ...
-Order XXVL - Geraniaceae. (Including Oxalideae, Balsamineae, Tropoceoleae, And Limnantlieae.)
Herbs, occasionally climbing, undershrubs, shrubs, or rarely trees. Leaves opposite or alternate, often bistipulate, rarely entire. Flowers often showy, regular or irregular, hermaphrodite, usually su...
-1. Geranium
Herbs, rarely shrubby, stems often tumid at the joints. Leaves opposite or alternate, bistipulate, dentate, palmately or rarely pinnately lobed or dissected. Peduncles axillary, 1- or 2-flowered. Flow...
-2. Pelargonium
Herbs, often shrubby. This genus is distinguished from the preceding by its usually umbellate irregular flowers, in which the petals are dissimilar, and in the upper sepal being furnished with a spur,...
-3. Tropaeolum
Climbing, trailing, or diffuse annual or perennial herbs, often tuberous-rooted. Leaves alternate, peltate, or palmately-lobed or dissected; stipules none, or minute. Flowers pedunculate, solitary, ax...
-4. Limnanthes
Diffuse glabrous annuals with alternate dissected exstipulate leaves. Flowers regular, pedunculate, solitary, axillary, white, yellow, or rose. Sepals 5, valvate. Petals 5, sub-perigynous, contorted. ...
-5. Oxalis
Herbs, or rarely dwarf shrubs. Leaves usually 3-foliolate, sometimes plurifoliate or pinnate, stipulate or exstipulate, alternate. Flowers regular, on axillary or radical 1- or more flowered peduncles...
-6. Impatiens
Herbs or undershrubs, usually glabrous. Leaves alternate, opposite or radical, serrate or dentate; petiole often glandular at the base. Peduncles axillary, solitary, or fascicled, one or more flowered...
-Order XXVII. - Rutaceae
A considerable order of plants when limited to the Ruteae proper; but the Aurantieae and Zanthoxyleae are now usually associated with them. These plants are remarkable amongst the Thalamifloreae for t...
-1. Dictamnus
Calyx 5-partite, deciduous, the lower segments longest. Petals 5, the four upper ones ascending, the lower one distant, turned downwards. Disk annular, fleshy. Stamens 10, free, declinate. Fruit consi...
-2. Ptelea
Deciduous shrubs or small trees with bitter bark, usually alternate trifoliolate or pinnate leaves with pellucid dots, cymose inconspicuous yellowish green flowers, and orbicular winged fruits. Flower...
-3. Skimmia
Evergreen shrubs with alternate simple petiolate glabrous lanceolate entire leaves with transparent dots and terminal panicles of small white flowers succeeded by scarlet berries. Flowers polygamous, ...
-4. Citrus
The Oranges are shrubs or trees having alternate dotted leaves with a winged petiole jointed with the lamina. Flowers hermaphrodite, very fragrant. The fleshy fruit is too well known to need descripti...
-Order XXVIII - Simarubeae
A small order of shrubs or trees closely related to the Rutaceae, except that the leaves are usually alternate and destitute of immersed glands, and the cells of the ovary uniovulate. The following is...
-1. Ailanthus
Leaves unequally pinnate. Flowers small, polygamous, in terminal panicles. Calyx equally 5-lobed, imbricate. Petals 5, spreading, induplicate-valvate. Disk 10-lobed. Stamens 10; in the female flower n...
-Order XXIX.- Meliaceae
A considerable order of trees and shrubs, chiefly from the tropics, and only represented in our gardens by one hardy Japanese species. The principal distinctive character is in the stamens, the filame...
-1. Melia
Trees with alternate compound pinnate leaves and small flowers in large much-branched axillary panicles. Sepals and petals 5 or 6, the latter free, linear, contorted in aestivation. Staminal tube long...
-Order XXX - Ilicineae
Shrubs or trees, evergreen or deciduous. Leaves simple, alternate, usually glabrous, coriaceous, entire or with prickly teeth, destitute of stipules. Flowers regular, small, white, in axillary or term...
-1. Ilex (Including Prinos)
Characters of the order. Prinos, the ancient Greek name for the Holly, was formerly held to be a distinct genus, founded mainly upon the greater number of stones in the berries; but the examination of...
-Order XXXI - Celastrineae
A considerable order of trees and shrubs with opposite or alternate simple leaves and minute stipules when present. Flowers very small, greenish or white. Calyx small, lobes imbricate. Petals 4 or 5, ...
-1. Euonymus
Trees or shrubs, rarely subscandent. Leaves opposite, persistent or deciduous. About forty species are known, from India, China, Japan, Europe, and North America. Name from Evwvumos, literally, 'a goo...
-Order XXXII. - Rhamneae
Trees or shrubs, often spinose or glandular-pubescent, with alternate simple stipulate leaves often 3- or 5-nerved longitudinally. Flowers often small and green, rarely blue, yellow, or white as in Ce...
-1. Rhamnus
Evergreen or deciduous shrubs. Flowers in axillary cymes, often unisexual. Petals sometimes wanting. Disk coating the calyx-tube. Fruit a drupe, with 2 to 4 hard-shelled 1-seeded stones. A genus of si...
-2. Ceanothus
Evergreen shrubs with alternate or rarely opposite petio-late leaves. Flowers small but numerous, in terminally thyrsoid cymes or panicles, blue, white or yellow. Fruit a 3-lobed drupe, splitting from...
-Order XXXIII. - Ampelideae
Evergreen or deciduous climbing shrubs with tendrils. Leaves alternate, simple or compound. Flowers small and inconspicuous, in cymes or panicles opposite the leaves, rarely axillary. The structure of...
-1. Vitis (Including Ampelopsis)
This genus includes 230 of the 250 species in this order, but very few are in cultivation for decorative purposes. The Grape Vine, V. vinifera, is both ornamental and useful, and will bear very good f...
-Order XXXIV. - Sapindaceae
Deciduous trees or shrubs with alternate or opposite simple or compound leaves and usually polygamous flowers. Stamens unequal, or double the number of the petals, or if equal alternate with them, ins...
-Tribe I. - Sapindeae
Stamens inserted within the disk at the base of the ovary, or on one side. Ovary 3-celled. Fruit dehiscent. ...
-1. Kcelreuteria
Leaves alternate, imparipinnate. Flowers irregular, polygamous, yellow, in large terminal panicles. Calyx 5-partite, with valvate sepals. Petals 3 or 4, clawed, with two scales at the base, the positi...
-2. Xanthoceras
Leaves alternate, exstipulate, imparipinnate. Flowers regular, polygamous, large, white, in terminal simple racemes; pedicels long, bracteate at the base. Sepals 5, boat-shaped, imbricate. Petals 5, e...
-3. Aesculus (Including Pavia)
Noble trees with opposite exstipulate digitately 5- to 9-folio-late deciduous leaves and terminal panicles or racemes of usually showy flowers. Flowers polygamous, irregular. Sepals and petals 4 or 5....
-Tribe II. - Acerineae
Flowers regular. Sepals and petals, when present, of the same number. Fruit samaroid, indehiscent. ...
-4. Acer
Trees or shrubs with opposite deciduous palmately lobed or divided leaves and small polygamous racemose flowers. Disk annular, fleshy, lobed. Fruit of two spreading samaras with long wings. About fift...
-5. Negundo
This genus is sometimes united with the Maples; it differs only in the absence of a disk in the dioecious flowers, and in having pinnate leaves. There are only two or three species known, natives of J...
-Tribe III. - Meliantheae
Flowers hermaphrodite. Stamens inserted within the disk at its base. Leaves alternate, pinnate, stipulate. ...
-6. Melianthus
Shrubs with unequally pinnate leaves and terminal or axillary racemes of dark purple flowers. Calyx gibbous and oblique at the base. Petals 5, excentric, one very small or wanting, decimate, narrow, o...
-Tribe IV. - Staphyleae
Flowers hermaphrodite. Stamens inserted at the base of the outside of the disk. Leaves stipulate, opposite, pinnate, or 3- to 5-foliolate. ...
-7. Staphylea
Deciduous branching shrubs with small pentamerous white flowers in drooping axillary racemes or panicles. Fruit capsular, inflated, membranous, 2- or 3-lobed and 2- or 3-celled, with 1 or more albumin...
-Order XXXV. - Anacardiaceae
A large order of trees and shrubs, chiefly from tropical countries. Leaves usually alternate, pinnate, trifoliolate or simple. Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous. Ovary usually 1-celled, with a solit...
-1. Rhus
Trees or shrubs abounding in resinous or caustic juice. Leaves simple, trifoliolate or imparipinnate. Flower inconspicuous, in axillary or terminal panicles, polygamous. Calyx small, 4- to 6-partite; ...
-2. Pistacia
Small trees or shrubs abounding in resinous secretions, with pinnate leaves, with or without a terminal leaflet, or sometimes trifoliolate, and small apetalous dioecious flowers in axillary clusters. ...
-Order XXXVI. - Coriarieae
This order consists of one genus and about six species, rather widely dispersed, occurring on the shores of the Mediterranean, through the mountains of Northern India to Japan, and in New Zealand and ...
-1. Coriaria
Unarmed shrubs with simple opposite 1- to 5-nerved leaves and small green axillary flowers. Disk none. Sepals 5, persistent, membranous on the margin. Petals 5, hypogynous, shorter than the sepals, fl...
-Sub-Order I. - Papilionaceae
Trees, shrubs, or herbs of very diverse habit. Leaves bisti-pulate, alternate, rarely opposite, pinnate, digitate, or more rarely simple; leaflets entire, lobed or toothed, sometimes stipellate. Inflo...
-Tribe I. - Podalyrieae
Shrubs, rarely herbs. Leaves simple or digitate. Stamens 10, free. ...
-1. Piptanthus
Standard orbicular, slightly exceeding the wings, the sides reflexed; wings oblong-obvate; keel petals as long or longer than the wings, scarcely incurved, connate at the back. Pod stalked and many-se...
-2. Thermopsis
Calyx shortly turbinate at the base. Petals nearly equal. Pod sessile or shortly stalked, linear or oblong, inflated, valves slightly coriaceous. Herbs with creeping rhizomes. Leaves digitately trifol...
-3. Baptisia
Calyx obtuse or scarcely turbinate at the base. Petals almost equal, the carinal connate at the back. Pod stalked, ovoid or globose, inflated, often coriaceous. Leaves digitately trifoliolate, or simp...
-Tribe II. - Genisteae
Shrubs or herbs. Leaves simple or digitately compound; leaflets quite entire. Stamens 10, monadelphous. ...
-4. Lupinus
A large genus of very ornamental annual or perennial plants, rarely frutescent. Leaves 5- to many-foliolate, rarely trifoliolate; stipules adnate to the base of the long petiole. Flowers variable in c...
-5. Adenocarpus
A small genus of dwarf branching shrubs closely allied to Cytisus, but distinguished from that and the neighbouring genera by the linear compressed pod being clothed with glandular prickles; hence the...
-6. Laburnum
Technically distinguished from the neighbouring genera by the stalked pod with fleshy or winged sutures and estrophiolate seeds. Three species only are referred to this genus, from the South of Europe...
-7. Genista
Dwarf prickly or unarmed shrubs with 1-foliolate leaves or none, very rarely 3-foliolate. Calyx campanulate, the upper lobes free or connate. The claws of the lower petals connected with the staminal ...
-8. Spartium
As here limited, this genus consists of only one species. It differs from Genista in having a spathaceous calyx, with the two upper short teeth free, and the three lower united into a lip, the keel in...
-9. Ulex
These prickly bushes are distinguished in their floral characters from allied genera by having a coloured bipartite calyx with the upper lobe of two teeth and the lower of three minute teeth. The spin...
-10. Cytisus
Shrubs, rarely spiny. Leaves usually 3-foliolate, sometimes 1-foliolate, or wanting. Calyx more or less two-lipped. A considerable genus, nearly all the species from the Mediterranean region. The orig...
-Tribe III. - Trifolieae
Herbs, rarely shrubs. Leaves pinnntely (rarely digitately) 3-foliolate; veins usually ending in teeth. Upper stamen usually free. There are scarcely any species of this tribe grown for decorative p...
-Tribe IV. - Loteae
Herbs or undershrubs. Leaves pinnately divided; leaflets 3 or more, entire. Flowers capitate or umbellate. Upper stamen free, or not; alternate filaments often dilated. ...
-11. Anthyllis
Trailing herbs or shrubs. Flowers usually capitate, yellow, white, purple, or red. Calyx tubular or inflated, including the 1- or few-seeded pod. Stamens usually monadelphous. About twenty species are...
-12. Lotus
Procumbent herbs or undershrubs. Leaflets 4 or 5. Flowers umbellate on axillary peduncles. Calyx-lobes often longer than the tube. Keel beaked. Upper stamens free. Pod oblong or linear, terete, turgid...
-Tribe V. - Galegeae
Herbs, not climbing, or erect or climbing shrubs, rarely trees. Leaves pinnate. Flowers solitary, racemose, or paniculate. Stamens 10, usually diadelphous. Pods 2-valved, rarely small and indehiscent ...
-13. Amorpha
A small genus of North American deciduous shrubs with imparipinnate leaves and small purple or white flowers disposed in dense terminal racemose panicles. Only one petal, the upper, is developed in th...
-14. Galega
Tall erect perennial herbs. Leaves imparipin-nate, leaflets entire; stipules semi-sagittate. Flowers white or blue, in terminal and axillary racemes. Stamens monadelphous. Style smooth. Legume linear,...
-15. Wistaria
Tall climbing deciduous shrubs with imparipinnate leaves and terminal pendulous racemes of bluish flowers. The two upper teeth of the calyx short and subconnate, the inferior longer. Standard large. S...
-16. Robinia
Deciduous trees or shrubs, often spiny, with imparipinnate leaves and axillary racemes of white, rose, or purple flowers. Standard large and broad, naked within; wings oblong-falcate, free; keel incur...
-17. Clianthus
Trailing or climbing herbs. Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets small, numerous, oblong. Flowers very large, brilliantly coloured, in short pendulous axillary racemes. Petals acuminate; standard reflexed. ...
-18. Colutea
Shrubs with imparipinnate leaves and yellow or reddish flowers in axillary racemes. The stipitate membranaceous inflated pod is the main character of the genus. There are about seven or eight species,...
-19. Halimodendron
A genus of one shrubby species. Leaves abruptly pinnate. Flowers pink, rather large, umbellate, axillary, or fascicled on the old nodes. Pod stalked, very turgid, thickly coriaceous. From salin...
-20. Caragana
Trees or shrubs. Leaves abruptly pinnate, often fascicled, the rachis usually terminated by a bristle or rigid prickle. Stipules often spinescent. Flowers yellow, rarely white or red; peduncles 1-flow...
-21. Calophaca
Shrubs or herbs. Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets quite entire. Flowers rather large, yellow or violet, axillary, solitary, sub-umbellate or racemose. Standard petal obovate or orbiculate, keel petals a...
-22. Astragalus
A very extensive genus of herbs or dwarf often spiny shrubs with unequally pinnate leaves and racemose or spicate seldom umbellate flowers. Calyx tubular; teeth 5, nearly equal. Petals narrow, with lo...
-Tribe VI. - Hedysareae
Habit variable. Pod transversely jointed. ...
-23. Coronilla
Herbs or undershrubs, usually glabrous. Leaves impari-pinnate. Flowers yellow or purple or pink and white, variegated, umbellate on long axillary peduncles, keel acute or beaked. Pod round, tetragonal...
-24. Hedysarum
Herbs or undershrubs. Leaves imparipinnate. Flowers in axillary spikes or racemes, purple, yellow, or white. Standard obovate or obcordate, narrowed at the base. Upper stamen free. Pod flattened, pric...
-Tribe VII. - Vicieae
Leaves abruptly pinnate; petiole terminated by a bristle or tendril, leaflets often toothed at the tip. Stamens generally diadelphous. Pod 2-valved. ...
-25. Lathyrus
Climbing annuals or perennials. Leaves pinnate, petiole ending in a simple or branched tendril; stipules foliaceous. A- large genus, found in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere and in South ...
-26. Orobus
This differs from the last genus in having no tendril at the tip of the petiole, and is usually united with it; but for our purpose it is more convenient to keep it separate. The Latin name. Bitter Ve...
-Tribe VIII. - Phaseoleae
Twining herbs or erect shrubs or trees. Leaves pinnate or digitately trifoliolate. Stamens diadelphous, or the upper one partially united with the others. Pod 2-valved. The Scarlet Runner Bean, Phaseo...
-27. Erythrina
Trees or shrubs, branches often thick and beset with prickles. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate. Flowers showy, usually bright scarlet, in terminal racemes. Standard petal larger and longer than the wing...
-Tribe IX. - Sophoreae
Tall erect trees or shrubs or climbers. Leaves pinnate. Stamens 10, free. ...
-28. Cladrastis
Small trees with imparipinnate exstipulate leaves and terminal panicles of white flowers. Pod shortly stalked, flat, thin, scarcely dehiscent. Only two species are described: the following an American...
-29. Sophora
Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs. Leaves imparipinnate. Flowers white, yellow, or bluish violet, in simple terminal racemes or panicles. Pods roundish or 4-winged, moniliform, fleshy or coriaceous. Nativ...
-Sub-Order II. - Caesalpineae
Calyx usually deeply partite. Petals imbricate, the upper one innermost. Stamens usually free. ...
-30. Gleditschia
Deciduous trees often furnished with simple or branched rigid spines. Leaves bipinnate, and on the same tree simply abruptly pinnate. Flowers polygamous, small, greenish or white, in axillary clustere...
-31. Gymnocladus
A genus comprising a single North American species, differing from Gleditschia in the thick turgid or terete pod. Name from unarmed, and a branch, in reference to the absence of thorns. ...
-32. Cassia
A vast genus abounding in tropical countries, and a few species reaching the warm temperate parts of North America. Trees, shrubs, or herbs with abruptly pinnate leaves and paniculate or racemose usua...
-33. Cercis
Small deciduous trees, easily distinguished from all other hardy trees of this class by their simple reniform or cordate leaves. Flowers somewhat papilionaceous, but the upper petal interior, usually ...
-Order XXXVIII. - Rosaceae
Herbs, shrubs, or trees, erect, prostrate, or rarely climbing. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, simple or variously compound, stipulate. Calyx superior or inferior, with 5 or 4 lobes, the fifth lo...
-Tribe I. - Pruneae
, Calyx usually deciduous : lobes ebracteate. Stamens many. Carpel 1; style terminal; ovules 2, pendulous. Fruit drupaceous, not included within the calyx-tube. Trees or shrubs. ...
-1. Prunus. (Including Amygdalus, Armeniaca, Persica, And Cerasus.)
Evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs. Leaves simple, alternate, often serrulate. Flowers solitary, racemose, or in fascicled corymbs, white or rose. The number of the species is estimated at about e...
-Tribe II. - Spiraeeae
Lobes of the calyx usually persistent. Stamens 10 or more. Carpels 1 to 8. Ovules 2 or more, pendulous. Carpels not included in the calyx-tube. Shrubs or herbs. ...
-2. Spiraea
Shrubby or herbaceous plants with alternate simple pinnate or bi- or tri-ternate leaves, and free or sheathing stipules. Flowers rose or white, inflorescence variable. Sepals and petals 4 or 5. Stamen...
-3. Kerria
An old favourite for training against walls, formerly known as Corchorus, is the only plant belonging to this genus. Petals 5. Stamens numerous. Carpels 5 to 8, dry and indehiscent, 1-seeded. Named in...
-4. Rhodotypos
Another monotypic Japanese genus. A deciduous shrub with opposite branches and leaves, and rather large white flowers. Calyx-lobes 4, large, foliaceous, deeply serrated. Petals 4. Stamens many. Carpel...
-Tribe III. - Rubeae
Calyx-lobes persistent, ebracteolate. Stamens and carpels numerous; ovules 2, collateral, pendulous. ...
-5. Rubus
Creeping herbs or sarmentose often prickly shrubs. Leaves distant, alternate, simple, lobed, or 3- to 5-foliolate, or impari-pinnate. This genus is remarkable for the fleshy drupes usually aggregated ...
-Tribe IV. - Potentilleae
Calyx persistent, bracteolate. Carpels usually numerous, with one ascending seed in each. ...
-6. Geum
Perennial herbs with tufted pinnate radical leaves, the terminal lobe very large. These plants differ from the Potentillas in their pinnate leaves and elongated styles after flowering. About thirty sp...
-7. Potentilla
Herbs or rarely shrubs, those in general cultivation with digitate leaves. Stipules adnate to the petiole. Flowers showy, white, yellow, crimson, or scarlet. Calyx with 5 or 4 bracteoles, and as many ...
-Tribe V. - Poterieae
Petals often absent. Carpels 1 to 3, included within calyx-tube. This tribe furnishes few ornamental species. The elegant plaited foliage of the Lady's Mantle (Alchemilla) entitles it to a place in...
-Tribe VI - Roseae
This tribe includes only one genus, as characterised below. ...
-8. Rosa
This favourite genus is distinguished as follows: Calyx 5-lobed; lobes simple or compound, inserted upon the top of a spherical or pear-shaped calycinal tube, generally considered as a mere dilatation...
-I. Rosae Feroces, Or Spiny Roses
Bushes from 3 to 6 feet high, branches densely armed with prickles; leaves deciduous, fruits downy when young, but becoming glabrous towards maturity. This group contains only two species, R. ferox an...
-II. Rose Bracteatae, Or Bracteate Roses
- Dense bushes from 3 to 6 feet high, readily distinguished from all other Roses by their floral leaves or bracts, and their shaggy ovaries and fruits. Only two species are known, both from Central a...
-III. Rosae Cinnamomeae, Or Cinnamon Roses
- Shrubs or bushes variable in height, natives of Europe, Western Asia, and North America. The leaflets are usually long and lanceolate, especially in the American species; the flowers are of medium s...
-IV. Rosae Pimpinellifoliae, Or Burnet Roses
- Shrubs with or without spines, whose fruits retain the convergent calyx-leaves until maturity. This tribe is more easily distinguished from the others by the number of the leaflets (from 7 to 15) t...
-V. Rosae Centifoliae, The Provence Or Cabbage And Moss Roses,
These form the most interesting group in the genus, and contain those races longest in cultivation. Here also, and perhaps more than elsewhere, we find great divergence of opinions among botanists as ...
-VI. Rosae Villosae, Downy Roses
- This not very natural and ill-defined tribe is distinguished by the following characteristics : Stems erect, inflexible; spines almost straight; leaflets oval or oblong, with diverging teeth; calyx...
-VII. Rosae Rubiginosae, The Sweet Briar And Eglantine Roses
- Very closely allied to the preceding tribe, from which they are distinguished by their curved suckers, and especially by the glandular under-surface of the leaves; a character almost exclusively con...
-VIII. Rosae Caninae, Dog Roses
Rosae Caninae, Dog Roses, in which the orifice of the calyx-tube, or more properly the receptacle, is contracted as in the preceding by the thickening of the disk, but differing from the species of th...
-IX. Rosae Systylae, Roses With Confluent Styles
- This is the only distinctive character, but the leaves are often persistent, which may be considered as a secondary character. We have here:R. systyla, the Hill Rose, closely resembling the Dog Ros...
-X. Rosae Banksianae, Or Banksian Roses
- Usually climbing-shrubs whose leaves have mostly no more than 3 to 5 leaflets. Their principal botanical character is in the stipules, which are almost free, narrow, acute, and nearly always decidu...
-XI. Rosa Berberidifolia, The Barberry- Or Simple-Leaved Rose
We merely mention Rosa berberidifolia, the Barberry- or Simple-leaved Rose to complete the series of Roses, for it is hardly known in our gardens. It is an undershrub 2 to 3 feet high, producing sucke...
-Tribe VII. - Pomeae
Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary (or carpels immersed in the fleshy peduncle). Stamens numerous. Fruit pomaceous or drupoid. Trees and shrubs. ...
-9. Pyrus. (Including Cydonia, Sorbus, Etc.)
Trees or shrubs. Leaves deciduous, simple or pinnate; stipules deciduous. Flowers white, pink, or rose, in terminal cymes. Fruit fleshy, 2- to 5-celled, cells 1- or 2-seeded, cartilaginous. Between th...
-10. Crataegus
Deciduous trees or shrubs, often armed with sharp spines. Leaves variable. Calyx-limb persistent. Fruit ovoid or spherical, with hard bony cells or stones. The species are numerous, and distributed t...
-11. Cotoneaster
Trees or shrubs, erect or decumbent. Leaves alternate, very small and persistent, or larger and deciduous. Flowers in sparse axillary or terminal cymes, or solitary, small, white, with calyx woolly on...
-12. Photinia (Including Eriobotrya)
Evergreen shrubs or trees with large simple coriaceous entire or toothed leaves. Flowers numerous, small, white, in terminal panicles or corymbs. Calyx-lobes persistent. Berry 1- to 5-celled, walls of...
-13. Raphioleipis
Evergreen shrubs or trees with simple coriaceous leaves and white or pink flowers. Calyx-limb deciduous. Berry pulpy, 1- or 2-celled, 1- or 2-seeded. A small genus of about five species from Japan and...
-14. Amelanchier
Small trees or shrubs with alternate simple deciduous leaves and white racemose flowers. Calyx urceolate; lobes persistent. Berry imperfectly 4- to 10-celled; cells 1-seeded. Only four species are kno...
-Order XXXIX. - Saxifrageae. (Including Escalloniacecae, Hydrangeaceae, Cunoniaceae, Francoaceae, Grossulariaceae, Philadelpheae, Etc.)
Trees, shrubs, or herbs of variable habit. The structure of the flowers in this order is very similar to that of the Rosaceae, and in some species so close as to render it a matter of doubt to which o...
-Tribe I. - Saxifrageae
Herbs, often scapigerous. Leaves usually alternate. Flowers nearly always pentamerous. Fruit 1- to 3-celled. ...
-1. Astilbe (Hoteia)
Tall branching herbs with triternate leaves and membranaceous stipules, having the aspect of some Spiraeas, and very near them in structure; but differing in the stamens not exceeding 8 or 10, and the...
-2. Saxifraga
Perennial or annual herbs, of various habit. Leaves small and rosulate or rarely large, with sheathing petioles. Calyx-tube short or long, free or adnate to the base of the ovary, 5-lobed. Petals 5, r...
-3. Parnassia
Stemless herbs with radical entire leaves and 1-flowered scapes. Flowers white or pale yellow, about an inch in diameter, pentamerous, 5 fertile and 5 sterile stamens alternating. Capsule 1-celled, lo...
-Tribe H. - Francoeae,
Scapigerous herbs with the parts of the flowers in fours. Stamens 4 or 8. Natives of Chili. ...
-4. Francoa
Leaves crowded, lyrate-pinnatifid or pinnate, glandular-toothed. Flowers in erect elongated racemes, petals and sepals equal. Tetilla, an allied genus, has very unequal petals and sepals. There are th...
-Tribe III. - Hydrangeae
Shrubs with opposite simple exstipulate leaves. Petals usually valvate, and stamens epigynous. Ovary 3- to 5-celled. ...
-5. Hydrangea
Erect or climbing shrubs. Leaves persistent or deciduous, entire, toothed or lobed. Flowers in large terminal corymbs or panicles, fertile small, sterile large and apetalous. Petals 4 or 5, valvate. S...
-6. Deutzia
Small deciduous shrubs with opposite oranches and minute stellate often rough hairs. Leaves ovate or lanceolate, serrulate. Flowers scentless, white or pink, solitary, racemose or corymbose, axillary ...
-7. Philadelphus
Deciduous shrubs, differing from the last genus in having larger often sweet-scented flowers, 4 or 5 imbricate petals, numerous stamens, and slender filaments. The species, of which there are about tw...
-Tribe IV. - Escallonieae
Trees or shrubs with alternate exstipulate simple often glandular-serrate coriaceous leaves. Stamens of the same number as the petals. ...
-8. Escallonia
A South American genus of evergreen shrubs with white or red flowers in terminal panicles, or more rarely axillary. Calyx superior. Petals 5, linear-spathulate, with an erect claw and spreading limb. ...
-Tribe V. - Ribesiaceae
Shrubs with alternate simple deciduous leaves. Stipules adnate to the petiole or absent. Flowers usually racemose. Ovary inferior, 1-celled; seeds immersed in pulp. ...
-9. Ribes
Spiny or unarmed. Calyx-limb 5-parted, usually coloured. Petals small, alternating with the stamens on the throat of the calyx, often scale-like and inconspicuous. Upwards of fifty species are describ...
-Order XL. - Crassulaceae
Usually fleshy herbs with alternate or opposite leaves, often crowded at the extremities of the branches in rosettes; stipules none. Flowers regular, cymose. Sepals free, persistent, 3 to 5, rarely mo...
-1. Crassula
Dwarf herbs, rarely frutescent. Petals 5, free, or connate at the base only. Stamens and carpels of the same number. Leaves sessile, opposite, usually more or less fleshy, entire, glabrous, or ciliate...
-2. Sedum
Succulent usually prostrate herbs with alternate opposite or whorled leaves, seldom in rosettes. Parts of the flower in fives or fours; stamens twice as many as petals. 120 species, chiefly from the t...
-3. Sempervivum
Leaves usually thick and fleshy, usually in dense rosettes. Parts of the flower in sixes or more. Stamens usually double the number of petals. Species numerous, from the Mediterranean region, Atlantic...
-Order XLI - Droseraceae
The Sundew family deserves mentioning here, though it is very rare that attempts are made to cultivate any of the species. They are distinguished by their free ovary with numerous seeds on parietal pl...
-Order XLII. - Hamamelideae
This is a somewhat anomalous group of shrubs and trees. Leaves usually stipulate and alternate, simple, entire, toothed or lobed. Flowers often small and unisexual, usually in dense heads. Fruit a woo...
-1. Fothergilla
A genus of one North American species, occasionally seen in our gardens. Flowers white, in dense terminal bracteate spikes. Petals none. Stamens about 24; filaments long, clavate. Capsule 2-seeded. Na...
-2. Liquidambar
Trees with a balsamic juice. Leaves alternate, glabrous, deciduous, palmately lobed; petioles long and slender. Male and female flowers separate, with four large bracts forming an involucre at the bas...
-Order XLII. - Halorageae
A small family of marsh and water plants, chiefly insignificant weeds. Flowers small and often incomplete, parts in twos or fours. The Water Milfoil (Myriophyllum) and Mare's Tail (Hippitris) belong t...
-1. Gunnera
Herbs with large radical leaves. Flowers in dense spikes or branched panicles. About twelve species are known, nearly all south of the equator, in Africa, America, Australia, and the Antarctic Islands...
-Order XLIV.- Myrtaceae
This vast order furnishes us with very few hardy subjects; in fact, not a single species that will withstand the climate throughout the kingdom. It includes about seventy-five genera and some 2,000 sp...
-1. Myrtus
This is the only genus we have to refer to, and one species alone is hardy even in the South-west of England. There are perhaps nearly 100 species belonging to this genus. The name is that applied to ...
-Order XLV. - Melastomaceae
Another large assemblage of trees and shrubs, and including a few herbaceous species. Natives of the tropics of all countries, and particularly numerous in America, a few reaching the temperate region...
-1. Rhexia
A small genus of North American plants. Stems shrubby or herbaceous. Flowers tetramerous. Stamens 8, equal. Anthers opening by a terminal pore, spurred at the base. About six species are known. The na...
-Order XLVI - Lythrarieae
Trees, shrubs, or herbs of variable habit with the branches often tetragonal. Leaves usually opposite, exstipulate. Calyx-lobes valvate. Petals usually crumpled. Stamens definite or rarely numerous. F...
-1. Cuphea
Herbs, often viscid; branches terete. Leaves opposite or verticillate, ovate or lanceolate, entire. Peduncles from between the petioles, 1- or more flowered. Flowers scarlet, purple, or white. Calyx-t...
-2. Lythrum
Herbs or undershrubs with 4-angled stems. Leaves opposite or whorled, entire. Flowers in the axil of the upper leaves, cymose or solitary. Calyx-tube costate, straight, equal at the base, 4- to 6-toot...
-Order XLVII - Onagrarieae
Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs. Leaves opposite and alternate, usually entire. Flowers often showy, axillary and solitary, or in terminal racemes or panicles. Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary; limb...
-1. Epilobium
Calyx-tube slender, scarcely produced above the seod-vessel; limb 4-lobed, deciduous. Petals 4, often 2-lobed. Stamens 8, alternately smaller. Capsule 4-celled, dehiscing between the cells; seeds nume...
-2. Zauschneria
A genus of one herbaceous species having the same quaternary structure of the flowers and plumose seeds as Epilobium, but the calyx is coloured, and the tube prolonged above the ovary. A commemorative...
-3. Clarkia
Elegant slender branching annual plants with linear or lanceolate leaves and solitary or racemose flowers. Parts of the flower in fours. Petals clawed, often deeply 3-lobed. Capsule linear, many-se...
-4. Cenothera (Including Godetia)
Herbs, rarely frutescent. Leaves membranous, sessile or petiolate, entire, lobed, or pinnatifid. Flowers usually large and showy, axillary, sessile, or pedunculate. Calyx-tube produced above the seed-...
-5. Eucharidium
Pretty annual herbs of dwarf habit, remarkable for the slender calyx-tube, which is elongated far above the seed-vessel. Calyx-limb deciduous. Petals 4, clawed, 3-lobed or obcordate. Stamens 4. Capsu...
-6. Fuchsia
Small shrubs or trees with opposite or whorled leaves. Calyx coloured, tube produced above the ovary, limb 4-lobed. Petals sessile on the mouth of the calyx-tube. Stamens 8, on slender filaments. Sty...
-7. Lopezia
Curious herbs with rather small flowers, remarkable in having only one antheriferous stamen, and one petaloid. L. coronata is an interesting annual about 2 feet high, with alternate ovate-lanceolate s...
-Order XLVIII. - Loaseae
Erect or climbing herbs, destitute of tendrils, or more rarely shrubs, frequently clothed with hispid often stinging hairs. Leaves opposite or alternate, entire, lobed, pinnatifid or pinnate; stipules...
-1. Mentzelia. (Including Bartonia And Eucnide.)
Herbs with alternate leaves. Flowers large, white or yellow. Stamens very numerous. Petals flat. Capsule 1-celled, straight; seeds few or many. Named in honour of Gr. Mentzel, a German botanist. 1....
-2. Loasa. (Including Caiophora.)
Erect climbing or prostrate herbs with hispid stinging hairs. Leaves alternate or opposite, simple or compound. Petals 5, hooded, spreading or erect, con-nivent, alternating with the same number of sc...
-Order XLIX. - Passifloreae
The plants of this family are mostly of climbing habit, with alternate lobed leaves and lateral tendrils. In structure they are remarkable in having a single double or triple corona, as the organs are...
-1. Passiflora
Distinguished from the neighbouring genera by the short calyx-tube and the three often recurved styles. Passion-flower is simply a translation of the technical name, which was given on account of a fa...
-Order L - Cucurbitaceae
Scandent or prostrate herbs, annual, or often with a large fleshy perennial rhizome, rarely shrubby. Leaves alternate, simple, lobed, or palmately or pedately partite. Tendrils (when present) lateral,...
-Order LI - Begoniaceae
This order comprises one vast genus, Begonia, containing upwards of 350 species, and one or two monotypic genera. The species are mostly succulent herbs of variable habit and duration, and many have p...
-Order LII. - Cacteae
A highly curious assemblage of plants, in nearly all of which the leaves are undeveloped or reduced to spines or scales, and the stems fleshy, abounding in the most remarkable and ungainly forms. The ...
-Order LIII. - Ficoideae
This order includes about a score of uninteresting genera besides the following, which is the only one we have to consider. ...
-1. Mesembryanthemum
Herbs or erect or prostrate shrubs with usually opposite simple fleshy leaves very variable in form, and conspicuous white, yellow or red flowers resembling some of the Compositeae in appearance, thou...
-Order LIV. - Umbelliferae
Herbs or shrubs, rarely arborescent. Leaves usually much divided. Flowers very small, in compound or simple umbels, rarely capitate, with or without involucral bracts. Calyx superior, limb obsolete or...
-1. Bupleurum
Leaves simple and entire. Flowers yellowish, in compound umbels. Calyx-teeth none. Fruits laterally compressed. About sixty species of this genus are known, chiefly from the north temperate zone, a fe...
-2. Eryngium
Herbs with prickly foliage and bracts. Leaves lobed or dissected or undivided, with rigid teeth. Flowers sessile, in dense heads or spikes surrounded by a whorl of bracts. About 100 species, from the ...
-3. Astrantia
Erect perennial herbs with palmately-lobed leaves, not spiny. Umbels simple or compound, exceeded by the radiating coloured involucral bracts. A genus of a few variable species, which have received a ...
-4. Trachymene (Didiscus)
This is an Australasian genus of few species, with the flowers in simple umbels, and the fruit very much flattened laterally. From rough, and a membrane or skin. 1. T. coerulea, bette...
-5. Ferula
Gigantic herbs with large much-divided leaves and tall branched inflorescence. Umbels compound; fruit dorsally compressed, almost flat, laterally winged. Natives of the Mediterranean region and Centra...
-6. Hericleum
Allied to the last genus, but differing in the structure of its fruit. Also large plants with ornamental foliage. There are about fifty species, nearly all in the north temperate zone. H. Sphondylium ...
-Order LV. - Araliaceae
Erect or climbing shrubs or trees, very rarely herbaceous, often clothed with a stellate pubescence, occasionally armed with spines. Leaves alternate, or very rarely opposite, entire, toothed, lobed, ...
-1. Aralia
Perennial herbs or deciduous shrubs, often spiny. Leaves digitate, or once or more pinnate; leaflets serrulate. Flowers in umbellate racemes or panicles, rarely in compound umbels. Petals 5, imbricate...
-2. Fatsia
Spinescent or unarmed small trees or shrubs with large palmately-lobed leaves. Flowers in umbellate racemes or panicles. Petals valvate. Fruit compressed laterally. .Only three species are included he...
-3. Hedera
Climbing evergreen shrubs with simple leaves. Flower-umbels paniculate. Petals valvate, with an equal number of stamens. Seeds with ruminated albumen. The derivation of the name is obscure, but suppos...
-Order LVI - Cornaceae
Shrubs, trees, or herbs. Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, deciduous or evergreen, exstipulate. Flowers usually small and inconspicuous, in terminal cymes or panicles, or amentaceous or capitate w...
-1. Coknus (Including Benthamia)
Shrubs, small trees, or herbs with usually opposite leaves and hermaphrodite tetramerous flowers with or without an involucre and a 2-celled fruit. There are about twenty-five species in Europe, Asia,...
-2. Aucuba
Evergreen shrubs with opposite leaves, dioecious tetramerous small purplish paniculate flowers, and 1-celled 1-seeded drupaceous fruits. The Japanese name. 1. A. Himalaica. - This is very near, and...
-3. Garrya
Evergreen shrubs with opposite leaves and dioecious flowers in catkins. Petals none. Calyx-lobes and stamens 4. Berry 1-celled, 1- or 2-seeded. There are eight species known, one West Indian, and the ...
-Division II. - Gamopetalae
Petals usually united, forming a monopetalous corolla. ...
-Order LVIL - Caprifoliaceae
Shrubs or herbs with opposite usually exstipulate simple or compound leaves and usually corymbose or cymose flowers. Calyx-limb superior, 3- to 5-toothed or -lobed. Corolla regular or irregular, often...
-1. Linnaea
A genus of one species. A small elegant creeping evergreen shrub, named in honour of the celebrated Swedish botanist, and thus possessing an additional attraction in the eyes of the amateur. 1. L. ...
-2. Lonicera
Erect prostrate or climbing shrubs with opposite simple entire or lobed deciduous or persistent leaves and cymose or capitate often fragrant flowers sometimes adhering together by the ovaries in pairs...
-3. Abelia
A small genus of deciduous or evergreen shrubs with slender branches, opposite leaves, and terminal or axillary clusters of handsome flowers. Calyx-lobes foliaceous or linear. Corolla funnel-shaped. S...
-4. Symphoricarpus
Slender branching deciduous shrubs with small red or white flowers and white or pink berries about the size of a small cherry. There are about half a dozen species, natives of North America.. The name...
-5. Leycesteria
A monotypic genus from Nepal. An erect deciduous shrub with hollow stems, rather large ovate acuminate entire leaves and small white or purplish flowers in pendulous bracteate racemes from the axils o...
-6. Diervilla (Weigela)
Handsome shrubs bearing large showy pink, rose, or white flowers in axillary and terminal clusters. Calyx-tube very slender, produced above the ovary. Corolla funnel - shaped or campanulate, nearly re...
-7. Viburnum
Shrubs or trees, evergreen or deciduous. Leaves simple, with or without stipules. Flowers small, jointed on the pedicel, in terminal or axillary cymes, corymbs or panicles, pink or white, outer flower...
-8. Sambucus
Herbs or shrubs with pinnate leaves and large compound cymes of small white flowers. Calyx-limb 3- to 5-toothed. Corolla rotate. Stamens 5. Berry 3- to 5-celled; cells one-seeded. There are about t...
-Sub-Order I. - Stellatae
Herbs with quadrangular stems and whorled entire leaves. Flowers very small, articulated with the pedicel, in axillary or terminal stalked cymes. Calyx-limb superior, annular, or toothed, or obsolete....
-1. Asperula
Calyx-limb obsolete. Corolla funnel- or bell-shaped, 4-lobed. Stamens 4. There are about fifty species, a few of which are in cultivation. The name is from the Latin asper, rough. Many of the species ...
-2. Crucianella
Hispid herbs remarkable for the long slender tube of the funnel-shaped corolla. The name is a diminutive of crux, a cross, from the disposition of the leaves. 1. C. stylosa. - A very pretty plant i...
-Order LIX - Valerianaceae
Herbs with opposite entire or pinnatifid leaves and small flowers in dichotomous cymes. Calyx superior, limb lobed or feathery. Corolla funnel-shaped, tube often spurred at the base; lobes 3 to 5, une...
-1. Centranthus
Perennial herbs. Leaves entire. Calyx - limb feathery. Corolla - tube slender, flattened longitudinally, divided and spurred at the base. Stamen 1. Fruit membranous. There are ten species, in the nort...
-Order LX - Dipsaceae
Herbs with opposite exstipulate leaves and capitate involucrate flowers. Calyx superior, enclosed by a bracteolate invo-lucel; limb persistent, cup-shaped, lobed, or with five or more rigid bristles. ...
-1. Scabiosa
Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves entire or pinriatifid. Bracts of the involucre in one or two series. Receptacle convex or columnar, hairy or with scaly bracteoles shorter than the florets. Outer flo...
-2. Morina
A small genus of Asiatic herbs resembling the Thistles in their foliage. Flowers in dense clusters in the axils of the upper smaller leaves. Corolla-tube long, slender, curved; limb irregular. Stamens...
-Order LXI - Compositae
Herbs, shrubs, or trees. Leaves alternate, whorled, or less frequently opposite, simple or compound, exstipulate. Flowers sessile on the expanded peduncle or receptacle, and surrounded by a number of ...
-Sub-Order I. - Tubulifloreae
Florets all tubular and hermaphrodite, or the outer or ray-florets ligulate, and female or neuter. ...
-Tribe I. - Vernonieae
Leaves usually alternate. Florets all tubular and hermaphrodite. Branches of the style covered with bristles, Not represented in Britain. ...
-1. Stokesia
A monotypic genus from North America. Flower-heads large, terminal, solitary. Outer bracts of the involucre spinytoothed, the inner ciliated. Receptacle naked, fleshy. Outer florets largest. Pappus of...
-2. Pectis
Leaves opposite, usually narrow and entire, and furnished with pellucid dots. Flower-head small; involucre of a single row of bracts; receptacle naked. Pappus bristly or scaly. An American genus of ab...
-Tribe II. - Eupatorieae
Leaves usually opposite. Florets all tubular and hermaphrodite. Branches of the style usually club-shaped or enlarged at the extremities. ...
-3. Ageratum
Annual herbs with opposite leaves and blue or white flowers. Involucre of many imbricated linear bracts. Receptacle naked. Pappus composed of several awned scales broad at the base. This genus include...
-4. Liatris
A North American genus of handsome perennials resembling the Cynareae in habit. Involucral bracts small, numerous, imbricated, in many series. Receptacle naked. Pappus feathery. The name is unexplaine...
-Tribe III. - Asteroideae,
Leaves usually alternate. Outer or ray-florets often ligulate, female; disk-florets bisexual. Branches of the style linear, flat, often downy. ...
-5. Aster
A genus of about 200 species, chiefly from North America. The majority are perennials, often tall and leafy, having the flower-heads arranged in racemes or panicles. Involucral bracts multiseriate. Ra...
-6. Callistphus (Callistemma)
The only species we have to allude to under this head is the all-familiar China Aster, sometimes called Aster Sinensis. This genus is characterised by having an involucre of many fringed bracts, a pit...
-7. Erigeron
Herbaceous plants resembling the Asters, but the ray-florets are in several series. Nearly 100 species are known, from cold and temperate regions, but few of them are worthy of cultivation. The name i...
-8. Bellis
To this genus the Daisy belongs. The distinguishing character is founded upon the conical receptacle and absence of pappus. There are three or four species, in Europe, North Africa, and North America....
-9. Brachycome
Very near the last genus in structure. Involucral bracts membranous at the margin. Receptacle pitted, naked. Fruit compressed, surmounted by a very short bristly pappus; hence the name, from sh...
-10. Grindelia
Frutescent or herbaceous plants, often glutinous. Flower-heads solitary, terminal, yellow. Pappus composed of 2 to 8 narrow deciduous bristles. About a dozen species are known. The genus was named in ...
-11. Solidago
A genus of upwards of 100 species, chiefly from North America. They are usuallytall rather coarse-growing herbaceous or frutescent herbs with alternate entire or toothed leaves and terminal scorpioid ...
-12. Baccharis
A very large genus of American plants, containing many shrubby and arborescent species of very diverse habit, readily distinguished from allied genera by their dioecious flowers. Although there are so...
-13. Dahlia
This popular genus is characterised by having a double involucre, no pappus, and a large scarious bracteole at the base of each floret. It was named in honour of a Swedish botanist named Dahl, and con...
-Tribe IV. - Senecionideae
Leaves variable. Style cylindrical, with linear awns usually fringed at the point, often truncate, or extended beyond the fringe in a cone or other appendage. ...
-14. Silphium
A small genus of herbaceous plants of rather large stature, having opposite whorled or alternate leaves and large yellow monoecious flower-heads. Kay-florets female, and disk-florets barren. Achenes l...
-15. Zinnia
Handsome erect or prostrate annuals with opposite or verti-cillate sessile or clasping leaves and solitary flower-heads on long peduncles. The ray-florets are normally five, and persistent, and the pa...
-16. Polymnia
Herbs with alternate or opposite usually very large leaves. Flower-heads in corymbs, ray usually yellow, and the disk dark purple. Ray-florets female; disk-florets male. Pappus none. The species, abou...
-17. Rudbeckia. (Including Echinacea And Obeliscaria.)
North American herbaceous perennial plants with simple or pinnate opposite or alternate leaves and showy flower-heads of brightly coloured florets. Receptacle conical, with chaffy scales at the base o...
-18. Coreopsis (Calliopsis)
Annual or perennial showy usually glabrous herbs, natives of North America. Leaves simple or pinnate, opposite. Involucral bracts in two rows, the outer spreading and the inner combined at the base an...
-19. Helianthus
Tall coarse herbs, mostly natives of North America. Leaves large, simple, scabrid. Flower-heads very large, yellow with a dark centre. The Jerusalem Artichoke (H. tuberosus) is a familiar species of t...
-20. Cosmidium
A small group of annuals of close affinity with Coreopsis; but the achenes are long and narrow, and covered with minute tubercles, and closely embraced by the bracteoles of the receptacle, which fall ...
-21. Cosmos (Cosmea)
Annuals or perennials with pinnate leaves and solitary flower-heads. Receptacle furnished with linear acute coloured bracteoles, equalling or exceeding the florets. Achenes angular, largest in the mid...
-22. Sanvitalia
There is one annual species of this genus in cultivation, which is pretty well known. The characters are : involucral bracts numerous, in two or three series; receptacle bracteolate; achenes of the di...
-23. Tagetes
Handsome annual or perennial plants, emitting a powerful and somewhat disagreeable odour when bruised or touched. Leaves pinnate or simple. Involucre composed of about five bracts, cohering in a tube....
-24. Gaillardia
Handsome annual or perennial North American herbs. Leaves usually simple, entire, toothed, or pinnatifid. Flower-heads on long naked peduncles. Receptacle furnished with filiform bristles between the...
-25. Achillea
Perennials with alternate simple or compound leaves. Flower-heads small, corymbose; involucral bracts oblong, often brown and scarious. Receptacle paleaceous. Ray-florets few, sometimes relatively lar...
-26. Santolina
Small evergreen shrubs with solitary spherical rayless flower-heads on long peduncles. Achenes terete, destitute of pappus. Corolla-tube with a hood-like appendage on the base. The species are all nat...
-27. Chrysanthemum (Pyrethrum)
Annual or perennial herbs, rarely frutescent. Leaves various. Involucral bracts many, imbricated, scarious on the margin. Receptacle naked. Pappus none or cup-shaped. The species are natives of Eur...
-28. Rhodanthe (Acroclinium)
Elegant little annuals with everlasting flower-heads. In-volucral scales scarious, outer ones sessile, inner clawed, coloured and petaloid. Receptacle naked; florets all tubular and similar. Achenes v...
-29. Waitzia (Morna)
Annuals of less graceful habit than those in the last genus, but almost identical in floral characters, the main difference being in the achenes, which terminate in a slender beak bearing the pappus. ...
-30. Podolepis
This is another Australian genus of the same tribe. In this the involucral bracts are erect or not distinctly spreading as in the foregoing genera, and the outer florets are ligulate or irregular. Ach...
-31. Helichrysum
To this and the next genus belong the true Everlasting Flowers or Immortelles, or at least those generally cultivated and sold under these names. The species we have to notice are all treated as annua...
-32. Helipterum
This genus differs from Helichrysum in having a soft feathery pappus. The species are numerous, inhabiting the southern and western parts of Australia and South Africa. H. eximium is a beautiful Cape ...
-33. Ammobium
This genus also belongs to the Everlasting group, but it differs from all the preceding genera in having scales or bracteoles on the receptacle between the florets, and quadrangular achenes crowned wi...
-34. Humea
Though the only species in cultivation is widely different in aspect and habit from its allies, the structure of the minute flower-heads will be found to agree. Involucre of small imbricated scales. R...
-35. Doronicum
Herbs with few cauline and simple radical leaves, and yellow flowers. Involucral bracts in two or three series, equal. Disk-florets perfect, ray female, destitute of pappus. The species are natives of...
-36. Senecio
This vast genus contains several hundred species, but only one need occupy our attention here. The chief chaiacter is the involucre of one row of equal bracts. Flower-heads often destitute of ray-flor...
-Tribe V. - Cynareae
Leaves alternate, often spinescent. Involucral bracts usually imbricate and prickly. Florets, in most genera, all tubular; tube slender, ventricose. Lobes of the style with a swelling or ring of hairs...
-37. Calendula
The peculiarity of this genus is the rayed flower-heads, the ray-florets being female, and the disk-florets male. Only one species comes within our province. The generic name is derived from the Latin...
-38. Arctotis
South African plants bearing conspicuous orange-rayed lower-heads. Involucral bracts numerous, imbricated, scarious on the margin. Receptacled, pitted, studded with bristles be-ween the florets. Achen...
-39. Gazania
Another South African genus of showy-flowered herbs, possessing the same peculiarity of opening in bright weather only. Involucral bracts cohering to nearly the summit. Kay-florets neuter, disk-floret...
-40. Echinops
Herbs of Thistle-like aspect remarkable for having the capi-tules 1-flowered in terminal clusters, resembling the flower-heads of many other genera. Florets white or blue, with an involucre of prickly...
-41. Xeranthemum
Annuals from the Mediterranean region having the coloured radiating scarious involucral bracts of the Everlastings, and employed for the same purposes; but the other characters are those of the Thistl...
-42. Centautrea
A large genus of annual and perennial herbs of very diverse habit. Involucre globose or oblong; bracts imbricated, scarious, fringed, toothed, or spinous. Receptacle bristly. Florets all tubular, the ...
-Sub-Order II. - Labiatiflorae
Fertile or unisexual florets 2-lipped. We have no really hardy species belonging to this division, but there are two or three Chilian species of recent introduction which may be regarded as nearly so....
-Sub-Order III. - Liguliflorae
Florets all ligulate. Juice usually milky. ...
-43. Catananche
This genus is remarkable in this division for its scarious involucre and scaly pointed pappus. There are only two species described. The name is an altered form of the Greek katavaykn, from its repute...
-44. Tolpis
Involucral bracts very long and slender, as well as those on the upper portion of the peduncle. Pappus of the outer florets toothed, and the inner awned. There are about six annual species, natives of...
-Order LXII. - Campanulaceae. (Including Lobeliaceae)
Herbs, rarely frutescent; juice milky. Leaves alternate, exsti-pulate. Calyx-limb 5-cleft. Corolla epigynous, regular or irregular. Stamens 5, epigynous or epi-petalous; anthers free or combined. Ovar...
-1. Campanula
Perennial or more rarely annual or biennial herbs with blue or lilac or white flowers having a regularly lobed corolla and free anthers. This genus contains about 200 species. The name is from the Lat...
-2. Specularia
A small genus of annual plants sometimes united with Campanula; but the corolla is rotate, filaments flat and hairy, and the capsule fusiform or prismatic. Speculum is the Latin equivalent of looking-...
-3. Lobelia (Including Tupa)
Annual or perennial herbs with alternate leaves and raee-mose flowers. Corolla irregular, slit down the upper or posterior side; lobes unequal, the 2 upper erect or recurved, the 3 lower straight or r...
-Order LXIII - Ericaceae (Including Vaccineae)
Shrubs or trees, usually evergreen. Leaves simple, alternate, opposite or whorled, exstipulate. Flowers regular, hermaphrodite. Calyx superior or inferior; limb 4- or 5-lobed. Corolla campanulate or u...
-Tribe I - Vaccineae
Fruit inferior; stamens epigynous. ...
-1. Vaccinium
Erect or procumbent shrubs. Leaves alternate; buds clothed with scales. . Flowers small, solitary or racemose, white or red. Corolla campanulate or urceolate. Stamens 8 to 10; anther-cells with tubula...
-Tribe II.- Ericeae
Fruit superior; stamens hypogynous. ...
-2. Erica
Branching wiry shrubs. Leaves opposite, alternate or whorled, rigid, very small, usually having their margins re-volute. Flowers in axillary or terminal racemes or umbels, tetramerous. Stamens 8; coro...
-3. Menziesia (Phyllodoce, Dabeocia)
Heath-like shrubs. Leaves scattered, small. Flowers in terminal racemes, blue or pink or white. Corolla deciduous, ovoid, 4- or 5-lobed. Stamens 8 or 10. Capsule splitting between the cells. There are...
-4. Andromeda
Shrubs or small trees of variable habit and foliage. Buds clothed with scales. Calyx-lobes valvate. Corolla ovate or campanulate, deciduous. Stamens 10; anthers with or without awns. Capsule 5-celled,...
-5. Gaultheria
A large genus of evergreens from the most distant parts of the globe. Flowers white or red, axillary or racemose. Calyx often fleshy, enlarging after the expansion of the flowers. Corolla urceolate, t...
-6. Arbutus
Evergreen shrubs or small trees. Leaves alternate, entire or serrate. Flowers white or pink, in terminal racemose bracteate panicles. Corolla globose or campanulate, with small reflexed lobes. Stamens...
-7. Rhododendron
Shrubs or trees with few exceptions evergreen. Flowers showy, funnel-shaped, or irregularly 5-lobed. Stamens usually 10, and declinate. Flower-buds clothed with leafy scales. Fruit capsular, splitting...
-8. Azalea
Deciduous or evergreen shrubs. Leaves membranous, often ciliate and hairy, mucronate. Flowers large and showy, often glandular and clammy, expanding before the new leaves are fully developed. Corolla ...
-9. Kalmia
Evergreen shrubs usually of small stature and compact habit. Leaves alternate, entire. Flowers solitary or corymbose, hemispherical or broadly campanulate. This genus is remark-able for having project...
-10. Ledum
Small shrubs with evergreen revolute bullate leaves rusty-tomentose beneath and terminal clusters of small white or pinkish flowers. This genus is distinguished by having a corolla of 5 separate petal...
-Order LXIV. - Styracaceae
Shrubs or trees having simple alternate usually toothed exstipulate leaves and regular hermaphrodite flowers. Calyx free or adherent to the ovary. Corolla of 4 to 8 more or less united petals, often d...
-1. Halesia
Deciduous shrubs or small trees with petiolate venose leaves and pure white flowers on slender drooping pedicels, solitary or in small clusters from the buds of the preceding year. Calyx-tube adherent...
-Order LXV. - Ebenaceae
Hard-wooded trees or shrubs with simple alternate entire exstipulate leaves and inconspicuous regular polygamous axillary flowers. Calyx free, 4- to 6-lobed. Corolla 4- to 6-lobed. Stamens 8 to 16. Fr...
-1. Diospyros
This genus is by far the most numerous in species of any in the family. Ebony and several other valuable and handsome woods are furnished by this genus, and several species produce edible fruit. The n...
-Order LXVL - Jasmineae
Evergreen or deciduous shrubs often of trailing habit. Leaves opposite or rarely alternate, trifoliolate, pinnate or reduced to a single leaflet articulated with the petiole. Flowers often highly odor...
-1. Jasminum
This is the only genus of the order coming within our province. It is characterised by having a succulent fruit. The species occur in Europe, Asia, Africa, South America, and Australia; and the name i...
-Order LXVII. - Oleaceae
A small order with most of the structural characters of the last, but usually of erect habit and often arborescent. It is distinguished by having simple or pinnate opposite exstipulate leaves and usua...
-1. Phillyrea
Evergreen shrubs or small trees with small simple glabrous serrulated leaves and inconspicuous bisexual greenish-yellow flowers borne in axillary clusters. Fruit a 1- or 2-celled 1- or 2-seeded berry....
-2. Olea (Including Osmanthus)
The shrubs here enumerated are better known under the name Osmanthus, but the characters are insufficient to constitute a good genus. Leaves simple, entire or spiny-toothed. Flowers small, white or gr...
-3. Ligustrum
Evergreen or deciduous shrubs or trees with simple entire leaves and terminal panicles of small white flowers. Fruit a spherical 2-celled 1- or 2-seeded berry. Besides the common European species ther...
-4. Fraxinus (Including Ornus)
Trees with unequally pinnate deciduous leaves and polygamous or dioecious flowers in dense axillary clusters. Calyx 4-lobed or none. Corolla 4-lobed or none. Stamens 2. Fruit a flattened 1- or 2-celle...
-5. Syringa
Deciduous shrubs bearing simple entire leaves and large terminal clusters of usually sweet-smelling flowers. Corolla salver-shaped. Fruit a flattened 2-celled capsule, when ripe splitting into two boa...
-6. Forsythia
A small genus of deciduous shrubs of dwarf habit. Branches slender. Leaves simple or compound, glabrous. Flowers drooping, yellow, appearing towards the end of Winter or beginning of Spring, solitary ...
-Order LXVIII - Apocyneae
Trees, shrubs, or rarely herbs, usually with a milky sap. Leaves simple, opposite, or more rarely alternate or whorled. Stipules none, or sometimes replaced by bristles or glands between the petioles....
-1. Vinca
Herbs or evergreen trailing shrubs. Leaves opposite, entire, glabrous and glossy. Flowers solitary, axillary, blue, white, or purple. Calyx 5-lobed, lobes glandular inside at the base. Corolla salver-...
-2. Amsonia
Perennial herbs with alternate leaves and terminal panicles of pale blue flowers. Corolla-lobes narrow. Anthers naked. Carpels or follicles long and narrow; seeds naked. Other characters the same as i...
-3. Apocynum
Erect perennial herbs with tough fibrous bark. Leaves opposite, mucronate. Flowers cymose, on axillary or terminal peduncles. Corolla campanulate, bearing five triangular appendages at the mouth of th...
-Order LXIX - Asclepiadeae
Herbs or shrubs often of twining or prostrate habit; sap usually milky. Leaves simple, opposite or whorled, rarely scattered. In habit, and to a certain extent in structure, the members of this group ...
-1. Asclepias
Erect herbaceous perennials; roots often fleshy. Leaves usually with conspicuous transverse veins. Flowers in simple terminal or extra-axillary umbels. Lobes of the corolla long and narrow, reflexed. ...
-2. Periploca
Twining shrubs with opposite glabrous leaves and axillary cymose flowers. Corolla rotate, having 5 awned scales in the throat; lobes spreading. Filaments not combined. Pollen-masses granular, applied ...
-Order LXX. - Loganiaceae
This is a small group agreeing with the Rubiaceae or Cin-chonacew in having opposite simple leaves and interpetiolar stipules and other characters, but differing in the fruit being superior. The Nux v...
-1. Spigelia
Herbs with the flowers in one-sided spikes. Corolla long, tubular, with 5 small nearly erect teeth at the top. Stamens 5. Style jointed near the middle. Fruit composed of two carpels, finally separati...
-Order LXXI. - Gentianaceae
Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs, usually erect and glabrous. Leaves simple, entire, opposite or whorled (except in Menyanthes, where they are alternate and trifoliolate; and alternate and floatin...
-1. Gentiana
Perennial or annual herbs. Leaves opposite, often ribbed. Flowers regular, solitary or cymose, often very brilliantly coloured. Calyx 4- or 5-lobed or spathaceous. Corolla funnel-or salver-shaped, 4- ...
-Order LXXII - Polemoniaceae
Annual or perennial herbs of erect or rarely climbing habit, rarely shrubs. Leaves opposite or alternate, simple or compound. Inflorescence various. Flowers regular, pentamerous. Calyx inferior, 5-lob...
-1. Phlox
Handsome herbs with simple entire opposite and alternate leaves and cymose usually bracteate flowers. Calyx deeply 5-lobed, often prismatic or angled. Corolla salver-shaped with a long slender tube an...
-2. Collomia
Dwarf annuals with narrow alternate leaves and dense terminal heads of small red or buff flowers. Calyx deeply 5-lobed, campanulate. Corolla salver-shaped, with a long slender tube. Cells of the capsu...
-3. Gilia
This genus in its widest sense includes many species differing greatly in habit, but almost identical in structure. These are known in gardens under the generic names of Ipomopsis, Leptosiphon, Fenzli...
-4. Polemonium
Perennial herbs with alternate unequally pinnate leaves and corymbose blue or white flowers. Calyx campanulate. Corolla rotate, 5-lobed. Stamens decimate, inserted on the throat of the corolla; filame...
-5. Cobaea
Tall climbing rapid-growing perennials. Leaves pinnate, composed of 2 or 3 pairs of leaflets, and a terminal tendril. Fig. 175. Cobaea scandens, (1/4 nat. site.) Flowers large, campanulate, ...
-Order LXXIII - Hydrophyllaceae (Including Hydroleaceae.)
Shrubs or herbs, often clothed with hispid hairs. Leaves lobed, alternate, or the lower ones opposite. Flowers in gyrate or unilateral racemes or spikes, rarely solitary and axillary. Calyx inferior, ...
-1. Nemophila
Dwarf branching showy annuals. Leaves pinnatifid. Flowers conspicuous, solitary, axillary or extra-axillary, on slender peduncles. Calyx 5-lobed and furnished with reflexed teeth between the lobes, th...
-2. Cosmanthus
North American annuals of procumbent or erect habit. Leaves pinnatifid; radical stalked, cauline sessile. Flowers in terminal circinate racemes or spikes. This genus is mainly distinguished by its fri...
-3. Whitlavia
Dwarf branching glandular pubescent annuals with simple petiolate leaves and large campanulate racemose flowers. Calyx deeply 5-partite. Corolla tubular - campanulate, inflated at the base. Stamens ex...
-4. Wigandia
Tall hispid herbaceous plants, remarkable for their large bold foliage. Leaves alternate, simple, more or less toothed or lobed, becoming gradually smaller upwards. Flowers in gyrate cymes, resembling...
-Order LXXIV - Convolvulaceae
Twining or trailing herbs, rarely shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, entire or lobate. Flowers in axillary or terminal racemes or solitary. Calyx of 5 equal or unequal persistent imbricate sepals. Cor...
-1. Convolvulus (Including Calystegia)
Annual or perennial herbs with cordate, sagittate or lobate leaves and solitary or racemose axillary showy flowers with or without conspicuous bracts. Corolla funnel- or salver-shaped, plaited. Capsul...
-2. Pharbitis
The species included under this name differ but slightly from the true Convolvuli. They are distinguished by having the stigma capitate or lobed, not divided into slender arms, and by the capsule bein...
-Order LXXV. - Nolanaceae
This is a small order intermediate in characters between the last and the next following. The species are herbaceous or woody erect or prostrate plants with alternate simple ex-stipulate leaves and sh...
-1. Nolana
Trailing annuals with showy flowers resembling those of Convolvulus. Corolla campanulate. Fruit 4-celled, 4-seeded. The species are all South American. Generic name from nola, a little bell, the form ...
-Order LXXVI - Borraginaceae
Herbaceous or suffruticose plants having terete stems and alternate simple exstipulate usually scabrid leaves. Flowers regular or irregular, in gyrate spikes, racemes or cymes, rarely solitary and axi...
-1. Cerinthe
A small European genus remarkable for the smooth glaucous stem-clasping foliage of its species. They are with one or two exceptions of annual duration. The flowers are in one-sided leafy racemes, yell...
-2. Echium
Tall herbaceous or suffruticose plants, usually clothed with rough hairs having a thickened base. Leaves entire. Flowers blue, violet, red or white, in spiked or racemose panicles. Calyx 5-lobed. Coro...
-3. Symphytum
Perennial scabrid herbs with thick fleshy roots. Radical leaves stalked, cauline sessile or decurrent. Flowers white, red, purple, blue or yellow, in terminal bracteate cymes. Calyx 5-lobed or -toothe...
-4. Anchusa
This genus is very nearly allied to the last, but the corolla is funnel-shaped and the nuts rugose or granulate. The species number about thirty, and are found in Europe and West Asia. The derivation ...
-5. Pulmonaria
Perennial tufted herbs with simple flowering stems and terminal cymes. Calyx angular, deeply 5-partite. Corolla funnel-shaped, 5-lobed, with 5 tufts of hairs alternating with the stamens, the latter i...
-6. Lithospermum
Hispid or hairy annual or perennial herbs, sometimes shrubby at the base, often of prostrate habit. Flowers in bracteate cymes. Calyx 5-lobed to the base. Corolla funnel- or salver-shaped; throat nake...
-7. Myosotis
Annual or perennial herbs more or less hispidly hairy. Radical leaves petiolate; cauline sessile, oblong or lanceolate. Flowers in scorpioid cymes or racemes, with or without bracts. Calyx-tube equall...
-8. Omphalodes
Annual or perennial herbs, distinguished by the 4 nuts being furnished with a membranous inflexed wing or border which renders them cup-shaped. There are several species from Southern Europe and Weste...
-9. Heliotropium
Herbs or undershrubs with alternate petiolate leaves and lateral or terminal circinate cymes of small blue or white flowers. Corolla funnel- or salver-shaped, with a plicate limb. It differs from all ...
-Order LXXVII - Solanaceae
Herbs or shrubs with alternate or-sub-opposite entire or pin-natisect leaves and regular pentamerous flowers. Calyx inferior, 5- or rarely 4-lobed. Corolla regular or slightly unequal, hypogynous, usu...
-1. Fabiana
Shrubs with small scattered or imbricated leaves and solitary extra-axillary flowers. Calyx tubular, 5-lobed. Corolla tubular, funnel-shaped; limb shortly 5-lobed. Stamens 5, included. Fruit capsular,...
-2. Lycium
Deciduous climbing or trailing often spiny shrubs. Leaves simple, entire. Flowers small. Calyx tubular, 5 - lobed. Corolla funnel-shaped. Stamens 5. Fruit baccate, enclosed in the calyx-tube. The spec...
-3. Solanum
This genus includes more than half of the species belonging to the order. They are rare in temperate climates, but abound in the tropics and especially in tropical America. They vary from small annual...
-4. Physalis
Herbs or shrubs, differing from the last genus in the calyx, which enlarges after the expansion of the flower, and ultimately becomes much inflated, and encloses the baccate fruit. The anthers, too, o...
-5. Hyoscyamus
Annual or biennial herbs. Leaves lobed or pinnatifid, usually viscid. Flowers regular, axillary. Calyx urceolate, 5-lobed. Corolla campanulate or funnel-shaped. Stamens 5, declinate. Fruit a 2-celled ...
-6. Atropa
This genus includes only one species, distinguished by its campanulate regular corolla and baccate 2-celled many-seeded fruit subtended by the foliaceous persistent calyx. The name is from one ...
-7. Nicotiana
Tall stout usually viscid large-leaved herbs. Flowers racemose or paniculate. Calyx campanulate, 5-lobed. Corolla funnel- or salver-shaped; limb plaited. Stamens included. Fruit a 2-celled many-seeded...
-8. Datura
Shrubs or coarse fetid herbs with ovate angular lobed leaves and large showy solitary flowers. Calyx 5-lobed, separating transversely, the lower part persistent with the fruit. Corolla funnel- or salv...
-9. Petunia
A small genus of South American herbaceous often viscid perennials. Leaves simple. Flowers solitary and axillary. Calyx 5-lobed; lobes spoon-shaped. Corolla funnel- or salver-shaped; limb 5-lobed, spr...
-10. Nierembergia
Herbs or small shrubs with simple alternate leaves and solitary pedunculate flowers opposite the leaves. Calyx 5-lobed, persistent, and enclosing the fruit. Corolla funnel-shaped; tube often long and ...
-Order LXXVIII - Scrophularineae
A large order of herbs, shrubs, or rarely trees. Leaves opposite, or whorled below, but often alternate in the upper part. Calyx usually persistent, inferior, 5 - cleft. Corolla regular or irregular, ...
-1. Salpiglossis
Viscid herbs with pin-natifid leaves and large showy solitary lateral or terminal flowers. This genus is exclusively South American, and differs from all the following in having a plaited corolla, and...
-2. Schizanthus
Elegant annuals with pinnate, pinnatifid, lobed or toothed often viscid leaves and bright-coloured irregular flowers in 1-sided racemes or cymes. . Calyx deeply 5-lobed. Corolla bilabiate, with deeply...
-3. Calceolaria
Herbs or underslimbs with viscid or hairy rarely glabrous foliage and terminal panicles or cymes of white, yellow, orange, purple, brown, violet or spotted showy flowers. The corolla affords the most ...
-4. Verbascum
Tall biennials or perennials with simple alternate and racemose simple or compound inflorescence. Flowers showy, white, yellow, violet, purple or red. Calyx 5-lobed. Corolla rotate, with 5 nearly equa...
-5. Celsia
A small genus of the same habit and inflorescence as the last, differing merely in having four didynamous stamens. The species inhabit the same regions. Named after Professor Celsius of Upsal. 1. C...
-6. Likaria
A large genus of herbaceous or more rarely frutescent plants. Leaves opposite or whorled,- the uppermost often alternate. Flowers spicate or racemose, or solitary and axillary. This genus is remarkabl...
-7. Antirrhinum
This small genus is very near the last, differing mainly in the tube of the personate corolla being saccate, not spurred at the base, and the throat closed by the bearded palate. The species are found...
-8. Lophospermum
Half-hardy climbing herbaceous perennials, usually treated as annuals for open-air culture. Leaves hairy, simple, cordate or triangular, coarsely toothed, petiolate. Flowers large, showy, solitary, ax...
-9. Maurandya
Climbing herbaceous plants, like the last, supporting themselves by their twisted petioles. Leaves cordate or hastate. Corolla slightly irregular, tubular-campanulate; limb somewhat unequally 5-lobed....
-10. Phygelius
A monotypic genus which is closely related to Pentstemon, especially in habit. It differs, however, in the long curved corolla-tube, in the barren stamen being reduced to a scale, and in the cells of ...
-11. Paulownia
This also, as far as at present known, is a monotypic genus. It is a tree of moderate size with very large opposite ovate-cordate deciduous leaves clothed with a greyish woolly tomen-tum, and terminal...
-12. Collinsia
A small genus of slender branching annuals with opposite or whorled leaves and clustered cymes of showy gaily-coloured flowers in the axils of the upper leaves. Calyx deeply 5-lobed. Corolla-tube sac...
-13. Chelone
This genus comprises a few species separated from Pentste-mon on account of the seeds being winged, the barren stamen shorter than the others, and the inflorescence a close bracteated spike. The speci...
-14. Pentstemon
Showy herbaceous perennials with opposite leaves, the upper often sessile and stem-clasping. Flowers in terminal thyrsoid panicles. Calyx deeply 5-lobed. Corolla tubular, more or less inflated and bil...
-15. Mimulus
Prostrate or erect annual or perennial herbs with opposite leaves and solitary axillary flowers. Calyx tubular, angled. Corolla bilabiate; upper lip erect or reflexed, bilobate; lower lip trilobate; a...
-16. Diplacus
This genus is very near the last, but most of the species are woody at the base. The main distinction, however, is in the seed-vessel, which opens in valves with the seed-bearing placentas attached to...
-17. Buddlea
A large genus of shrubs, herbs, or even small trees. Leaves opposite, commonly densely tomentose, especially on the under surface. Flowers small, often tomentose, axillary, spicate, capitate, or thyrs...
-18. Digitalis
Biennial or perennial herbs, rarely shrubby. Leaves simple, alternate, the lower ones tufted and petiolate. Flowers in long terminal bracteate racemes. Calyx deeply 5-lobed. Corolla decimate, tubular...
-19. Veronica
Herbs or shrubs, erect or prostrate in habit, with opposite and alternate or rarely whorled leaves. Flowers in terminal spikes or racemes, rarely solitary and axillary. Calyx 4- or 5-lobed. Corolla ro...
-Order LXXIX - Bignoniaceae
Handsome shrubs or herbs of trailing, twining or climbing habit, or more rarely erect. Leaves usually opposite, compound or simple, exstipulate. Calyx inferior, entire or lobed or spathaceous. Corolla...
-1. Bignonia
Shrubby climbers with pinnate deciduous often tendrilled leaves and handsome campanulate flowers. Calyx entire or obscurely toothed. Corolla slightly irregular. Fertile stamens 4, with a rudiment of a...
-2. Tecoma
This differs from Bignonia in the convex valves of the capsule being contrary to the partition, and in the leaves being destitute of a tendril. The name is an abbreviation of the Aztec Tecomaxochitl. ...
-3. Catalpa
Erect trees with large simple leaves and terminal panicles of flowers. Calyx bilabiate. Corolla campanulate. Fertile stamens 2 or 4. Capsule long and slender, with the partition contrary to the valves...
-4. Eccremocarpus
Climbing herbaceous or shrubby perennials with compound leaves and leaf-opposed racemes of brilliantly coloured flowers. Fertile stamens didynamous. Capsule small, oblong. A South American genus of fe...
-Order LXXX. - Gesneraceae
This is a considerable order of herbs and shrubs with usually very gorgeous and brilliant flowers, including the genera Gloxinia, Achimenes, AEschynanthus, and Gesnera, of our stoves; but there is onl...
-Order LXXXI. - Pedaliaceae
A small order remarkable for the curious forms assumed by the seed-vessel of different species. In structural arrangements it hardly differs from the last. The only genus we are familiar with in culti...
-Order LXXXII. - Acanthaceae
Herbs (or more rarely shrubs) with opposite rarely verticillate simple entire or lobed leaves. Flowers usually in bracteolate spikes or racemes. Calyx inferior, 4- or 5-lobed, sometimes very small, an...
-1. Acanthus
Herbaceous plants, remarkable for the beauty of their foliage rather than their flowers. Leaves pinnatifid or bipinnatifid and toothed. Flowers in leafy spikes terminating the stem. Calyx unequally 4-...
-Order LXXXIII - Verbenaceae
Shrubs or herbs with opposite or verticillate exstipulate leaves. Flowers corymbose, spicate or capitate, rarely solitary. Calyx tubular, persistent, inferior. Corolla deciduous, irregular, often 2-li...
-1. Verbena
Annual or perennial herbs or undershrubs with opposite or whorled simple pinnatifid or lobed leaves. Calyx ribbed, irregularly 5-toothed. Corolla salver-s h a p e d; tube often curved; limb regular, s...
-2. Lippia
A large genus of American herbs and shrubs, only one of which concerns us. The distinctly bilabiate corolla, included stamens, and 2-celled capsule are the principal characters. The genus was dedicate...
-3. Vitex
A considerable genus of trees and shrubs. Leaves digitately compound or simple. Inflorescence terminal or axillary, paniculate or cymose. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla salver-sliaped; limb oblique, 5- or 6...
-Order LXXXIV. - Labiate
Herbaceous or shrubby plants, frequently furnished with immersed glands of aromatic fragrant oil. Stems usually 4-angled. Leaves opposite or verticillate, simple or compound. Flowers in axillary cymes...
-1. Coleus
A genus of tropical herbs and shrubs, valuable for the brilliantly-coloured foliage of the species in general cultivation. The flowers are small and inconspicuous, and borne in terminal spikes of vert...
-2. Lavandula
Dwarf compact branching shrubs. Leaves opposite, entire or toothed. Flowers small, on long-stalked spikes. Calyx ovate, ribbed, unequally toothed. Corolla with a 2-lobed upper, and 3-lobed lower lip. ...
-3. Salvia
A very large genus of undershrubs and herbs of diverse habit. Calyx tubular-bilabiate, upper lip entire or tridentate, lower bifid; throat naked. Corolla bilabiate; throat naked, hairy or tuberculate;...
-4. Rosmarinus
A genus of one South European species, a familiar shrub in gardens. It is technically distinguished by its coloured bilabiate calyx and corolla with two exserted stamens having a reversed tooth on eac...
-5. Monirda
A small genus of erect herbs with simple toothed leaves and showy flowers in close heads of whorls surrounded with bracts. Calyx tubular, elongated, nearly equally 5-toothed. Corolla long and slender,...
-6. Scutellaria
Slender herbs or more rarely shrubby, with simple leaves. Flowers axillary and solitary or geminate, or terminal and spicate or racemose. Calyx bilabiate, lips entire, ultimately closing over the frui...
-7. Nepeta
A large genus of perennial herbs, for the greater part rather unattractive. Flowers axillary or terminal. Calyx tubular, 15-ribbed, 5-toothed, equal or unequal. Corolla-tube narrow, dilated and naked ...
-8. Dracocesphalum
Annual or perennial herbs with opposite leaves and spiked or capitate bracteate whorls of flowers. Calyx tubular, straight, 5-toothed, the upper tooth usually largest. Corolla-tube inflated at the th...
-9. Physostegia
Tall perennials with rather showy flowers remarkable for the inflated calyx and inflated bilabiate corolla enclosing four stamens. The species are natives of North America and Asia. The name is from ...
-10. Lamium
Annual or perennial hairy decumbent herbs with axillary or terminal bracteate whorls. Calyx tubular-campanulate, 5-toothed. Corolla-tube naked, or with a ring of hairs within the dilated throat; upper...
-11. Stachys (Including Betonia)
Herbs or undershrubs with toothed leaves and terminal racemes or spikes of flowers. Calyx nearly equally 5-toothed. Corolla-tube not dilated at the throat; and usually furnished with a ring of hairs i...
-12. Phlomis
Herbs or shrubs with dense whorls of showy flowers. Calyx tubular, truncate, or 5-toothed. Upper lip of the corolla arched; the lower one spreading, 3-cleft. Stamens 4, the filaments of the upper pair...
-13. Eremostachys
A small genus of herbs with pinnate or pinnatifid leaves, distinguished by the upper lip of the corolla being elongated and narrowed at the base and hairy on the outside, and the lower lip with three ...
-14. Teucrium
Herbs or undershrubs with the flowers in bracteate spikes or racemes of whorls. Calyx tubular-campanulate, equally or unequally 5-toothed. Corolla-tube short, naked within; limb unequally 5-lobed, the...
-Order LXXXV - Lentibularineae
A small group of aquatic and marsh herbs with radical or whorled entire or deeply cut often bladdery leaves. Flowers scapose, solitary, spicate or racemose. Calyx inferior, persistent, bilabiate or re...
-Order LXXXVI. - Primulaceae
Perennial or annual herbs, rarely shrubs, many of them bearing handsome brightly-coloured flowers. Leaves usually all radical, but when cauline opposite or whorled and exsti-pulate. Calyx inferior, re...
-1. Primula
Tufted perennials with crowded radical leaves and scapose umbellate flowers. Calyx tubular - campanulate, 5-toothed, usually persistent. Corolla salver-shaped, erect or spreading. Capsule splitting in...
-2. Androsace
A genus of diminutive annual or perennial scapose tufted herbs, natives of mountainous regions. They agree in most characters with Primula, differing in the tube of the corolla being constricted towar...
-3. Cyclamen
A very distinct genus, remarkable for the large circular compressed perennial rootstock, from which the leaves and flowers spring. Calyx 5-partite. Corolla-tube short; limb large, deeply lobed; lobes ...
-4. Dodecatheon
Fibrous-rooted glabrous perennials with oblong-spathu-late leaves and naked umbellate scapes of flowers. Calyx deeply 5-cleft, lobes reflexed. Corolla - lobes long, narrow, reflexed. Stamens with shor...
-5. Lysimachia
Erect or creeping herbs with leafy stems and yellow or white, rarely purple flowers. Leaves simple, alternate, opposite or whorled. Flowers solitary, racemose or paniculate, axillary or terminal. Coro...
-6. Anagallis
A small genus of trailing annual or perennial herbs with usually angular stems, opposite or verticillate leaves, and solitary brightly coloured pedunculate flowers. Calyx deeply 5-lobed. Corolla rotat...
-Order LXXXVII - Globularieae
Herbs or small shrubs with tufted radical and alternate entire exstipulate glabrous cauline leaves, and involucrate capitules of flowers. Calyx persistent, 5-lobed, lobes quincun-cial in bud. Corolla ...
-1. Globularia
Characters the same as those of the order. The name is from the Latin globulus, a little ball, in allusion to the arrangement of the flowers. None of the erect woody species are quite hardy in this co...
-Order LXXXVIII - Plumbaginaceae
Herbs or undershrubs, for the greater part denizens of salt marshes and the sea-shores. Leaves simple, alternate or clustered, exstipulate. Flowers regular, bisexual, in branched panicles, or clustere...
-1. Armeria
Perennial tufted evergreen herbs with linear radical leaves and leafless flower-scapes. Flowers pedicellate, collected in dense solitary heads. Involucre scarious, sheathing the scape, and reversed or...
-2. Statice
In floral characters this genus is very near the last, but the disposition of the flowers is very different, being in spicate secund or distichous bracteate panicles. Leaves all or nearly all radical ...
-3. Acantholimon
A considerable genus of branching herbs with narrow linear rigid often spinescent leaves and larger flowers in loose spikes. The styles are united at the base, and the stigmas capitate, differing in t...
-4. Valoradia
A small genus of branching herbs and undershrubs with alternate fringed leaves and terminal and axillary dense heads of flowers. Calyx tubular, 5-parted. Corolla funnel-shaped. Stamens 5, hypogynous; ...
-Division III. - Apetalae
Petals none (in those plants enumerated here); calyx (perianth) sometimes coloured, composed of free or united sepals (segments) in one series, or sometimes wanting altogether. ...
-Order LXXXIX - Polygonaceae
Herbs (or rarely shrubs) with alternate simple leaves and sheathing often fringed stipules. Flowers usually hermaphrodite, on jointed pedicels. Perianth inferior, composed of 3 to 6 petaloid or green,...
-1. Polygonum
Herbs or undershrubs with alternate stipulate leaves and racemose, paniculate or spicate bisexual flowers. Bracts ochreate. Perianth usually coloured, of 5 nearly equal segments, the three outer somet...
-2. Rheum
Perennials with usually very large radical leaves on long petioles, and an erect branched somewhat leafy inflorescence, in some species furnished with large sheathing bracts. Flowers small, white, ye...
-Order XC - Nyctaginaceae
Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs, usually swollen at the joints. Leaves opposite or alternate, and frequently unequal. Flowers bisexual, capitate or solitary. Perianth inferior, coloured, tubu...
-1. Abronia
Herbs with opposite simple petiolate leaves and capitate flowers surrounded with a finely divided involucre. Perianth funnel-shaped or salver-shaped. Stamens 5. A small genus of North-western American...
-2. Mirabilis
Showy tuberous-rooted perennials with jointed stems, opposite simple leaves and showy flowers clustered towards the extremities of the branches. Perianth tubular or funnel-shaped. Stamens 5, cohering ...
-Order XCI.- Phytolaccaceae
Herbs or shrubs. Leaves alternate, entire, exstipulate, commonly furnished with transparent dots. Flowers racemose, bisexual. Perianth inferior, sometimes coloured, frequently furnished with bracts at...
-1. Phytolacca
Tall branching rapid-growing robust perennials, shrubs or small trees. Perianth of 5 or 6 petaloid or green segments. Stamens 5 to 30. Fruit fleshy and juicy, composed of 5 to 12 united carpels. There...
-Order XCII - Chenopodiaceae
A considerable order of herbaceous or shrubby plants of little beauty. It is represented in Britain by about six genera and twenty species. The principal distinctive floral characters are - an inconsp...
-Order XCIII - Amaranthaceae
Herbs or shrubs with opposite or alternate exstipulate leaves and a spicate or capitate inflorescence often clothed with bright coloured scarious bracts. Perianth inferior, composed of 3 or 5 scarious...
-1. Amaranthus
Coarse-growing annuals with alternate entire leaves and small green or red flowers in large bracteate clustered spikes Fig. 208. Amwanthtus caudatus. (1/4 nat. size.) Flowers polygamous, fur...
-2. Iresine
Herbs with opposite petiolate glabrous leaves, brightly coloured in the cultivated forms. Flowers tribracteate, polygamous or dioecious. Perianth 5-parted. Stamens 5. Fruit a 1-seeded indehiscent utri...
-Order XCIV. - Lauraceae
A large order of ornamental shrubs and trees, often aromatic. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, usually entire, exstipulate, frequently furnished with immersed pellucid dots. Flowers generally small ...
-1. Laurus
Shrubs or trees with 1-nerved alternate leaves and fascicled sessile sub-dicecious flowers. Perianth 4- to 6-lobed. Stamens 12, all fertile; anthers opening upwards by 2 valves. Fruit a succulent berr...
-Order XCV. - Thymelaceae
Shrubs or trees with a tough fibrous bark, or rarely herbaceous. Leaves simple, entire, opposite or alternate. Flowers usually bisexual, in terminal or axillary spikes or heads, sometimes involucrate,...
-1. Daphne
Small erect or trailing shrubs with alternate or opposite persistent or deciduous leaves and very fragrant lateral or terminal flowers. Perianth tubular, 4-lobed. Stamens 8, in 2 series; style short o...
-Order XCVI - Proteaceae
A large order of shrubs and trees of extremely diverse and curious habit and foliage. Flowers often very brilliant, axillary or racemose, or in dense terminal spikes. Perianth inferior, 4-lobed or -to...
-Order XCVII - Elaeagnaceae
Trees or shrubs often clothed with a scaly indumentum. Leaves alternate or opposite, entire, exstipulate. Flowers usually small, regular, unisexual or bisexual, disposed in axillary clusters, panicles...
-1. Elaeagnus
Deciduous or evergreen shrubs or small trees with hermaphrodite clustered or solitary axillary flowers. Perianth campanulate or salver-shaped. Stamens 4 or 5. Fruit a spurious drupe formed of the fles...
-2. Shepherdia
A small genus of North American deciduous dioecious shrubs. Male flowers clustered, with a quadripartite perianth valvate in bud. and 8 stamens alternating with an equal number of appendages of the fl...
-Order XCVIII - Loranthaceae
Parasitical shrubs, many of the tropical species with brilliantly-coloured flowers. Leaves simple, entire, opposite or alternate, fleshy or coriaceous, veins immersed. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexu...
-Order XCIX - Aristolochiaceae
Erect or climbing herbs or shrubs with alternate entire or lobed leaves and solitary or clustered axillary hermaphrodite flowers. The unusual shape of the perianth in the genus Aristolochia is the mos...
-1. Aristolochia
Erect herbs or climbing shrubs with cordate entire or lobate leaves and axillary clustered or solitary pendulous flowers. Perianth tubular, curved or straight, with an oblique trilobate limb. Stamens ...
-Order C - Euphorbiaceae
Taken in its entirety this is a very large order, and many of the tropical genera have a distinct calyx and corolla; but the following diagnosis includes only those genera coming within our province. ...
-1. Euphorbia
The hardy species are annual or perennial herbs, often woody at the base. Leaves opposite or scattered. Inflorescence terminal, umbellate or panicled. Flowers involucrate, several male and one female ...
-2. Ricinus
Small trees or herbs with stout succulent jointed stems and alternate palmately-lobed dentate leaves on long petioles, bearing a saucer-shaped gland at the junction of the petiole and blade. Flowers m...
-3. Buxus
Evergreen shrubs or small trees with alternate exstipulate leaves and axillary bracteolate clusters of polygamous flowers. Perianth of 4 segments in the male, and 4 to 12 segments in the female flower...
-Order CI - Moraceae
A small order of trees and shrubs with a milky juice, closely related to our native Stinging-Nettles, and sometimes considered as forming a tribe of the same family. Leaves alternate, simple, entire o...
-1. Ficus
This large genus is represented by but one hardy species, F. Carica, Common Fig, a native of Asia Minor. It is equally deserving of cultivation for its ample and distinct foliage and luscious fruit, t...
-2. Morus
Small trees with large lobed or entire hispid lea\es and fertile and sterile flowers in separate spikes. Perianth quadripartite. Stamens 4. Compound fruit formed of the 1-seeded achenes covered by the...
-Order CII.- Cannabinaceae
A small order comprising only two genera, each of which is limited to a single species. In technical characters these plants are scarcely different from the Moraeeae, the main distinction lying in the...
-Order CIII - Ulmaceae
Trees with a watery juice. Leaves deciduous, alternate, simple, usually more or less hispid, and often oblique at the base. Stipules caducous. Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous, arranged in clusters...
-1. Ulmus
Flowers appearing in Spring before or with the leaves, usually all perfect; fruit 2-celled, winged all round. Perianth 4- to 9-lobed. Stamens 4 to 9. The species are widely dispersed. The ancient Lati...
-2. Planera
. Trees very similar to the Elms in habit and foliage, though usually with a naked trunk and branched head. Flowers polygamous. Perianth 4- or 5-lobed; stamens 4 or 5. Fruit 1-or 2-celled, 1- or 2-see...
-3. Celtis
Moderately large trees or shrubs with strongly-nerved leaves, fascicled or racemose greenish polygamous or hermaphrodite flowers succeeded by small 1-seeded drupaceous fruits. The few species describe...
-Order CIV.- Platanaceae
Highly ornamental deciduous trees with large elegantly lobed leaves on long petioles, and conspicuous sheathing stipules. Flowers destitute of perianth, monoecious, in separate naked spherical bracteo...
-1. Platanus
Characters of the order. Name from broad, in allusion to the foliage. 1. P. orientalis. Common Plane. - The forms of this beautiful tree are very numerous, differing chiefly in the shape and...
-Order CV. - Juglandaceae
Handsome deciduous trees, often with a resinous juice. Leaves alternate, unequally pinnate, exstipulate. Flowers small, dioecious, inconspicuous, often appearing before the leaves; males in catkins, f...
-1. Juglans
Male flowers in simple catkins, having a calyx of 3 to 6 irregular lobes, and usually numerous (more than 8) stamens. The fleshy fibrous epicarp of the fruit bursting irregularly, endo-carp or shell 2...
-2. Carya
This differs from the last genus in having the male catkins usually in threes, each flower with 8 or fewer stamens, and the epicarp or husk splits into 4 regular valves, with a smooth en-docarp or she...
-Order CVI - Cupuliferae
This is an important order, including nearly all our indigenous timber trees, besides a large number of exotic ornamental and useful species. Leaves deciduous in nearly all the hardy species, alternat...
-1. Quercus
Evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs. Male flowers in loose slender catkins; perianth 5- to 10-lobed; stamens indefinite, with slender exserted filaments. Female flower solitary, perianth 3- to 8-lo...
-2. Fagus
Deciduous or evergreen trees with entire or toothed leaves. Male flowers in small bracteate heads or slender drooping peduncles; perianth 5-to 7-lobed; stamens 8 to 16. Female flowers 1 to 3 together ...
-3. Castanea
Deciduous trees or shrubs having the male flowers clustered on long naked cylindrical catkins, with a 5- or 6-partite perianth and 8 to 15 stamens. Female flowers 2 or 3 together in a prickly 4-lobed ...
-4. Carpinus
Deciduous small trees. Perianth none. Male flowers in lateral drooping catkins, with 6 to 12 stamens in the axils of the ovate acute bracts. Female flowers in terminal pendulous bracteate catkins, 2 a...
-5. Ostrya
Deciduous trees, very near the Hornbeams in foliage, but having the female flowers in terminal drooping catkins, each enclosed in an inflated membranous involucre, which enlarges and closes over the f...
-6. Corylus
Deciduous shrubs or small trees, producing their flowers before the leaves. Male flowers devoid of perianth, arranged in clustered pendent catkins. Stamens 4 or 8. Female flowers minute, few together,...
-Order CVII - Myricaceae
Shrubs or small trees, usually covered with resinous glands or dots. Leaves simple, alternate, with or without stipules. Flowers monoecious or dioecious, in simple or compound catkins. Perianth none. ...
-1. Myrica (Including Comptonia)
Characterised as above. The name was applied by the ancients to the Tamarisk or some other sweet-scented shrub. The species occur in North and South America, South Africa, Atlantic Islands, and E...
-Order CVIII - Betulaceae
Deciduous trees or shrubs with simple alternate stipulate leaves and monoecious flowers in catkins. Perianth none or bract-like. Flowers 2 or 3 together at the base of the bracts of the catkin. Stamen...
-1. Betula
Trees or shrubs in which the scales of the female catkin are thin and deciduous, and usually trilobate. Stamens 2. The species are confined to the northern hemisphere. The name is that used by the anc...
-2. Alnus
Trees and shrubs in which the fleshy scales of the persistent cone-like female catkins become indurated and ligneous as they approach maturity. Stamens 3 to 5. This genus has about the same range in t...
-Order CIX.-Salicineae
Deciduous trees or shrubs with simple alternate stipulate leaves and dioecious flowers usually preceding the leaves and destitute of a distinct perianth. Both male and female flowers are disposed in d...
-1. Salix
In this genus the leaves are either narrow or, if broad, small. Catkins usually erect, with entire scales. About 160 to 180 species are known, but many of them are so similar in aspect that they are d...
-2. Populus
Deciduous trees whose scaly buds are often covered with a clammy resinous exudation. Catkins pendulous, appearing before the leaves; scales irregularly lobed or cut. Leaves usually broad, rounded or a...
-Order CX - Coniferae
Trees or shrubs, generally resinous, and for the greater part evergreen. Wood destitute of medullary rays; that is to say, a transverse section does not show the lines from the centre to the circumfer...
-Tribe I. - Abietineae
Flowers usually monoecious. Cones usually large, the scales becoming more or less woody. Ovules and seeds 2 or more at the base of each scale, inverted. ...
-1. Pinus
Regularly branched evergreen trees, often of large dimensions. Leaves needle-shaped, commonly fascicled, 2 to 5 together in a membranous sheath. Male cones or catkins in spikes, furnished with membran...
-2. Abies (Including Picea And Tsuga)
Evergreen trees or shrubs. Leaves needle-shaped or slightly flattened and linear, never clustered. Male cones or catkins axillary. Female cones terminal or lateral, pendulous or erect, with thin close...
-2. Abies (Including Picea And Tsuga). Continued
8. A. Albertiana, syn. A. Williamsonii and A. Mertensiana of gardens. - This is very like the last, and is often confounded with it; but the leaves are shorter, slenderer, and the branches hairy. The ...
-3. Larix
Deciduous trees with needle-shaped, scattered, and fascicled leaves, lateral male catkins, and small erect cones with thin persistent scales. About eight or ten species are known, found in Europe, Asi...
-4. Cedrus
Noble evergreen trees with rigid scattered and clustered leaves and erect oblong or oval cones rounded at the top. Scales of the cones broad, thin, coriaceous, entire, closely appressed, at length dec...
-5. Sciadopitys
So far as at present known, this is a monotypic genus. Leaves linear, whorled. Male cones small, sessile, terminal. Female cones ultimately pedunculate; scales broad, rounded, entire, coriaceous, pers...
-6. Araucaria
Dioecious or sub-dioecious evergreen trees with usually imbricated persistent flat sessile scale-like leaves. Male cones large, cylindrical, terminal. Female cones very large, globular, terminal, with...
-7. Sequoia
Gigantic evergreen trees with linear distichous or needle-shaped or scale-shaped and imbricated leaves and small solitary terminal cones. Flowers monoecious; males in globular stalked catkins. Scales ...
-Tribe II. - Cupressineae
Fertile flowers in small cones or strobiles consisting of a few bracts and no scales. Ovules and seeds erect, one or more at the base of each scale. ...
-8. Juniperus
Evergreen trees or shrubs, often with two kinds of leaves, and usually dioecious flowers. Leaves needle-shaped, linear or lanceolate, rigid or flexible, scattered or imbricated, not clustered. Male fl...
-9. Callitris
Shrubby or small trees with long very slender jointed branches and often exceedingly minute scale-like persistent leaves. Flowers monoecious. Fruit globular, composed of 4 to 6 unequal woody valvate s...
-10. Libocedrus
Handsome evergreen trees with imbricated scale-like leaves and monoecious flowers. Fruit oval, consisting of 4 leathery or ligneous valvate unequal scales. Seeds winged, 1 or 2 at the base of each sca...
-11. Fitzroya
Evergreen trees with imbricated scale-like leaves. Flowers monoecious. Fruit small, consisting of 9 scales in three whorls, the upper and lower of which are barren, and the intermediate one has 2 or 3...
-12. Thuja
Evergreen trees or shrubs with compressed branchlets and imbricated often tuberculate scale-like leaves. Flowers monoecious. Fruit conoid, composed of overlapping scales affixed by the base, and desti...
-13. Thujopsis
Evergreen shrubs or trees with scale-like sickle shaped ap-pressed imbricate leaves, monoecious flowers, and globular cones. Scales of the fruit woody, overlapping, with about 5 winged seeds at the ba...
-14. Biota
This genus was separated from Thuja on account of a rather slight difference in the form of the fruit, which is composed of about 6 scales in opposite pairs, with a hook or tubercle near the apex, and...
-15. Cupressus (Including Chamcecyparis In Part)
Evergreen shrubs or trees with minute scale-like imbricate or linear-acute spreading leaves and monoecious flowers. Fruit globular, composed of peltate ligneous persistent scales separating at maturi...
-16. Retinospora
This genus is so near the last that it might well be included in it, but this is not the place to introduce any changes in the nomenclature of plants, and possibly this may be as good a genus as many ...
-17. Glyptostrobus
Deciduous or at least not truly evergreen trees or shrubs. Leaves scattered, small, variable, either imbricated or spreading. Flowers monoecious. Scales of the conoid fruit leathery, with two seeds at...
-18. Taxodium
Deciduous monoecious trees with distichous leaves and small globular or oval cones composed of peltate woody scales with 2 seeds at the base of each. All the known forms of this genus are usually refe...
-19. Cryptomeria
Evergreen trees with rigid linear-falcate acute quadrangular scattered leaves. Flowers monoecious. Male catkins solitary in the axils of the upper leaves. Cones less than an inch in diameter, terminal...
-20. Saxe-Gothaea
A genus of one species, an evergreen tree of small dimensions resembling the Yew in foliage. Flowers monoecious. Males in clustered catkins. Fruit small, terminal, composed of irregular fleshy pointed...
-Tribe III - Taxineae
Fertile flower solitary, ripening into a fleshy fruit. ...
-21. Taxus
Evergreen usually dioecious shrubs or trees with scattered or distichous linear decurrent leaves. Male flowers in small globular catkins. Female flowers solitary, bracteate at the base, with one erect...
-22. Torreya
Yew-like shrubs or trees with regular whorled branches and distichous or scattered leaves. It differs from Taxus chiefly in the fruit, which is much larger and destitute of the succulent cup that char...
-23. Podocarpus
Evergreen shrubs or trees with linear-lanceolate or oblong scuttered or distichous leaves. Flowers sub-dioecious. Female flowers solitary, axillary. Fruit drupoid, on a thick fleshy peduncle, which su...
-24. Cephalotaxus
This genus with the foliage of the Yews has the dioecious flowers in clusters, and the fruits large and plum-like, and two or three together. The name is a compound of a head, and arrang...
-25. Salisburia
Only one species of this genus has been described. It is a deciduous tree with fan-shaped petiolate leaves, dioecious flowers, and pedunculate 1-seeded drupoid fruits upon a fleshy disk. Dedicated to ...
-Order CXI. - Gnetaceae
This is a small order or, as considered by some, a tribe, of the Coniferae. The species are shrubs or trees with jointed branchlets and simple net-veined broad or small scale-like leaves. The fruit is...
-1. Ephedra
This genus consists of trailing shrubs with numerous very long slender jointed green branches, and small scale-like leaves. The fruit is a 2-seeded berry. These shrubs inhabit the rocky shores of the ...
-Sub-Class II - Monocotyledons Or Endogens 1
Stem destitute of central pith, not increasing by annual layers, vascular bundles irregularly scattered amongst the cellular tissue. Leaves usually parallel-veined. Seeds with 1 cotyledon. Paits of th...
-Division I. - Petaloideae
Perianth usually composed of 6 segments arranged in 1 or 2 regular whorls, all or some of them coloured, or rarely green. For exceptions see Aroideae and Typhaceae. ...
-Order I - Palmaceae
This noble family of arborescent plants unfortunately contributes but little towards the permanent decoration of our gardens in consequence of none of the species being perfectly hardy in our climate....
-Order II. - Ahoideae
Herbs with tuberous rhizomes, large radical usually net-veined leaves, and spatbaceous inflorescence. Flowers on a spadix, unisexual or hermaphrodite. Perianth none, or consisting of 4 to 8 hypogynous...
-1. Calla
Aquatic or marsh plants with white spathes and cordate leaves. The flowers are destitute of a perianth and either unisexual or bisexual, and crowded at the summit of the spadix. Berries red. A genus o...
-2. Arum
Erect or dwarf perennials with thick rhizomes and pedate or hastate leaves. Flowers devoid of perianth, unisexual, clustered on the lower part of the spadix; female flowers below, and separated from t...
-Order III. Hydrocharidaceae
A small order of aquatic herbs with erect floating or immersed leaves. Unisexual flowers pedunculate, emerging from a small spathe. Perianth of 6 segments, the inner 3 usually larger and coloured. Sta...
-Order IV. - Typhaceae
Semi-aquatic herbs with a creeping rootstock, narrow linear sheathing leaves, and spicate or capitate monoecious flowers. Perianth none, or reduced to scales or hairs. Stamens definite or indefinite. ...
-Order V. - Alismaceae
Aquatic or marsh plants with simple radical leaves and leafless flower-scapes. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual. Perianth inferior, all the segments or only the three inner coloured, often fugacious...
-1. Sagittaria
A genus of several tropical and temperate species of aquatic plants. The name is from sagitta, an arrow, from the form of the leaves in the earliest known species. 1. S. sagittifolia (fig. 225). Ar...
-2. Butomus
This is a genus comprising one or two very elegant aquatic plants with slender erect triquetrous leaves and a tall scape surmounted by a large umbel of rosy-pink flowers. Perianth-segments free, equal...
-Order VI - Orchidaceae
Terrestrial herbs with tuberous or fascicled roots and sheathing radical or sessile cauline leaves; or, as in most of the tropical species, epiphytes, with enlarged stems called pseudo-bulbs. Flowers ...
-Order VII. - Musaceae
The species of Banana, Musa, are employed in the open air during Summer in sheltered localities for the sake of their broad effective foliage. They are stemless or caulescent herbs with large simple s...
-Order VIII. - Marantaceae
This is another order of almost exclusively sub-tropical plants recently come into vogue for Summer bedding, which on account of their smaller stature, annual stems, and tuberous roots, are better sui...
-Order IX. - Iridaceae
Perennial often tuberous-rooted herbs with usually glabrous equitant distichous leaves and terminal bracteate spikes, umbels, corymbs or panicles of showy flowers. Perianth superior, composed of six d...
-1. Sisyrinchium
Tuberous or thick fibrous - rooted plants with grass-like radical equitant leaves. Flower-scape usually flattened and two-edged. Flowers umbellate or solitary. Perianth regular, spreading or campanula...
-2. Libertia
A small genus differing from Sisyrinchium in the outer perianth-lobes being smaller than the inner and often green, free or almost free filaments, and versatile anthers. Flowers always white, arranged...
-3. Vieusseuxia
Half-hardy South African tuberous-rooted herbs with narrow equitant and branching stems bearing pedunculate flowers which exceed the spathaceous bracts. Perianth with the 3 inner segments much smaller...
-4. Ferraria
Near Moraea, but with the filaments united in a tube and the petaloid stigmas fringed. A South African genus of several species with curiously spotted evanescent flowers. F. undulata has the flowers s...
-5. Moraea
Plants very much resembling the Irises, but with all the divisions of the perianth equally spreading. Perianth-tube short, the three inner segments of its limb smaller, convolute after flowering. Stam...
-6. Schizostylis
This genus consists of one species, S. coccineus, a very beautiful South African plant. It has a leafy stem about 3 feet high and bright crimson flowers similar to those of Gladiolus. Perianth salver...
-7. Tigridia
American bulbous dwarf plants with ensiform leaves as in Iris. The flowers are large and beautiful, but of short duration, always terminal, orange or yellow richly spotted, hence the name Tiger-Flower...
-8. Iris
A familiar genus very numerous in species, and among the most ornamental of hardy monocotyledonous plants. Herbs with fleshy rhizomes, or in a few species bulbous or with fibrous roots. Leaves sword-s...
-9. Gladiolus
A very extensive and beautiful genus of hardy and half-hardy bulbous plants, a few of which are natives of the South of Europe and Asia Minor, but the great majority are from South Africa.. Plants wit...
-10. Pardanthus
A small genus of tuberous-rooted herbs from Eastern Asia, with equitant ensiform leaves, branched stems, spathaceous bracts, and orange-coloured flowers spotted with purple-brown. Perianth-segments eq...
-11. Ixia
Usually dwarf bulbous plants with slender wiry steins bearing simple or branched spikes of gaily coloured flowers. Perianth with a long slender tube and a regular salver-shaped limb. Stamens in the th...
-12. Sparaxis
Similar to Ixia, but with a short perianth-tube widening into a funnel-shaped limb, and scarious lacerated or rarely entire bracts. Species numerous and beautiful, all from South Africa. Leaves ensifo...
-13. Montbretia
South African tuberous or rhizomatous herbs with ensiform leaves and spicate flowers arising from spathaceous bracts. Perianth with a narrow often very long tube, gradually widening into a bell-shaped...
-14. Crocus
It is unnecessary to go into the details of the technical characters of this familiar genus, farther than to enable the beginner to distinguish it from Bulbocddium and Colchicum, two genera very simil...
-Order X. - Amaryllideae
Bulbous or rarely fibrous herbs, sometimes caulescent. Leaves ensiform or linear. Flowers solitary, umbellate or paniculate, frequently emerging from spathaceous bracts. Perianth superior, 6-lobed, va...
-1. Amaryllis
Bulbous herbs with umbellate flowers destitute of a corona. Perianth-tube short, lobes strongly nerved. The plants constituting this genus and Hippeastrum nearly all require more or less artificial he...
-2. Nerine
The Guernsey Lily belongs to this genus, and, though scarcely hardy, deserves mentioning here on account of its extensive culture. It received the name N. Sarniensis in error, being a naturalized plan...
-3. Lycoris
Is now regarded as a section of Amaryllis with the undulated segments of the perianth curved upwards and the stigma fringed. There are several species, natives of China. L. aurea is a very pretty plan...
-4. Sternbergia
A genus of dwarf bulbous plants mostly flowering in Autumn, before or with the growth of the leaves. Scape one - flowered. Perianth funnel-shaped, with a regular 6-parted limb. Stamens inserted at the...
-5. Galanthus
The Snowdrop is too well known to call for detailed description. As a genus it is distinguished from Leucoium by having the three inner segments of the perianth shorter than the outer, and by the fine...
-6. Leucoium
The Snowflakes are almost as familiar as the Snowdrop. In this genus the segments of the perianth are almost or quite equal in length, and the anthers open by slits instead of pores. The name is from ...
-7. Narcissus
Bulbous plants with all the leaves radical, linear and narrow. Scapes one or more flowered; flowers spathose, white or some shade of yellow. Perianth tubular below, with an appendage at the mouth call...
-8. Pancratium
A noble genus of bulbous herbs belonging to the group with a corona or cup at the mouth of the perianth. Leaves lorate, either deciduous or persistent. Flowers white, borne in umbels on the summit of ...
-9. Alstrcemeria
This genus belongs to a distinct section of the Amaryllideae, the members of which, instead of having bulbs, have fleshy fibrous roots, something in the way of Asparagus. The genus under consideration...
-10. Bomarea
Is of close affinity with the preceding genus and from the same regions, differing mainly in the climbing habit and triangular seed-pod, which instead of splitting to the base opens at the top only. S...
-11. Agave
A noble genus of succulent or fleshy-leaved plants with a tall branched inflorescence resembling a huge candelabrum. Perianth funnel - shaped, persistent, of six nearly equal divisions. Stamens exceed...
-Order XI. - Liliaceae
Herbs having bulbous, tuberous, rhizomatous or fibrous roots, or very rarely shrubs or trees. Leaves usually narrow, with parallel veins, rarely net-veined. Inflorescence various. Flowers usually show...
-1. Erythronium
Dwarf stemless herbs with scaly bulbs, radical ovate or ovate-lanceolate often spotted leaves, and solitary pendulous rather large flowers on a short scape. Perianth composed of 6 free similar erect o...
-2. Tutlipa
Tulips as well as Roses and Carnations have always held a distinguished rank in floriculture, and ever since the sixteenth century they have been the flowers of predilection with the Belgians and Dutc...
-3. Calochortus
A handsome group of North American bulbous plants rarely met with under cultivation. Bulbs tunicated, producing rigid ensiform leaves and an erect scape with showy flowers. Perianth deciduous, the thr...
-4. Cyclobothra
Allied to Calochorhis, but all the perianth-segments are bearded within and provided with a honey-pit in the centre. Bulbs tunicated, producing erect leafy stems. Outer divisions of perianth about hal...
-5. Fritillaria
The affinity of this genus is mainly with Lilium itself, differing however in having a trifid style and six glands within and at the base of the perianth; hence the name, from the Latin fritillus, a d...
-6. Lilium
Herbaceous plants with scaly bulbs, simple leafy stems branched only in the inflorescence, if at all, and large showy white, yellow, orange, carmine, or red and orange, often spotted or striped flower...
-6. Lilium. Part 2
2. L. giganteum. - This is remarkable for its tall stout stem from 5 to 10 feet high and large cordate leaves, the lower (or all) petiolate. Flowers sub-erect, 6 to 12 in each raceme, yellowish-white ...
-6. Lilium. Part 3
L. Philadelphicum is a North American species with the leaves usually in distinct whorls and orange-red flowers spotted with purple. It is near L. bulbiferum, but the stems are never cottony and the p...
-7. Hemerocallis
Herbaceous plants from the temperate parts of Europe and Asia, with fleshy, tuberous, or bulbiform rhizomes and long narrow radical slightly equitant keeled leaves, from the centre of which rises a le...
-8. Funckia
Herbaceous plants with tuberous-fascicled roots, broadly ovate or cordate radical stalked plaited acuminate leaves having parallel veins or nerves, and sometimes variegated with white stripes. Flowers...
-9. Agapanthus
Herbs with tuberous roots and numerous radical linear somewhat fleshy leaves. Perianth funnel-shaped, regular, deeply 6-parted; tube short; segments 1-nerved. Stamens inserted in the throat, declinate...
-10. Kniphofia (Tritoma)
A small genus of tufted herbs with numerous grass-like flaccid leaves and tall naked scapes surmounted by an oblong or ovoid dense cluster of brilliantly coloured clavate or cylindrical tubular slight...
-11. Phormium
A genus of plants confined to New Zealand and Norfolk Island. Though not quite hardy in any part of England, we give it a place here because it is extensively used and well adapted as a large pot-plan...
-12. Yucca
A genus of noble-looking plants, so distinct in appearance as to form in themselves a special feature in landscape gardening. They are mostly natives of the Southern States of North America and Mexico...
-13. Allium
Bulbous herbs with flat or terete radical leaves and capitate or umbellate flowers enclosed in a membranous spathe at the summit of a slender naked or leafy scape. Perianth-segments free, spreading or...
-14. Camassia
A North American genus of two species. C. esculenta, the uamash of the Indians, is a handsome plant, resembling the common blue Hyacinth, but larger. The leaves are linear, about a foot high, and the ...
-15. Scilla
This is a very extensive genus of beautiful bulbous herbs. Bulbs tunicated. Leaves all radical and linear. Flowers racemose, usually blue, rarely purple or white. Perianth-segments nearly or quite fre...
-16. Ornithogalum
This genus differs from Scilla in having hypogynous stamens, and the nerve of the perianth-segments of more than one rib. And the flowers are either white or yellow, never blue or red. Dwarf bulbous p...
-17. Musoari
A South European and Asiatic genus of bulbous herbs. Leaves appearing with the flowers; the latter in racemes, deep blue or white, or greenish blue, the terminal ones very often abortive. Perianth sma...
-18. Hyacinthus (Including Bellevalia, Etc.)
This genus contains about 30 species, chiefly from the Mediterranean region and South Africa. Few authors agree as to its limits, but for our purpose it may be characterised as follows: Flowers droopi...
-19. Triteleia
Very pretty little bulbous plants from North and South temperate America, lately united with Milla, having narrow leaves contemporaneous with the umbellate or solitary flowers. Perianth-tube funnel-sh...
-20. Hesperoscordium
A closely allied North American genus or sub-genus with a campanulate perianth whose tube is three or four times as long-as the segments of the limb. H. hyacinthinum has fleshy herbaceous narrow leave...
-21. Cummingia
A small genus of Chilian bulbous plants with linear nervose leaves and branched scapes of drooping blue flowers. Perianth campanulate, adhering to the base of the ovary; limb 6-parted, with spreading ...
-22. Asphodelus
A distinct genus of plants with fleshy fasciculated roots, usually radical tufted narrow or triquetrous leaves, and showy yellow or white flowers. Perianth of 6 free equal spreading segments. Stamens ...
-23. Anthericum
A pretty genus of white-flowered herbs with fleshy fasciculated roots, natives of Europe. The name is said to be derived from a flower, and a hedge, but the application is obscure. The l...
-24. Chrysobactron
Closely allied to the foregoing genus and sometimes united with it. The name is from gold, and a wand, from the splendid spikes of golden flowers. Natives of New Zealand. 1. Ch. Rossi...
-25. Asparagus
Erect or climbing herbs or shrubs with minute scale-like leaves and numerous very slender fascicled acicular branch lets sometimes spiny. Flowers axillary, small and inconspicuous, on jointed pedicels...
-26. Cordyline
This elegant genus of Palm-like plants, though none are hardy, deserves mentioning here as the species are now extensively employed in Summer decorative gardening. They are erect usually unbranched tr...
-27. Convallaria
This genus is limited to the following species, distinguished amongst the baccate genera by its leafless flower-scape and globose flowers. The name is from the Latin convallis, a valley, the natural h...
-28. Polygonatum
Similar in structure, but differing considerably in habit from the above genus. Instead of the leafless flower-scape and radical leaves, we have here a leafy stem and axillary flowers. Rootstock creep...
-29. Ruscus
A peculiar genus of evergreen shrubs belonging to the Asparagus group. Flowers imperfectly dioecious. Perianth six-parted to the base, persistent. Fruit a berry. Name of uncertain origin. There are se...
-30. Aspidistra
Plants of fine foliage and insignificant flowers produced close to the ground, and remarkable for the curious Mushroom-like stigma. Name from a little shield, in allusion to this character, whi...
-31. Trillium
A singular North American genus remarkable for the ternary arrangement of the organs, all the species having the net-veined leaves in verticils of threes, the perianth in two distinct series, the oute...
-32. Philesia
A genus differing in its shrubby habit and some other particulars from all other plants of this family, and by some authors separated from it, and considered, with the genus Lapageria, as forming a di...
-Order XII. - Smilacineae
Herbs or shrubs, usually of climbing or trailing habit, and often furnished with tendrils and thorns. Leaves simple, alternate, distinctly petiolate, net-veined and usually ribbed. Flowers small, gree...
-1. Smilax
Characters of the order. The name is of classic origin, and was applied to the South European species. None of them are very ornamental, but several species are valued for their medicinal properties. ...
-Order XIII. - Melanthaceae
This group of genera is separated from the Liliaceae by its extrorse anthers and the septicidal dehiscence of its capsular fruit. It includes bulbous, tuberous, and fibrous-rooted herbs with narrow or...
-1. Veratrum
Herbaceous plants with creeping rootstocks, broad conspicuously-nerved leaves, and branched panicles of numerous polygamous flowers. Perianth of six spreading lobes united at the base into a short tub...
-2. Uvularia
Dwarf fibrous-rooted herbs with sessile or clasping ovate-lanceolate cauline leaves and solitary or geminate pedunculate pendulous yellow flowers. Perianth-segments free to the base, linear-lanceolate...
-3. Triccytis
A small genus of Chinese and Japanese origin. Erect hairy herbs. Leaves alternate, ovate or cordate, and stem-clasping. Flowers in terminal panicles. Perianth six-parted, the segments forming a ball, ...
-4. Bulbocodium
A genus resembling Crocus in general habit and aspect, but differing botanically in having a superior ovary and six stamens. The bulbs differ in the downy not fibrous nature of their coatings; the nam...
-5. Colchicum
A small genus of Autumn-flowering bulbous herbs allied to the preceding genus. Leaves not appearing till Spring, larger and broader than in Crocus or Bulbocodium. The ovary is underground, and is not ...
-Order XIV. - Pontedeeaceae
A small order of aquatic or semi-aquatic plants with broad leaves and solitary racemose or spicate flowers. Perianth funnel-shaped, circinate when withering. Anthers turned inwards. Fruit capsular, de...
-1. Pontederia
A small genus of pretty aquatic plants with creeping rhizomes and long-stalked oblong or cordate leaves, and one-leaved stems terminated by a raceme of blue flowers. Perianth somewhat two-lipped. Stam...
-Order XV. - Commelynaceae
Herbs with linear or lanceolate flat usually sheathing leaves and solitary spicate or umbellate flowers. Perianth-segments 6, the outer 3 herbaceous, inner petaloid. Stamens 6 or fewer. Fruit a 2- or ...
-1. Tradescantia
Herbaceous tufted or creeping plants. Stem branched, fleshy, 1 to 2 feet high. Leaves entire, linear-lanceolate,sheathing, glabrous. Flowers in terminal sessile or stalked umbels. Perianth 6-parted, t...
-2. Commelyna
Closely allied to the last genus, but of a more dec ided trailing habit, and with glabrous filaments. Named in honcar of the Dutch botanists of this name. 1. C. coelestis, syn. C. tuberosa. - The p...
-Order XVI - Juncaceae
If we except Narthecium ossifragnm, sometimes referred here, and mentioned by us under the Liliaceae there are no hardy ornamental species belonging to this order. And we merely mention it to point ou...
-Division II. - Glumiferae
Perianth none or reduced to minute scales. Flowers enveloped in imbricated membranous or coriaceous bracts called glumes. Fruit (in the orders referred to in this work) 1-eelled, 1-seeded, perianth-sc...
-Order XVII - Cyperaceae
The Sedges are distinguished from the true Grasses by their usually angular solid not conspicuously jointed stems, and the sheath of the leaves when present is not split on one side. Leaves commonly v...
-Order XVIII. - Gramineae
Usually tufted herbs with slender terete or compressed jointed stems, hollow between the joints. Leaves linear, sheathing at the base; sheath split, and generally furnished with a small scarious scale...
-1. Gynerium
This beautiful genus of Grasses needs little description, being well known throughout the country for its highly ornamental appearance. It belongs to the Reed tribe, having- 2-flowered spikelets and u...
-2. Bambusa
The Bamboo-Canes are readily distinguished by their jointed leafy flexuose branching stems, but those species which will endure the rigours of our winters are mere miniatures of the tropical species, ...
-Cryptogamous Or Flowerless Plants
Vegetables devoid of manifest staminate and pistillate flowers, and reproduced from spores which contain no distinct embryo. ...
-Division L - Vasculares Or Acrogens
Stem when present filled with vascular tissue. Plants reproduced from minute spores, which in germination form a membranous bulbiform or filamentous body termed the pro-thallus, upon which the reprodu...
-Order I - Filices
Herbaceous or shrubby plants, sometimes attaining the dimensions of trees in the tropics and the temperate regions of the southern hemisphere. Stem when erect simple, but as a creeping rhizome often b...
-Sub-Order I. - Polypodiaceae
Fronds simple or compound, circinate in vernation. In-dusium marginal, or dorsal, or absent. Spore-cases small, usually stalked, not on an elevated receptacle, partially or wholly surrounded with a ve...
-1. Adiantum
Rhizome creeping. Fronds 2- to 4-pinnate, pinnules usually cuneate or unequal-sided; stipes and petioles usually slender; veins forked. Sori marginal, interrupted or continuous. In-dusium formed of th...
-2. Pteris
Rhizome creeping. Frond coriaceous, 3- or 4-pinnate; veins free. Sori marginal, continuous. Indusium membranous, confluent with the recurved margin. A large genus containing about eighty species, foun...
-3. Cryptogramme
Rhizome tufted. Fronds 2- to 4-pinnatifid, outer sterile, inner fertile; veins forked, free. Sori terminal, nearly circular, at length continuous. Indusium continuous with the reflexed margin of the p...
-4. Lomaria
Rhizome tufted or creeping. Fronds once pinnate or pinna-tifid; outer spreading, barren; inner erect, slender, and fertile. Sori linear, covering the under side of the pinnules. Indusium scarious. The...
-5. Scolopendrium
Rhizome thick, tufted. Fronds tufted, simple, coriaceous. Sori on the veins, in opposite transverse lines at right angles to the midrib. Indusium linear, double. There are nine species, found in tempe...
-6. Asplenium. (Including Ceterach And Athyrium.)
Rhizome tufted, or slightly elongated. Fronds simple or compound. Sori on the veins, linear or oblong. Indusium linear, membranous, attached to the vein arid opening inwards. A very large genus, inclu...
-7. Cystopteris
Rhizome tufted or creeping. Fronds tufted or scattered, 1- to 4-pinnate, delicate in texture; veins pinnate or forked, ultimate venules free. Sori dorsal, globose on the free venules. Indusium membran...
-8. Woodsia
Tufted dwarf Ferns with pinnate fronds, of which the stipes are usually jointed above the base. Sori globose; indusium attached under the sorus, at first cup-shaped and entire, ultimately breaking up ...
-9. Aspidium (Polystichum)
Tufted evergreen Ferns with pinnate fronds, globose sori, and a peltate orbicular indusium. Upwards of fifty species are described, dispersed nearly all over the world. The name is derived from ...
-10. Nephrodium (Lastrea)
This genus differs from the last in its reniform indusium, which is attached by the sinus. The sori are either dorsal or terminal on the free venules in the British species. As defined by Hooker and B...
-11. Polypodium
This genus is distinguished amongst hardy Ferns by its globose sori, destitute of an indusium or involucre. Rhizome creeping or tufted; fronds simple, pinnatifid, or pinnate. Nearly 400 species of wid...
-12. Gymnogramme
This is a very large genus containing nearly one hundred species, chiefly from tropical climates. Like the last, it has naked sori, but here they are linear. The name is from naked, and ,...
-Sub-Order II. - Hymenophylleae
Rootstock creeping. Fronds circinnate in vernation, very delicate and almost transparent, with reticulate veins. Involucre bivalved or bilabiate. Spore-cases sessile, on a clavate or filiform receptac...
-13. Hymenophyllum
Fronds small, twice to four times pinnatifid or pinnate; pinnules with a midrib and no lateral veins. Sori marginal, axillary or terminal. Involucre bivalved, of the same texture as and sunk in the fr...
-14. Trichomanes
This genus differs from the last in its cup-shaped involucre, and its long filiform receptacle. About eighty species are found in temperate and tropical countries. The derivation of the name is variou...
-Sub-Order III. - Osmundeae
Fronds coriaceous or membranous, circinnate in vernation. Spore-cases clustered in a branched panicle terminating the frond, 2-valved, opening across the apex, and furnished with a short horizontal ri...
-15. Osmunda
Rhizomes tuberous, densely branched, clothed with fibres. Fronds coriaceous, tufted, once or twice pinnate. There are six species from various temperate and tropical regions. Named after a Celtic deit...
-Sub-Order IV. - Ophioglosseae
Fronds straight in vernation. Spore-cases large, 2-valved, destitute of a ring, arranged in spikes or panicles. ...
-16. Ophioglossum
Rootstock with fleshy fibrous roots. Frond oblong-lanceolate, with a simple fertile spike attached to it, much in the way of the spathe and spadix of the Aroideae. Spore-cases confluent, globose, arra...
-17. Botrychium
This genus differs from the last in its pinnate or bipinnate fronds and compound panicle of clustered spore-cases. There are six species, from temperate and tropical regions. The name is derived from ...
-The Cultivation Of Plants
The successful cultivation of plants depends upon a great variety of conditions essential to their perfect development, such as climate, soil, and general treatment. We devote a few pages to the consi...
-1. Vegetable Physiology And Economy Considered In Their Relations To Horticulture
A few words on the composition of the permanent fabric of plants and the principal phenomena of plant-life may serve to show the importance of exercising the utmost care and forethought in all cultura...
-1. Germination
- This is the first phase in the development of independent life in a plant from a seed. In order to accomplish this stage certain conditions are indispensable. These essential conditions are : warmt...
-2. Absorption
- This term is employed to designate the act by which a plant draws the materials necessary for its growth and sustenance from the soil and air. All parts of a plant contribute to the fulfilment of t...
-3. Respiration
- The respiration of plants is a very complicated function, having its seat in all the green parts, but more especially in the leaves. It results in the elaboration or assimilation of the sap, which ...
-2. Climate, Its Influence On Vegetation
Vegetable organisms, more than animal, and especially than man, are subject to the influences of relatively slight deviations of both heat and cold in diverse degrees, according to the climatal condit...
-2. Climate, Its Influence On Vegetation. Continued
ncipal countries whence we obtain our hardy exotics. The northern isothermal line of a mean annual temperature of 50 enters England on the eastern side in 51 51' N. lat., and proceeding t...
-3. Soils, Their Nature And Composition
So much depends upon the nature of the soil affected by different plants, that we should like to devote much more space than we have at our disposal to the consideration of this question. Under the mo...
-4. Cultural Directions
1. General Remarks. Gardening operations are so multifarious, and the circumstances under which they are performed are so varied, that many large books have been written treating of them in detail,...
-4. Cultural Directions. Part 2
It is a very common practice in planting trees in park and woodland to dig a hole about two feet square, and a foot or eighteen inches deep, and in planting the trees the spits taken out are often imp...
-4. Cultural Directions. Part 3
Layering is resorted to for those trees and shrubs that will readily root in this way, but which are not sure from independent slips or cuttings, such as the Elm, Lime, Laurustinus, Aucuba, Portugal L...
-4. Cultural Directions. Part 4
The havoc and devastation caused by parasitical Fungi exceed that caused by all other injurious agents, and where they have once established themselves, there is greater difficulty in dispossessing th...
-2. Culture And Propagation Of Plants Belonging To The Heath And Allied Tribes
Shrubs and trees requiring a peaty or boggy soil are commonly known as American plants, whether natives of that continent or otherwise. They include all, or nearly all, of the Ericaceae and members of...
-3. Culture And Propagation Of Roses
A few words may be devoted to this popular genus, although as a rule its members require but little skilful attention after they have once been properly planted. But, like most other things, a little ...
-4. Culture Of Herbaceous Plants, General Remarks
Under this head we include all plants that are herbaceous, technically speaking, whatever their duration, and whether bulbous or fibrous-rooted. At another place we give some short lists and hints to ...
-5. Culture Of Bulbous And Tuberous-Rooted Plants
Although many of the species belonging to this class will flourish under the same treatment recommended for herbaceous plants in general, a great majority of them need rather more attention, and will ...
-A. Culture Of The Tulip And Gladiolus And Their Allies
- The bulb of a Tulip is termed a timicated bulb, from its being clothed with membranous scales. It never flowers but once, and attains maturity in about three years. A more complete description of i...
-B. Culture Of Lilies And Their Allies
- The bulbs of Lilies, the Crown Imperial, and a few other subjects, differ materially from those described above, being composed of loose fleshy scales, and consequently of a much more perishable na...
-C. Culture Of Ranunculuses And Anemones
Under this head we refer to Ranunculus Asiaticus and E. Africanus, and Anemone Coronaria and A. hortensis, the progenitors of the numerous florist's varieties in cultivation. The permanent rootstocks ...
-6. Culture Of Annuals And Biennials
Plants of annual or biennial duration possess so many valuable qualities that they are quite indispensable in the flower garden. Some are cherished for their fragrance, as the Sweet Pea, Mignonette, a...
-7. Culture Of Tender Perennial Bedding Plants
A garden is scarcely considered furnished during the summer months without some Pelargoniums, Calceolarias, Verbenas, Heliotropes, Lobelias, Ageratums, Dahlias, and several other things. To raise and ...
-Duration, Habit, Etc
For horticultural purposes, the Vegetable Kingdom may be divided into Woody and Herbaceous species. These terms are almost sufficiently expressive without explanation; but it is necessary to mention t...
-I. Woody Plants
The following are the principal natural orders represented by the woody vegetation of this country, whether indigenous or introduced : -Berberidaceae, Tiliaceae, Rhamnaceae, Sapindaceae, Ilicineae, Ca...
-A. Evergreen Trees
With the exception of the Common Holly, Box, Portugal Laurel, Magnolia grandinora, Evergreen Oak, Strawberry-tree, Sweet Bay, and a few others, this class is mainly furnished by one family, the Conife...
-B. Deciduous Trees
In this class we have greater variety than in the preceding, both in habit and foliage, as well as flowers. We have trees of large and small dimensions, desirable in landscape gardening either for the...
-Deciduous Trees With Variegated Foliage
Within the last few years, and especially during the last decade, a great increase has been made in the number of cultivated plants with variegated or coloured foliage, especially in hardy trees and s...
-B. Deciduous Erect Shrubs
Comparatively few of this class are grown for their foliage alone. Aralia spinosa, Rhus typhina, Elaeagnus spp., Comptonia asplenifolia, Negundo fraxinifolia variegata, and some of the smaller forms o...
-C. Climbing, Trailing, Or Twining Shrubs
This division comprises plants of the most diverse habit and character. The evergreen element is furnished almost exclusively by the numerous green and variegated Ivies. For covering a north wall noth...
-D. Shrubs Requiring The Protection Of A Wall Or Other Shelter
There are many beautiful and interesting shrubs, some of which are not included in either of the foregoing divisions, that may be successfully cultivated with a little additional care in winter. Many ...
-II. Herbaceous Plants
In nearly all parts of the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere there is a great preponderance of the herbaceous over the woody vegetation, and we have scarcely any hardy plants from the southern...
-A. Perennial Herbs
There is great diversity in the nature and habit, as well as in the uses of herbaceous plants. One of the principal distinctions, from a practical point of view, is the nature of the root or rootstock...
-Herbaceous Plants With Ornamental Foliage
The taste for plants coming under this designation may be said to be of comparatively recent origin, or at least we may affirm that it is only within the last few years that it has been developed and ...
-Aquatic And Marsh Herbs
Almost every garden of any pretensions has its watercourse or lake, either natural or artificial, or in lieu thereof some ornamental basins, tanks, or fountains. To fill these there is no lack of hard...
-B. Annual Or Biennial Herbs
We include here several perennial plants, tender or otherwise, which will flower the first season, and are consequently suited for the same purposes as those of essentially annual duration. Several or...
-Chapter III. Ornamental Gardening
It does not come within our province, nor within the limits of this volume, to enter into details and directions respecting the laying-out and construction of a garden. To treat landscape and architec...
-Ornamental Gardening. Part 2
The selection of the trees and shrubs would depend upon a variety of circumstances, such as soil and subsoil, or subjacent rock, elevation above the sea, distance from the sea, and, in the case of ten...
-Ornamental Gardening. Part 3
We now come to consider the details or filling up of our picture, such as the shrubberies and flower-garden proper, with their various accessories. A fanciful method of planting, formerly more in vogu...
-Ornamental Gardening. Part 4
While on this subject we may say a few words on the arrangement of colours, as on that alone depends the success of the system of massing flowering and foliage plants. Though not of so much importance...
-Ornamental Gardening. Part 5
The most commendable binary combinations are as follow, which we arrange in the order of their respective merits : a. All colours, simple and compound, with white, though the brighter and purer the co...
-Ornamental Gardening. Part 6
The bulbous plants best adapted for massing are Tulips, Hyacinths, and Crocuses, of which there is great variety in colour, including good scarlet, yellow, blue, and pure white, with many rich composi...
-Ornamental Gardening. Part 7
As a guide in choosing plants for a small garden we here append short lists l of perfectly hardy subjects. It will be understood that these lists do not include a quarter of the available species, but...
-Plants Flowering In Various Seasons
A small selection of hardy perennials, limited to those of good constitution, and little exacting as to the quality of the soil, may be useful. It includes a few for each season, with general indicati...
-Plants For The Sea-Coast
Sea-side planting presents many difficulties, especially on a bleak exposed shore, where comparatively few things will flourish. Still there is no necessity for the monotonous repe titions of Poplars,...
-Town Planting
The ensuing remarks apply to the larger towns, where the sooty deposit from the immense volume of smoke daily manufactured by the numerous fires renders it impossible to grow many plants that would ot...









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